Soc. Chapter 2

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socialization
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culture’s affect on the basic attitudes
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personality
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individual characteristics, attitudes, need and behaviors that set one person apart from another
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culture
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totally of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
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society is the largest form of human group
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-members of the society learn this culture and transmit from one generation to the next. -having common culture simplifies many day to day interaction. -language a critical element that sets humans apart from other species.
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cultural universities
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societies, despite differences, developed certain common practices. -athletic sports -cooking -funeral ceremonies -medicine -sexual restrictions
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Innovation
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-process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture -may take the form of either discovery or invention
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discovery
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making known or sharing existence of an aspect of reality
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invention
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when existing cultural items are combined into form that did not exist before.
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Globalization
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worldwide integration of Gov. policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trades and the exchange of ideas.
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Diffusion
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process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society
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McDonalization
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process through which the principles of the fast-food industry have come to dominate certain sectors of society.
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Technology
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information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires.
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Material culture
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physical or technological aspects of our daily lives
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Nonmaterial culture
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ways of using material objects ex. customs, beliefs, philosophies
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Culture lag
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period of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions.
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Culture shock
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feeling disoriented, uncertain, out of place, or fearful when immersed in an unfamiliar culture.
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Ethnocentrism
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Tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represent the norm or is superior to all others.
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Cultural Relativism
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People’s behaviors from the perspective of their own culture.
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Subcultures
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segment of society that shares distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the larger society.
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Argot
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specialized language that can be developed by a subculture
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Countercultures
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subculture that conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture.
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Language
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abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of cultures
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Norms
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established standards of behavior that are maintained by society
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Formal norms
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generally written down; specify strict punishment for violations.
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Informal norms
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generally understood but not precisely recorded.
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Mores
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norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society, often because they embody the most cherished principles of a people.
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Folkways
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norms governing everyday behavior.
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Acceptance of Norms
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subject to change a political, economic, and social conditions of a culture transform.
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Sanctions
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penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm. pos or neg
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Values
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collective conceptions of what is good, desirable, and proper-or bad, undesirable , and improper.
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Dominant Ideology
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describes the set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic and political interest.
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Environment: the impact of isolation
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interaction of heredity and environment shape human development.
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Heredity: the impact of biology
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Sociobiology: systematic study of the biological bases of human social behavior
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The self is product of our social interactions with people by
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imagining how we present ourselves to others imagining how others evaluate us developing feelings about ourselves as a result of these impressions.
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Prepapatory Stage
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children imitate in communicating through symbols and role taking occurs
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Play Stage
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children develop skill in communicating through symbols and role taking occurs
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Role taking
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process of mentally assuming the perspective of another
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Game stage
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children of about 8 or 9 consider several tasks and relationships simultaneously
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generalized other
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attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that child takes into account
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symbol
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gestures, objects, and language that form basis of human communication
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role taking
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process of mentally assuming the perspective of another
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Mead theory of Self.
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self begins as the privileged center of a person’s world as person matures the self changes and begins to reflect greater concern for reactions of others.
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significant others
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individuals most important in the development of the self.
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impression management
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individual learns to slant the presentation of self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences.
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dramaturgical approach
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people resemble performers in action
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Foffman: presentation to self
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impression management, dramaturgical approach
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Rites of passage
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means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person’s status ceremonies mark stages of development in life course
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life course approach
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look closely at social factors
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Anticipatory Socialization
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processes of socialization in which a person \”rehearses\” for future occupations and relationships.
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Resocialization
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process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of transition in one’s life.
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total institution
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institution-prison, military, mental hospital, or convent-that regulates all aspects of life under a single authority.
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degradation ceremony
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ritual where individual becomes secondary and rather invisible in overbeating social environment.
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Agents of socialization
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family, school, peer group, mass media and tech., workplace, the state
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gender roles
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expectation regarding proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of make and females.

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