SOCI 1301 – Final Exam

Define Social Institutions.
A major sphere of social life, or societal subsystem, organized to meet human needs.

What brought about the greatest changes to the economy?
Information Revolution

What led to the development of agriculture?
Harnessing animals to plows 5000 years ago.

Define Global economy
Economic activity that crosses national borders.

Define postindustrial economy
An economy based on service work and computer technology.

Define authority according to Max Weber.
Power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive.

Define power according to Max Weber.
The ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others.

According to Max Weber, industrialization are characterized by an emphasis on what type of authority?
Rational-Legal Authority.

According to Max Weber, preindustrial societies are characterized by an emphasis on what type of authority?
Traditional Authority.

Define Capitalism
An economic system in which natural resources and means of producing goods and services are privately owned.

Define socialism
An economic system in which natural resources and the means to producing goods and services are collectively owned.

Define special-interest group
People organized to address some economic or social issue.

Define power-elite
An analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich and the hands of the few.

Define Democracy
A political system that gives power to the people as a whole.

Define the concept “authoritarianism” as it refers to a political system.
A political system that denies the people participation in government.

What are the trends of social issues, with people with low-incomes?
Tend to be conservative on social issues.

What are the trends of economic issues, with people with low-incomes?
Tend to be liberal on economic issues.

Explain the Marxist political-economy model
Rejects the idea that the U.S. is a political democracy.

Define Kinship
A social band based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption.

Define the family according to the structural-functional approach
Family is the “backbone of society”

According to the social-exchange analysis on family what would an individual consider important when choosing his or her mate?
Individuals select partners who offer about as much as they do.

List the criticism of the structural-functional approach of religion
It ignores religion’s ability to cause social conflict.

Which sociologist claimed that religion turned people’s attention away from social inequality in the world?
Karl Marx

Based on the symbolic-interaction approach, we would study how religion and religious ideas are what?
Religion, like all of society, is socially constructed.

What are Karl Marx’s beliefs on religion?
Ananlysis religion serves elites by legitimizing the status quo and diverting attention from social inequalities.

Define Cult
A type of religious organization that is largely outside a society’s cultural traditions.

Explain Max Weber’s assuagement on Protestantism and Capitalism
Protestantism’s emphasis on duty and hard work led to greater economic production, encouraging the rise of capitalism.

Define endogamy.
Marrying within one’s own race or ethnic group.

“Families meet the needs of society to socialize children and reproduce new members.”

“Religious beliefs provide cohesion in the social order by promoting a sense of collective consciousness.”

Conflict Theory:
“The family is a social institution that reinforces and supports power relations in society”.

Define sacred:
Set apart as extraordinary, inpsiring awe and reverence.

Symbolic interaction theory:
“Religion is socially constructed and emerges with social and historical change.”

Conflict Theory:
“Religious beliefs can provide legitimation for oppressive social conditions.”

Give an example of a latent function of schooling:
Child Care.

Give an example of a latent function of schooling:
Establishing realtionships and networks.

What was the outcome of Jane Elliott’s “blue eyes/brown eyes” experiment?
People who expect others to act in certain ways often encourage that very behavior.

Define Tracking
Refers to assigning studetns to different types of educational programs

Define Charter schools
Public schools that have more freedom to try new policies and programs.

What was the conclusion of James Coleman study of U. S. education?
Schooling and Social Inequality

What do Magnet schools encourage?
Special facilities and programs to promote educational excellence.

Explain and give the example of cultural capital according to the book
When families value schooling, read to their children, and encourage the development of imagination.

What percentages of college students in the United Stated enroll in community colleges?

Explain the social-conflicts approach outlook on schooling in the United States.
Schooling in the U.S transforms social privilege into personal merit.

What is the greatest preventable cause of death in the United States today?
Cigarette (smoking) related deaths.

What was the leading cause of death in the United States in 2007?
Heart Disease.

Being socialized as a male in the United States is likely to encourage by what?

Define Social epidemiology
The study of how health and disease are distributed throughtout a society’s population.

What is the major cause of death among young people in the United States?

The text explains that “coronary-prone behavior” is a fairly close match with our culture’s definition of what?

What was the outcome on the study of college women?

According to the social-conflict approach what is an important factor in shaping patterns of health and illness?
Health is linked to social inequality, with rich people having more access to care than poor people.

What does the structural-functional approach to health and medicine say about treating illness?
Illness is dysfunctional for society because it prevents people from carrying out their daily roles.

According to Talcott Parsons how does society respond to illness?

Symbolic-interaction approach to health and medicine emphasizes on what
Socities define “health” and “illness” differently according to their living standards.

The powerful mechanism of the self-fulfilling prophecy,
is one in which merely applying a label has the effect of justifying the label.