Soc: Chapter 10 (Macro-Micro Link in social institutions)

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liberal democracy
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a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of liberalism, i.e. protecting the rights of the individual, which are generally enshrined in law.
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astroturfing
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urban dictionary: Creating the impression of public support by paying people in the public to pretend to be supportive. The false support can take the form of letters to the editor, postings on message boards in response to criticism, and writing to politicians in support of the cause. – this is the opposite of grassroots ( genuine public support of an issue)
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c
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Social institutions are paradoxical for sociologists because a. they function at the macro level to shape our everyday interactions. b. our everyday interactions help to construct social institutions. c. they impact our everyday interactions and our everyday interactions also impact them.
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a
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The ability to impose one’s will on others is called a. power. b. the government. c. politics. d. authoritarianism.
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T
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T/F: Charter schools are public schools run by private entities intended to give parents greater control over their children’s education
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b
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Consider the three major theoretical perspectives routinely explored throughout the text. Which theoretical perspective might note that most positions of importance in the U.S. are held by a small concentrated group of men and thus, men wield the most power in decision making, while the masses, in turn, have little power in this process? a. structural functionalism b. conflict theory c. symbolic interactionism
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a
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Arthur does not leave his house each morning until after he puts on his chain with the Star of David on it. This exemplifies his a. extrinsic religiosity. b. intrinsic religiosity. c. extrinsic spirituality. d. intrinsic spirituality.
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F
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T/F: The largest religious group in the United States is Catholic
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Social institutions
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– systems and structures that shape the activities of groups and individuals in society – can’t be visited – it is a structure, not a place. Politics, education, and religion are examples
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politics
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the methods and tactics of managing a nation or state, as well as administering and controlling its internal and external affairs
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government
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the formal, organized agency that exercises power and control in modern society, especially through the creation and enforcement of laws
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federal, state, county, local, and so on
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levels of government in the U.S.
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power
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the ability to impose one’s will on others
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authority
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the noncoercive, legitimate exercise of power
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authoritarianism
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a system of government by and for a small number of elites that does not include representation of ordinary citizens
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dictatorship
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one form of an authoritarianism system; usually a dictator does not gain power by being elected or through succession but rather seizes power and becomes an absolutist ruler
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totalitarianism
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the most extreme and modern form of authoritarianism, in which the government seeks to control every aspect of citizens’ lives
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monarchy
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government by a king or queen, with succession of rulers kept within the family
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absolute and constitutional
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two types of monarchies
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absolute monarchies
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typically have complete authority over their subjects
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constitutional monarchies
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royal figures whose powers are defined by a political charter and limited by a parliament or other governing body
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democracy
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a political system in which all citizens have the right to participate
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pluralism
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a system of political power where a wide variety of individuals and groups have equal access to resources and power
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pluralist theory of power and the power of the elite
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the two theories of who rules America
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power elite
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– term coined by C. Wright Mills – a relatively small number of people who control the economic, political, and military institutions of a society
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special interest groups
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organizations that raise and spend money to influence elected officials or public opinion
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mass media
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– also impacts politics – ex. many people form their beliefs based on information from opinion leaders
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opinion leaders
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high-profile people who interpret events and influence the public.
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education
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the process by which a society transmits knowledge, values, and expectations to its members so they can function in society
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schooling
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________ serves a number of important functions for society: – The transmission of knowledge – Learning to follow society’s rules and to respect authority – Being socialized to develop other qualities that will eventually make people efficient and obedient workers
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manifest function
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an obvious function of education ex. transmission of knowledge, like read, write, math, etc.
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latent function
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ex. learning to follow society’s rules and to respect authority, and being socialized to develop other qualities that will eventually make us efficient and obedient workers. These goals aren’t on the class syllabus, but students learn them through interactions with teachers and others within the system
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inequality
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Educational institutions also help to reproduce the ______ seen in society
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hidden curriculum
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describes the values and behaviors that students learn indirectly over the course of their schooling because of the educational system’s structure and teaching methods
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\”The Credential Society\” (the book)
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Randall Collins argues that reproducing society’s existing class structure is the true function of education
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pygmalion effect
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the idea that teachers’ attitudes about their students unintentionally influence their academic performance
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Rosenthal and Jacobson’s symbolic interactionist study of education
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this study suggested that teachers’ attitudes about their students unintentionally influenced their academic performance. When teachers expected students to succeed, the students indeed tended to improve.
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Kozol’s ethnography, \”Savage Inequalities\”
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contends that because schools are funded by local property taxes, children in poor neighborhoods are trapped in poor schools, which reinforces inequality
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educational
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Many believe that America’s ______ system is in crisis, though there is little agreement on how to fix the problem. Some attempts have included early college high schools, homeschooling, school vouchers, and charter schools
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early college high schools
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institutions that blend high school and college into a coherent educational program in which students earn both a high school diploma and two years of college credit toward a bachelor’s degree
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homeschooling
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the education of children by their parents, at home – has grown steadily in popularity since the 1980s. In 2007-2008, it was estimated there were more than 2 million of these students
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T
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T/F: The academic achievement of home-schooled students, on average, was significantly above that of publicly schooled children, even if their parents were not certified teachers
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school vouchers
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payments from the government to parents whose children attend failing public schools to help parents pay for private school tuition
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charter schools
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public schools run by private entities to give parents greater control over their children’s education
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distance learning
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includes any educational course or program in which the teacher and students do not meet together in the classroom, a situation increasingly available over the internet
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religion
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includes any institutionalized system of shared beliefs and rituals
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beliefs
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propositions and ideas held on the basis of faith
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rituals
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practices based on those beliefs that identify a relationship between the sacred (holy, divine, or supernatural) and the profane (ordinary, mundane, or everyday)
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T
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T/F: Sociologists do not evaluate the truth of any religion, but rather study the ways that religions shape and are shaped by cultural institutions and the ways that religions influence and are influenced by the behaviors of individuals
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religion
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– Shapes everyday behavior by providing morals, values, rules, and norms for its participants – Gives meaning to our lives – Provides the opportunity to come together with others to share in group activities and identity
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dysfunctional, agents
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Religion can be made _______ by promoting inequality with sexist, racist, or homophobic doctrines. On the other hand, religious organizations have also been ______ of social justice and political change.
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example of religion as agents of social justice and political change
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In the Civil Rights era, most communications about gatherings, protests, or events to raise awareness were announced and advertised through churches.
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religiosity
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the regular practice of religious beliefs, measured by church attendance. – Thirty-eight percent of Americans report attending services weekly
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Extrinsic religiosity
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refers to a person’s public display of commitment to a religious faith
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intrinsic religiosity
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refers to a person’s inner religious life or personal relationship to the divine
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fundamentalists and unchurched
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the two religious groups that have dramatically increased in size in recent decades
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fundamentalists
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those who literally interpret texts and want to \”return\” to a time of greater religious purity
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unchurched
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those who consider themselves spiritual but not religious, and who often adopt aspects of various religious traditions
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Social institutions
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an important part of the structure of our society. As a sociologist, it is important to understand how these shape our lives, and how we can shape these as well!
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c
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The ability to impose one’s will on others is called a. the government. b. politics. c. power. d. authoritarianism.
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a
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The placement of students into different educational programs of study such as remedial classes or college-prep classes is called a. tracking. b. intrinsic education. c. the hidden curriculum. d. simulacrum.
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c
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The values or behaviors that students learn indirectly over the course of their schooling because of the educational system’s structure and teaching methods are called a. tracking. b. intrinsic education. c. the hidden curriculum. d. simulacrum.
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a
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Public schools run by private entities to give parents greater control over their children’s education are called a. charter schools. b. early college high schools. c. home schools. d. tracking schools.
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d
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Attendance at a religious service is an example of _____ religiosity. a. intrinsic b. secular c. liberation d. extrinsic
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a
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The practice of emphasizing literal interpretation of religious texts and a \”return\” to a time of greater religious purity is called a. fundamentalism. b. liberation theology. c. secularization. d. intrinsic religiosity.
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c
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There are millions of people who are eligible to vote in the United States. What percentage of those people do you think usually come out to the polls for a presidential election? close to 100 percent not 100 percent, but over 75 percent around 50 percent less than 25 percent

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