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Flashcards About Soc Exam 3

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Who wrote a classic work distinguishing dyads from triads and argued that the number of people in a group is important in determining the form social relationships will take within that group?
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Simmel
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Sociologist Georg Simmel (1950) argues that “size matters” in a group primarily because the number of people in a group determines:
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the structure social relations will take
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In which of the following groups is a coalition formation impossible?
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dyads
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The most important difference between primary and secondary groups has to do with:
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the kinds of relationships that exist within them.
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When you go on a date with one other person, you have formed a:
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dyad
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A married couple and their firstborn child are a type of group known as:
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a triad
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Parenting coordinators are sometimes brought in by the court to help relieve tension between divorcing parents. When a dispute arises between the parents, the parenting coordinator can step in and help moms and dads “keep the peace.” The coordinator plays the role of:
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mediator
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If the buying public can be seen as playing two producers off against each other and promoting their self-interest by gaining the lowest price, the buying public could be viewed as playing the role of:
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the third that rejoices
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If stepsiblings are asked to share bedrooms or other possessions, and one of them views such sharing as an intrusion, he or she may have difficulty overcoming the tendency to play the role of ____________ between his or her parent and the new stepmother or stepfather.
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divide et impera
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A classroom would not typically fall under Simmel’s classification of a small group because:
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there are formal arrangements or roles
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You and your friend have created a technology start-up. Since its inception, it has become very successful and you’ve had to hire many employees. At what point will you realize that it has become, in Simmel’s terms, a large group?
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when formal job titles are created and formal hierarchies between employees emerge
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According to Simmel, the essential feature of a party is that it is:
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multifocal
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You have six friends over to your apartment for dinner and drinks. Three of the friends are discussing Einstein’s theory of relativity, while the other three are talking about the World Cup. According to Simmel, is this a party yet?
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No, because there are only two topics being discussed
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Which of the following would be an example of a large group using Simmel’s classification?
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a symphony orchestra
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Your introduction to sociology class is probably which of the following types of groups identified by Cooley?
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secondary
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Which of the following conducted experiments and established a test that demonstrates the power of group conformity?
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Asch
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Stigmatized groups, such as gays and lesbians in the United States, are known as:
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out-groups
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Which of the following statements best describes the difference between in-groups and out-groups?
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In-groups are more powerful
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Marina is a ten-year-old girl who idolizes singers like Mariah Carey and Christina Aguilera. She compares herself to them and imitates them while singing in front of her bedroom mirror. These singers are known as Marina’s:
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reference group
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A group that helps us understand our position relative to other groups is a(n):
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reference group
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Chapter 5, which explores interaction in groups, opens with a story about an Australian artist who creates a business importing and distributing food products and utilities from around the globe. Her business would not be possible without:
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social networks
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Sets of dyads held together by ties between the individuals are known as:
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social networks
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While a social network is ____________, a social tie ____________.
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the relationship between two people; explains how two people know each other
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Janet was surprised to find out her gynecologist, Dr. Herring, was good friends with her tennis partner, Sally. Janet had met Sally years ago in graduate school, while Dr. Herring knew Sally from church. The nature of their relationship to Sally is what sociologists call a(n):
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tie
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The term “six degrees of separation” came out of research undertaken by Stanley Milgram, who wanted to test:
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the reach of social networks
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____________ is/are the information, knowledge of people or things, and connections that help individuals enter preexisting networks or gain power from them.
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Social capital
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What trend, related to a decline in social capital, did Robert Putnam focus on in his book Bowling Alone
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the declining interest in community-based activities and organizations
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According to data presented in Chapter 5, which of the following is true regarding social capital in the United States today?
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Social capital is decreasing
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The examples of more and more people bowling and eating alone are used to highlight a more general trend involving:
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civic disengagement and a decline in social capital.
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Which of the following cultures is a case study of a lifestyle that has endured and maintained its traditions despite wide changes in U.S. modern life?
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the Amish in Pennsylvania
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What appears to be the main reason for the success of Amish businesses when compared to other U.S. businesses?
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The Amish live by prioritizing the community and its social capital rather than rugged individualism
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Although Putnam’s research suggests that the United States is becoming less community oriented and more selfish, which of the following events led to a temporary revival of civic engagement among young adults?
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the terrorist attacks of 9/11
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Former president George W. Bush and other religious and conservative policy makers’ emphasis on abstinence programs and “virginity pledges” has led to a(n):
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delayed onset of sexual activity, on average
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Which of the following is true regarding the applicability of network analysis within sociological research?
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It can be used in both micro-level and macro-level studies.
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A friendship group isn’t an example of a formal organization because:
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friends typically don’t have formal rules and governing structures
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A local organization values democracy and diversity and therefore solicits input on every decision it makes and uses recruiting strategies that are likely to attract a wide variety of applicants. These beliefs and behaviors are part of the:
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organizational culture
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The ways in which power and authority are distributed hierarchically within an organization are called:
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organizational structure
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C. Wright Mills’s term for interlocking directorates is which of the following?
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the power elite
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A process by which organizations face the same conditions, and ultimately tend to end up like each other, is known as:
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isomorphism
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Sexual orientation was grounds for excluding immigrants from the United States until:
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1990
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Although deviant behavior can be bad for social cohesion, it is paradoxical because:
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it is the deviants among us who hold society together
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Violation of laws enacted by society is also known as:
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crimes
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Durkheim’s theory and research on deviance fall within which of the main sociological theories?
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functionalist
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The common faith or set of social norms by which a society and its members abide is defined by Durkheim as:
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collective conscience
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When people in a society form social bonds and relate meaningfully to others on a daily basis, the society is said to exhibit:
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social cohesion
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Which of Durkheim’s types of social solidarity characterized premodern life?
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mechanical
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Mark is a member of a small tribe in New Guinea. The majority of people in his group fish for sustenance and share their catch with all the other members. Most of the people in his culture are very similar in their values, norms, and outlook on life. Mark steals from another member of his tribe. He will probably receive which type of social realignment?
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Mark will be shamed in front of the entire tribe
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When a prison offers educational opportunities, mental health treatment, and job training programs to inmates, which response to deviance is it engaging in?
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rehabilitative
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Punishments that attempt to restore the status quo that existed prior to the offense are known as:
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restitutive
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Sociologists refer to the set of mechanisms that creates compliance to norms as which of the following?
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social control
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In industrialized societies, social sanctions are most likely:
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focused on the criminal’s individual circumstances.
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According to Durkheim’s research, what is the primary reason that Protestants are more likely to kill themselves than Catholics and Jews?
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Protestantism is premised on the individual, which creates less social integration
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According to Merton, which of the following describes a person who accepts both the goals defined by society and the means to achieve them?
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conformist
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A person who desires a big mansion and the perfect “American Dream” lifestyle, but sells illegal drugs to achieve this, is known by Merton as a(n):
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innovator
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Which of the following is a major difference between the symbolic interactionist (SI) and functionalist perspectives on deviance?
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SI takes a micro or close-up look at individuals to explain deviance, and functionalism looks at macro-level social systems to explain it
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According to Becker, why do marijuana smokers enjoy using the drug?
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They engage in a social process of learning to define the experience as fun and pleasurable
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The student guards in Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment behaved the way they did because:
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they experienced the Lucifer effect, in which they were affected by social surroundings and cultural expectations
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If a label is said to be “sticky” when referring to deviance, it means that:
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it is hard to lose that label
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After a student drops out of high school, she becomes labeled a “drop-out,” and her subsequent actions and choices are explained in terms of this label.Those subsequent actions are called:
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secondary deviance
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When an elementary school student is labeled as the “class clown” by his teacher, and then adopts the persona and lives up to others’ expectations by acting silly, the class clown label has become a:
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stigma
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Which theory explains how social context and social cues impact the way individuals act, specifically, whether or not local, informal norms allow acts such as vandalizing an abandoned car?
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broken windows theory
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How does the social context affect crime, according to the broken windows theory?
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Evidence of disorder, such as broken windows, sends a signal that it’s acceptable to engage in further deviant behaviors such as vandalism
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What is one difference between street crime and white-collar crime?
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Street crime usually occurs in public; white-collar crime usually occurs in private
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Illegal drug dealing is an example of which of the following types of crimes, as defined by sociologists?
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street crimes
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Tax evasion is an example of which of the following types of crimes, as defined by sociologists?
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white-collar crimes
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Which theory suggests that “crime results from a rational calculation of the costs and benefits of criminal activity”?
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deterrence theory
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A policy of imprisoning and monitoring criminal offenders for committing crimes in an effort to prevent them from committing more crimes is known as:
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specific deterrence
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A drug dealer stops selling drugs after learning on the street that another dealer was caught and punished. This is an example of which of the following?
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general deterrence
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Prisons and military boot camps are examples of what Goffman calls:
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total institutions
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Modes of monitoring, examining, and regimenting individuals that are diffused throughout society, including standardized tests, are what Foucault called:
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disciplinary techniques
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Which of the following statements is true regarding the current U.S. incarceration rate?
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It is the highest in American history
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Which kind of inequality did Rousseau believe would always exist?
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physical
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What is the term that refers to a form of wealth that can be stored for the future?
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assets
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Thomas Malthus had a positive view of inequality. He defended disease, slavery, and child murder. Why?
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He was mentally ill
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One of the best ways to reduce the number of children born (according to Sachs) is to:
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provide family planning
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What term refers to a two-directional relationship, one that goes both ways like a conversation between two people (such as master-slave)?
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dialectic
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According to the German philosopher Hegel, the master-slave relationship is one of mutual:
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dependency
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You are dependent on your professor for your grade. Your professor, in turn, is dependent on you for his or her job. Hegel would call this a(n):
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dialectic relationship
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The game of Monopoly follows the rules of what standard of equality?
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equality of opportunity
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The modern capitalist society is an example of which type of society?
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bourgeois
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Let’s say you are best at building with your hands and you become a carpenter working for a local building contractor. A friend of yours is very good at programming computers, so he or she works at IBM. Yet another friend excels at science, so he or she goes to medical school and becomes a physician. Each of you is paid the exact same salary and each of you lives in the same neighborhood and drives the same type of car. What standard of equality would this be an example of?
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equality of outcome
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When more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility in the hope that the others will pull the extra weight. This is referred to as:
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the free rider problem
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The examination of how race and ethnicity affect income is really an examination of:
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stratification
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Which social stratification system was favored in feudal Europe and the American South before the Civil War?
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estate system
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A type of stratification that is based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity and in which there is little to no individual mobility within the strata is the:
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caste system
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Although Indian castes historically have been ____________, increasing rates of ____________ have made classifying children more difficult.
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endogamous; exogamy
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Under what system is your societal position related to your position in the economic market?
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class
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Which group exploits the working class by taking more of the value of the work of laborers than they repay in wages?
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bourgeoisie
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Professionals, small business owners, and craftsmen are referred to as:
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petit bourgeoisie
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Sometimes individuals seek to assert or increase their status, not just through occupation but also through:
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living in gated communities
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A stratification system with a governing elite—that is, few leaders who broadly hold the power in society—is called a(n) ____________ system.
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elite-mass dichotomy
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Mills argues that there are three major institutional forces in modern American society in which the power of decision making has become centralized. Which of the following is NOT one of these forces?
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social order
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Mills believed that centralized power in the hands of a few ____________ democracy.
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hurt
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C. Wright Mills had a negative view of the elite-mass dichotomy. His viewpoint fits into what paradigm?
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conflict
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A subsystem of stratification that Mills mentions is the outer fringes of the power elite. These are:
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individuals who count in the decisions that affect all of us, but who don’t actually make those decisions
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Pareto believed in a society in which status and mobility are based on individual attributes and ability, called:
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meritocracy
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Which term refers to everything you own minus debts (such as a mortgage on your home and credit card debt)?
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wealth
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Historically, Marx’s capitalist class was made up of members of the:
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upper class
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Which American job sector has greatly increased since the oil crisis of 1973?
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low-wage service work
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What is the fastest-growing job market for people with only a high school education?
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food preparation
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The government’s definition of poverty for a family of four (as of 2011) is a total yearly salary of just under:
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$23,000
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In political speeches about the poor, those who are believed to deserve our assistance are termed the:
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working poor
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Trade of goods and services across national boundaries, as well as the mobility of businesses and labor through immigration, is called:
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national labor
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____________ social mobility refers to a group or an individual transitioning from one social status to another that is situated more or less on the same rung of the ladder.
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Horizontal
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The rise and fall of an individual (or group) from one social stratum to another is called ____________ social mobility.
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vertical
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Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy is called:
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structural
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Typically, one moves vertically (up or down) the social ladder. If factories are moving from the United States to Mexico and that is causing major job losses in the United States, one would say that downward mobility is due to:
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structural mobility
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The prestige of a person’s first job out of school factors into his or her position on the ____________ model.
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status-attainment
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Opponents of the estate tax argue that taxing accumulated wealth:
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discourages would-be entrepreneurs from taking risk
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Soros has suggested that repealing the estate tax would result in a shift of the tax burden onto earnings, which would shift it onto people:
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with less money