Soc Exam 3

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Who wrote a classic work distinguishing dyads from triads and argued that the number of people in a group is important in determining the form social relationships will take within that group?
Simmel
Sociologist Georg Simmel (1950) argues that “size matters” in a group primarily because the number of people in a group determines:
the structure social relations will take
In which of the following groups is a coalition formation impossible?
dyads
The most important difference between primary and secondary groups has to do with:
the kinds of relationships that exist within them.
When you go on a date with one other person, you have formed a:
dyad
A married couple and their firstborn child are a type of group known as:
a triad
Parenting coordinators are sometimes brought in by the court to help relieve tension between divorcing parents. When a dispute arises between the parents, the parenting coordinator can step in and help moms and dads “keep the peace.” The coordinator plays the role of:
mediator
If the buying public can be seen as playing two producers off against each other and promoting their self-interest by gaining the lowest price, the buying public could be viewed as playing the role of:
the third that rejoices
If stepsiblings are asked to share bedrooms or other possessions, and one of them views such sharing as an intrusion, he or she may have difficulty overcoming the tendency to play the role of ____________ between his or her parent and the new stepmother or stepfather.
divide et impera
A classroom would not typically fall under Simmel’s classification of a small group because:
there are formal arrangements or roles
You and your friend have created a technology start-up. Since its inception, it has become very successful and you’ve had to hire many employees. At what point will you realize that it has become, in Simmel’s terms, a large group?
when formal job titles are created and formal hierarchies between employees emerge
According to Simmel, the essential feature of a party is that it is:
multifocal
You have six friends over to your apartment for dinner and drinks. Three of the friends are discussing Einstein’s theory of relativity, while the other three are talking about the World Cup. According to Simmel, is this a party yet?
No, because there are only two topics being discussed
Which of the following would be an example of a large group using Simmel’s classification?
a symphony orchestra
Your introduction to sociology class is probably which of the following types of groups identified by Cooley?
secondary
Which of the following conducted experiments and established a test that demonstrates the power of group conformity?
Asch
Stigmatized groups, such as gays and lesbians in the United States, are known as:
out-groups
Which of the following statements best describes the difference between in-groups and out-groups?
In-groups are more powerful
Marina is a ten-year-old girl who idolizes singers like Mariah Carey and Christina Aguilera. She compares herself to them and imitates them while singing in front of her bedroom mirror. These singers are known as Marina’s:
reference group
A group that helps us understand our position relative to other groups is a(n):
reference group
Chapter 5, which explores interaction in groups, opens with a story about an Australian artist who creates a business importing and distributing food products and utilities from around the globe. Her business would not be possible without:
social networks
Sets of dyads held together by ties between the individuals are known as:
social networks
While a social network is ____________, a social tie ____________.
the relationship between two people; explains how two people know each other
Janet was surprised to find out her gynecologist, Dr. Herring, was good friends with her tennis partner, Sally. Janet had met Sally years ago in graduate school, while Dr. Herring knew Sally from church. The nature of their relationship to Sally is what sociologists call a(n):
tie
The term “six degrees of separation” came out of research undertaken by Stanley Milgram, who wanted to test:
the reach of social networks
____________ is/are the information, knowledge of people or things, and connections that help individuals enter preexisting networks or gain power from them.
Social capital
What trend, related to a decline in social capital, did Robert Putnam focus on in his book Bowling Alone
the declining interest in community-based activities and organizations
According to data presented in Chapter 5, which of the following is true regarding social capital in the United States today?
Social capital is decreasing
The examples of more and more people bowling and eating alone are used to highlight a more general trend involving:
civic disengagement and a decline in social capital.
Which of the following cultures is a case study of a lifestyle that has endured and maintained its traditions despite wide changes in U.S. modern life?
the Amish in Pennsylvania
What appears to be the main reason for the success of Amish businesses when compared to other U.S. businesses?
The Amish live by prioritizing the community and its social capital rather than rugged
individualism
Although Putnam’s research suggests that the United States is becoming less community oriented and more selfish, which of the following events led to a temporary revival of civic engagement among young adults?
the terrorist attacks of 9/11
Former president George W. Bush and other religious and conservative policy makers’ emphasis on abstinence programs and “virginity pledges” has led to a(n):
delayed onset of sexual activity, on average
Which of the following is true regarding the applicability of network analysis within sociological research?
It can be used in both micro-level and macro-level studies.
A friendship group isn’t an example of a formal organization because:
friends typically don’t have formal rules and governing structures
A local organization values democracy and diversity and therefore solicits input on every decision it makes and uses recruiting strategies that are likely to attract a wide variety of applicants. These beliefs and behaviors are part of the:
organizational culture
The ways in which power and authority are distributed hierarchically within an organization are called:
organizational structure
C. Wright Mills’s term for interlocking directorates is which of the following?
the power elite
A process by which organizations face the same conditions, and ultimately tend to end up like each other, is known as:
isomorphism
Sexual orientation was grounds for excluding immigrants from the United States until:
1990
Although deviant behavior can be bad for social cohesion, it is paradoxical because:
it is the deviants among us who hold society together
Violation of laws enacted by society is also known as:
crimes
Durkheim’s theory and research on deviance fall within which of the main sociological theories?
functionalist
The common faith or set of social norms by which a society and its members abide is defined by Durkheim as:
collective conscience
When people in a society form social bonds and relate meaningfully to others on a daily basis, the society is said to exhibit:
social cohesion
Which of Durkheim’s types of social solidarity characterized premodern life?
mechanical
Mark is a member of a small tribe in New Guinea. The majority of people in his group fish for sustenance and share their catch with all the other members. Most of the people in his culture are very similar in their values, norms, and outlook on life. Mark steals from another member of his tribe. He will probably receive which type of social realignment?
Mark will be shamed in front of the entire tribe
When a prison offers educational opportunities, mental health treatment, and job training programs to inmates, which response to deviance is it engaging in?
rehabilitative
Punishments that attempt to restore the status quo that existed prior to the offense are known as:
restitutive
Sociologists refer to the set of mechanisms that creates compliance to norms as which of the following?
social control
In industrialized societies, social sanctions are most likely:
focused on the criminal’s individual circumstances.
According to Durkheim’s research, what is the primary reason that Protestants are more likely to kill themselves than Catholics and Jews?
Protestantism is premised on the individual, which creates less social integration
According to Merton, which of the following describes a person who accepts both the goals defined by society and the means to achieve them?
conformist
A person who desires a big mansion and the perfect “American Dream” lifestyle, but sells illegal drugs to achieve this, is known by Merton as a(n):
innovator
Which of the following is a major difference between the symbolic interactionist (SI) and functionalist perspectives on deviance?
SI takes a micro or close-up look at individuals to explain deviance, and functionalism
looks at macro-level social systems to explain it
According to Becker, why do marijuana smokers enjoy using the drug?
They engage in a social process of learning to define the experience as fun and
pleasurable
The student guards in Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment behaved the way they did because:
they experienced the Lucifer effect, in which they were affected by social surroundings and cultural expectations
If a label is said to be “sticky” when referring to deviance, it means that:
it is hard to lose that label
After a student drops out of high school, she becomes labeled a “drop-out,” and her subsequent actions and choices are explained in terms of this label.Those subsequent actions are called:
secondary deviance
When an elementary school student is labeled as the “class clown” by his teacher, and then adopts the persona and lives up to others’ expectations by acting silly, the class clown label has become a:
stigma
Which theory explains how social context and social cues impact the way individuals act, specifically, whether or not local, informal norms allow acts such as vandalizing an abandoned car?
broken windows theory
How does the social context affect crime, according to the broken windows theory?
Evidence of disorder, such as broken windows, sends a signal that it’s acceptable to
engage in further deviant behaviors such as vandalism
What is one difference between street crime and white-collar crime?
Street crime usually occurs in public; white-collar crime usually occurs in private
Illegal drug dealing is an example of which of the following types of crimes, as defined by sociologists?
street crimes
Tax evasion is an example of which of the following types of crimes, as defined by sociologists?
white-collar crimes
Which theory suggests that “crime results from a rational calculation of the costs and benefits of criminal activity”?
deterrence theory
A policy of imprisoning and monitoring criminal offenders for committing crimes in an effort to prevent them from committing more crimes is known as:
specific deterrence
A drug dealer stops selling drugs after learning on the street that another dealer was caught and punished. This is an example of which of the following?
general deterrence
Prisons and military boot camps are examples of what Goffman calls:
total institutions
Modes of monitoring, examining, and regimenting individuals that are diffused throughout society, including standardized tests, are what Foucault called:
disciplinary techniques
Which of the following statements is true regarding the current U.S. incarceration rate?
It is the highest in American history
Which kind of inequality did Rousseau believe would always exist?
physical
What is the term that refers to a form of wealth that can be stored for the future?
assets
Thomas Malthus had a positive view of inequality. He defended disease, slavery, and child murder. Why?
He was mentally ill
One of the best ways to reduce the number of children born (according to Sachs) is to:
provide family planning
What term refers to a two-directional relationship, one that goes both ways like a conversation between two people (such as master-slave)?
dialectic
According to the German philosopher Hegel, the master-slave relationship is one of mutual:
dependency
You are dependent on your professor for your grade. Your professor, in turn, is dependent on you for his or her job. Hegel would call this a(n):
dialectic relationship
The game of Monopoly follows the rules of what standard of equality?
equality of opportunity
The modern capitalist society is an example of which type of society?
bourgeois
Let’s say you are best at building with your hands and you become a carpenter working for a local building contractor. A friend of yours is very good at programming computers, so he or she works at IBM. Yet another friend excels at science, so he or she goes to medical school and becomes a physician. Each of you is paid the exact same salary and each of you lives in the same neighborhood and drives the same type of car. What standard of equality would this be an example of?
equality of outcome
When more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility in the hope that the others will pull the extra weight. This is referred to as:
the free rider problem
The examination of how race and ethnicity affect income is really an examination of:
stratification
Which social stratification system was favored in feudal Europe and the American South before the Civil War?
estate system
A type of stratification that is based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity and in which there is little to no individual mobility within the strata is the:
caste system
Although Indian castes historically have been ____________, increasing rates of ____________ have made classifying children more difficult.
endogamous; exogamy
Under what system is your societal position related to your position in the economic market?
class
Which group exploits the working class by taking more of the value of the work of laborers than they repay in wages?
bourgeoisie
Professionals, small business owners, and craftsmen are referred to as:
petit bourgeoisie
Sometimes individuals seek to assert or increase their status, not just through occupation but also through:
living in gated communities
A stratification system with a governing elite—that is, few leaders who broadly hold the power in society—is called a(n) ____________ system.
elite-mass dichotomy
Mills argues that there are three major institutional forces in modern American society in which the power of decision making has become centralized. Which of the following is NOT one of these forces?
social order
Mills believed that centralized power in the hands of a few ____________ democracy.
hurt
C. Wright Mills had a negative view of the elite-mass dichotomy. His viewpoint fits into what paradigm?
conflict
A subsystem of stratification that Mills mentions is the outer fringes of the power elite. These are:
individuals who count in the decisions that affect all of us, but who don’t actually make those decisions
Pareto believed in a society in which status and mobility are based on individual attributes and ability, called:
meritocracy
Which term refers to everything you own minus debts (such as a mortgage on your home and credit card debt)?
wealth
Historically, Marx’s capitalist class was made up of members of the:
upper class
Which American job sector has greatly increased since the oil crisis of 1973?
low-wage service work
What is the fastest-growing job market for people with only a high school education?
food preparation
The government’s definition of poverty for a family of four (as of 2011) is a total yearly salary of just under:
$23,000
In political speeches about the poor, those who are believed to deserve our assistance are termed the:
working poor
Trade of goods and services across national boundaries, as well as the mobility of businesses and labor through immigration, is called:
national labor
____________ social mobility refers to a group or an individual transitioning from one social status to another that is situated more or less on the same rung of the ladder.
Horizontal
The rise and fall of an individual (or group) from one social stratum to another is called ____________ social mobility.
vertical
Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy is called:
structural
Typically, one moves vertically (up or down) the social ladder. If factories are moving from the United States to Mexico and that is causing major job losses in the United States, one would say that downward mobility is due to:
structural mobility
The prestige of a person’s first job out of school factors into his or her position on the ____________ model.
status-attainment
Opponents of the estate tax argue that taxing accumulated wealth:
discourages would-be entrepreneurs from taking risk
Soros has suggested that repealing the estate tax would result in a shift of the tax burden onto earnings, which would shift it onto people:
with less money

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