SOC 111 ch. 1

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anomie
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social normalness, without moral guidance or standards
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collective conscience
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the shared values of society
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conflict theories
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socials theories that focus on issues of contention, power, and inequality, highlighting the competition for scarce resources
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culture
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the collection of values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, language, behaviors, and material objects shared by a people and socially transmitted from generation to generation
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division of labor
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the way people specialize in different tasks, each requiring specific skills
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dysfunctional
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inhibiting or disrupting the working of a system as a whole
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functionalist theories
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theories that focus on consensus and cooperative interaction in a social life, emphasizing how different elements that make up society’s structure contribute to its overall operations. Sometimes referred to as structural-functionalist theories
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industrialization
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the use of large-scale machinery for the mass manufacture of consumer goods
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latent function
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the largely unrecognized and unintended consequences of social phenomena
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macro level of analysis
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a focus on large-scale social systems and processes such as the economy, politics and population trends
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manifest functions
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the recognized and intended consequences of a social phenomena
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meso level of analysis
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a focus somewhere between very large and very small social phenomena–on organizations of institutions, for example
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micro level of analysis
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a focus on small-sclae, usually face-to-face interaction
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modernity
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a historical era beginning in the 1700s characterized by the growth of democracy and personal freedom, increased reliance on reason and sciences to explain the natural and social worlds, and a shift toward an urban industrial economy
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positivism
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a belief that accurate knowledge must be based on the scientific method
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postmodernity
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a historical period beginning in the mid-twentieth century characterized by the rise of information-based economics and the fragmentation of political beliefs and ways of knowing
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power
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the ability to bring about intended outcome, even when opposed by others
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rationalization of society
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the long-term historical process by which rationality replaced traditions as the basis for organizing social and economic life
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science
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a method of inquiry that uses logic and the systematic collection of evidence to support knowledge claims
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social solidarity
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the collective bonds that connect individuals
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social theory
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a set of principles and propositions that explains the relationships among social phenomena
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sociological imagination
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a view of the social world that focuses on discovering and understanding the connections between individuals and the broader social contexts in which they live, coined by C. Wright Mills
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sociological perspective
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a view of the social world that focuses on discovering and understanding the connections between individuals and the broader social contexts in which they live, called the sociological imagination by C. Wright Mills
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sociology
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the systematic study of the relationship between individuals and society
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structure-functionalist theories
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theories that focus on consensus and cooperative interaction in a social life, emphasizing how different elements that make up society’s structure contribute to its overall operations. Often referred to as “functionalist theories” or “functionalism”
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structure
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the recurring patterns of behavior in social life
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symbolic interactionist theories
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social theories that focus on how people use shared symbols and construct society as a result of their everyday interactions
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urbanization
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the growth of cities

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