SOCI 101 QUIZ 6

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
One of the best ways to reduce the number of children born (According to Sachs) is to:
provide family planning
What term refers to the notion that everyone is created equal in the eyes of God?
ontological equality
Which group exploits the working class by taking more of the value of the work of laborers than they repay in wages?
bourgeoisie
C. Wright Mills argues that there are three major institutions in the United States today that have the power to make decisions for the masses. Which one of the following is NOT one of these?
religion
Rousseau believed that the source of all social ills was:
private property
Karl Marx and Jean-Jacques Rousseau tended to agree on at least one thing. They both felt that the primary source of social ills in society was due to the emergence of:
private property
Economists and sociologists believe that the United States is stratified along what lines?
income
The prestige of a person’s first job out of school factors into his or her position on the:
status-attainment model
According to the German philosopher Hegel, the master-slave relationship is one of mutual:
dependency
Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy is called:
structural mobility
The government’s definition of poverty for a family of four (as of 2011) is a total yearly salary of just under:
$23,000
Hegel argued that notions of inequality are constantly evolving in a larger historical arc and will eventually lead to:
equality
Pareto believed in a society in which status and mobility are based on individual attributes and ability, called:
meritocracy
Which American job sector has greatly increased since the oil crisis of 1973?
low-wage service work
The game of Monopoly follows the rules of what standard of equality?
equality of opportunity
Sociologists often describe an individual’s position in a stratified social order that attempts to classify groups, individuals, families, or households in terms of indicators such as occupation, income, wealth, and education. Sociologists call this:
socioeconomic status
What is the fastest-growing job market for people with only a high school education?
food preparation
What is one of the main reasons cited for rising income and wealth inequality in the United States?
globalization
In political speeches about the poor, those who are believed to deserve our assistance are termed the:
working poor
Ferguson and Millar saw social developments resulting from the establishment of private property as representing a huge improvement in society because private property leads to higher degrees of social organization and:
efficiency
Professionals, small business owners, and craftsmen are referred to as:
petit bourgeoisie
According to the Relative Social Prestige of Selected U.S. Occupations table (Table 7.1 in your text), which white-collar occupation has the highest prestige score?
physician
Under what system is your societal position related to your position in the economic market?
class system
What is another term for the nonworking poor?
underclass
From Malthus’s perspective, what keeps the population in check?
inequality
An example of the ideology of equality of condition put into practice is:
affirmation action
A subsystem of stratification that Mills mentions is the outer fringes of the power elite. These are:
individuals who count in the decisions that affect all of us, but who don’t actually make those decisions.
Elliot Essman asserts that America is a(n) ____________ because the very wealthy do not have much impact on the country in general.
middle-class nation
Which kind of inequality did Rousseau believe would always exist?
physical
A system in which advancement is based on individual achievement or ability is referred to as:
meritocratic
According to Rousseau, there are two forms of inequality: ____________, or natural, and ____________, or political.
physical;social
Trade of goods and services across national boundaries, as well as the mobility of businesses and labor through immigration, is called:
globalization
Historically, Marx’s capitalist class was made up of members of the:
upper class
The examination of how race and ethnicity affect income is really an examination of:
stratification
Which standard of equality is most concerned with the distribution of resources?
equality of outcome
A type of stratification that is based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity and in which there is little to no individual mobility within the strata is the:
caste system.
What is the primary source of income for the upper class?
returns on investments
A stratification system with a governing elite—that is, few leaders who broadly hold the power in society—is called a(n):
elite-mass dichotomy system.
Which term refers to a group or an individual transitioning from one social status to another that is situated more or less on the same rung of the ladder?
horizontal social mobility

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