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SOCI 1301 – Final Exam

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Define Social Institutions.
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A major sphere of social life, or societal subsystem, organized to meet human needs.
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What brought about the greatest changes to the economy?
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Information Revolution
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What led to the development of agriculture?
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Harnessing animals to plows 5000 years ago.
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Define Global economy
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Economic activity that crosses national borders.
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Define postindustrial economy
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An economy based on service work and computer technology.
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Define authority according to Max Weber.
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Power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive.
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Define power according to Max Weber.
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The ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others.
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According to Max Weber, industrialization are characterized by an emphasis on what type of authority?
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Rational-Legal Authority.
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According to Max Weber, preindustrial societies are characterized by an emphasis on what type of authority?
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Traditional Authority.
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Define Capitalism
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An economic system in which natural resources and means of producing goods and services are privately owned.
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Define socialism
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An economic system in which natural resources and the means to producing goods and services are collectively owned.
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Define special-interest group
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People organized to address some economic or social issue.
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Define power-elite
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An analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich and the hands of the few.
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Define Democracy
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A political system that gives power to the people as a whole.
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Define the concept “authoritarianism” as it refers to a political system.
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A political system that denies the people participation in government.
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What are the trends of social issues, with people with low-incomes?
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Tend to be conservative on social issues.
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What are the trends of economic issues, with people with low-incomes?
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Tend to be liberal on economic issues.
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Explain the Marxist political-economy model
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Rejects the idea that the U.S. is a political democracy.
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Define Kinship
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A social band based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption.
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Define the family according to the structural-functional approach
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Family is the “backbone of society”
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According to the social-exchange analysis on family what would an individual consider important when choosing his or her mate?
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Individuals select partners who offer about as much as they do.
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List the criticism of the structural-functional approach of religion
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It ignores religion’s ability to cause social conflict.
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Which sociologist claimed that religion turned people’s attention away from social inequality in the world?
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Karl Marx
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Based on the symbolic-interaction approach, we would study how religion and religious ideas are what?
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Religion, like all of society, is socially constructed.
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What are Karl Marx’s beliefs on religion?
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Ananlysis religion serves elites by legitimizing the status quo and diverting attention from social inequalities.
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Define Cult
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A type of religious organization that is largely outside a society’s cultural traditions.
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Explain Max Weber’s assuagement on Protestantism and Capitalism
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Protestantism’s emphasis on duty and hard work led to greater economic production, encouraging the rise of capitalism.
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Define endogamy.
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Marrying within one’s own race or ethnic group.
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Functionalism:
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“Families meet the needs of society to socialize children and reproduce new members.”
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Functionalism:
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“Religious beliefs provide cohesion in the social order by promoting a sense of collective consciousness.”
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Conflict Theory:
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“The family is a social institution that reinforces and supports power relations in society”.
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Define sacred:
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Set apart as extraordinary, inpsiring awe and reverence.
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Symbolic interaction theory:
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“Religion is socially constructed and emerges with social and historical change.”
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Conflict Theory:
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“Religious beliefs can provide legitimation for oppressive social conditions.”
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Give an example of a latent function of schooling:
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Child Care.
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Give an example of a latent function of schooling:
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Establishing realtionships and networks.
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What was the outcome of Jane Elliott’s “blue eyes/brown eyes” experiment?
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People who expect others to act in certain ways often encourage that very behavior.
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Define Tracking
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Refers to assigning studetns to different types of educational programs
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Define Charter schools
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Public schools that have more freedom to try new policies and programs.
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What was the conclusion of James Coleman study of U. S. education?
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Schooling and Social Inequality
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What do Magnet schools encourage?
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Special facilities and programs to promote educational excellence.
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Explain and give the example of cultural capital according to the book
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When families value schooling, read to their children, and encourage the development of imagination.
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What percentages of college students in the United Stated enroll in community colleges?
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41%
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Explain the social-conflicts approach outlook on schooling in the United States.
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Schooling in the U.S transforms social privilege into personal merit.
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What is the greatest preventable cause of death in the United States today?
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Cigarette (smoking) related deaths.
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What was the leading cause of death in the United States in 2007?
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Heart Disease.
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Being socialized as a male in the United States is likely to encourage by what?
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Define Social epidemiology
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The study of how health and disease are distributed throughtout a society’s population.
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What is the major cause of death among young people in the United States?
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Accidents.
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The text explains that “coronary-prone behavior” is a fairly close match with our culture’s definition of what?
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What was the outcome on the study of college women?
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According to the social-conflict approach what is an important factor in shaping patterns of health and illness?
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Health is linked to social inequality, with rich people having more access to care than poor people.
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What does the structural-functional approach to health and medicine say about treating illness?
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Illness is dysfunctional for society because it prevents people from carrying out their daily roles.
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According to Talcott Parsons how does society respond to illness?
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Symbolic-interaction approach to health and medicine emphasizes on what
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Socities define “health” and “illness” differently according to their living standards.
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The powerful mechanism of the self-fulfilling prophecy,
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is one in which merely applying a label has the effect of justifying the label.