SOC 101: Reading questions

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READING: why don’t the poor participate in social movements more often?
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ALL OF THE ABOVE : The consequences of participation may be too high, they may have to work multiple jobs, leaving little or no time for activates
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READING: Litter may not be the most pressing problem facing our society, but many people still wish that our streets and parks had less trash. However, it is difficult to convince people to clean these public areas, a problem that sociologists would call …
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THE PUBLIC GOODS DIELEMMA
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READING: The process by which social structures and institutions become global rather than national is called
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Globalization
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READING: According to mass society theory, why do people join social movements?
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To fulfill a psychological need to belong to something
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READING: The Promise Keepers are a Christian men’s organization that seeks to train men to be better husbands and fathers while working to preserve traditional family values, in which the man is the head of the household and makes decisions for his wife and family. in this way the promise keepers are
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regressive
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READING: what are the 4 stages of a social movement, in the order that each event occurs?
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Incipient; coalscence; bureaucratization; decline
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READING: Many have noticed that the US economy seems increasingly focused on producing and managing info, rather than on making things. What terms or concept could describe this shift?
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Postmodernism
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READING: What is the uneven distribution of technology between different parts of a society or of the world called?
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The digital divide
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READING: When someone listens to public radio, but never contributes during pledge drives, that person would be considered
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a free rider
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READING: How did MoveOn.org recruit and organize members?
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aggressive use of the internet
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READING: The relatively short-lived enthusiasm for leg warmers during the 1980s was an example of
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A FAD
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Given that fertility rates in the US have dropped below the level needed to maintain the population level, why is the pop here growing??
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Immigration
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What happens to a neighborhood during gentrification?
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ALL AF THE ABOVE ; poorer residents are displaced, buildings are converted or remodeled, property values increase
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What sort of pollution is responsible for global warming
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greenhouse gases
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which political party made social justice, community-based economics, feminism, and diversity central to its platform?
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THE GREEN PARTY
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If a sociologist is studying the problems associated with resource depletion, which of the following facts might be she be interested in when she investigates the way that our society uses paper?
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A. It requires more than 3 pound of tree pulp to make 1 pound of paper
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If someone starts taking public transportation and riding a bike, she would be reducing, HER
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carbon footprint
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During the Great Depression in the 1930s, huge #s of dispossessed farmers left places like OKL, and moved to CA.
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This is an example of internal migration
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although the federal government plans to store nuc. waste under a mountain in Nevada, people who live in Nevada are trying their best to have it housed elsewhere, a classic example of
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NIMBY
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How has Earth’s population changed in the last 50 yrs?
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It has more than tripled
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Chapter 11: Work What is a sweatshop?
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a workplace with poor working conditions, below standard wages, and long hours
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Why would a company outsource or contract out labor they might otherwise employ their own staff to preform?
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it’s cheaper
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What did Wal-Mart do when the butchers at the Supercenter in Jacksonville, Texas, voted to unionize?-
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eliminated meat cutting in all of its Texas stores
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Why did Karl Marx believe that workers in a capitalist nation experience alienation?
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they are paid for their labor but do not own the things they produce
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What technological development is associated with the Information Revolution?
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microchip
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While the U.S. is a capitalist nation, it also has socialist elements.\” Is this an accurate statement?
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yes
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In 2005, teaching assistants at U of Oregon went on strike. What feature of their job make it easier for them to strike than most American workers?-
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their jobs can’t be moved overseas
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Who led campaigns to end child labor and increase workplace safety?
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unions
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What are the benefits of telecommuting?
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businesses get increased productivity and fewer sick days
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Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
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England
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CHAPTER 10: SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS Religiosity
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extent of a person’s commitment to religion
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Which of the following is an advantage cited by supporters of school vouchers?
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give more choices to parents in their children’s education
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Which of the following is a critism of the no child left behind act passed by congress in 2002?
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teachers. umder pressure to raise test scores may stop doing everythng \”but teaching to the test\”
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A society that separates Church & State is a
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secular society
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In the past most voters formed public opinions by listening to speeches meeting with reps of political parties or attending town hall mtgs. How to voters today learn about political issues?
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Through human interest stories in the media
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how does the academic achievement of homeschooled students compare to that of public school students?
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Homeschooled students perform significantly better, on average than public school students
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According to C. Wright Mills, who rules America?
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the power elite
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What evidence suggests that America’s educational system is in crisis?
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Literacy rates are low, teachers are poorly paid, school infrastructure is in poor condition
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According to the text, what does it mean to be \”disenfranchised?
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person is stripped of voting rights, either temporarily or permanently
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The theory of pluralism suggests that in a democracy, power is held in a variety of hands; each group is assumed to have equal access to power and thus serve as a system of checks and balances.\” This statement best represents
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structural functionalist perspective
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Which of the following will shape a person’s political ideology?
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where a person lives, age, sex
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CHAPTER 12: LIFE AT HOME What historical change led to the devaluation of women’s work in the home?
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the industrial revolution
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A heterosexual married couple living in the same household and raising their children is defined as
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nuclear family
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Who are more likely to be negatively affected by parents’ divorce?
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boys
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Increasing number of Americans who move out of state to attend college will decrease importance of __ when looking for bf/gf
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propinquity
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What would a symbolic interactionism studying the family be most interested in?
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the way that gift giving within extended family makes some bonds more important than others
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18. Why do victims of domestic violence stay in relationships?
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don’t believe they can make it on their own, feel responsible, don’t have resources to get away (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
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Brady bunch- husband and wife had kids from previous marriages. Called ____-
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blended family
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What happens to marital satisfaction when kids are born?
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goes down
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CHAPTER 8: RACE How do the demographics (e.g. racial & ethnic make up) of CA challenge the way that the term \” minority\” has been used in the past?
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Whites are now less than half the population of CA
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What explanation does functionalism have for prejudice and discrimination today?
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Prejudice & discrimination help to increase group cohesion
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According to conflict theory, what is the real source of racism?
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The struggle for power
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How is institutional discrimination different from individual discrimination?
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Institutional discrimination is more systematic and widespread
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Why are poor women less likely to marry?
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They feel that the men they encounter are less likely to offer the advantages that make marriage worth the risk
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Which of the following countries is an example of a pluralistic culture in which people of French, Italian & German heritage live peacefully together in political and economic unity?
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Switzerland
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According to sociologist Howard Winant and Michael Omi, what is the relationship between race and class?
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Race is not a side effect of class; rather is permeates ever aspect of daily life
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The deliberate and systematic extermination of a racial, ethnic, or national group is called __.
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Genocide
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After the Civil War, most southern states passed laws that barred Blacks and Whites from sharing most kinds of public facilities. This is an example of __.
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Segregation
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A(n) ___ is a human being with some combination of female and male genitalia.
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Intersexual person/hermaphrodite
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Which two categories of crime are girls (juveniles) and women (adults) more likely to be arrested than boys/men?
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Running away and prostitution
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According to the pro-feminist men’s movement, why should men support feminism?
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They should out of fairness to women; men’s lives, as well as women’s, are constrained by gender rules; the ideology of male superiority is a burden (ALL)
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What two roles did the structuralist Talcott Parsons identify within the family?
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Expressive and instrumental
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The phrase \”deadbeat dad\” describes a man who isn’t married to his children’s mother and isn’t supporting his children materially. Why do we almost never talk about \”deadbeat moms\”?
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Women remain the primary caregiver even when fathers are no longer taking the instrumental role
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\”Welfare queen\” is an insulting term for a woman who is believed to be cheating the government by collecting excessive welfare payments. Although empirical research indicates that very little welfare fraud actually takes place, what nugget of sociological truth is contained in the phrase \”welfare queen\”?
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The use of the word \”queen\” reminds us that women are more likely than men to live in poverty
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When does gender role socialization begin?
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Before birth
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How do single fathers’ incomes compare to those of single mothers?
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Single fathers make considerably more money
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How do men and women experience gender harassment differently in the military?
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Men are more likely to be harassed by their drill sergeants, while women are more likely to be harassed by their fellow trainees
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What issue is first-wave feminism most strongly associated with?
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Women’s suffrage
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Who is most likely to be mocked by their peers for violating gender norms?
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Boys
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In the workplace, aggressive men are often considered to be \”go-getters,\” but aggressive women are often considered to be \”bitches.\” This is an example of
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A double standard
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Which group argues that because of feminism, men suffer discrimination?
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The men’s rights movement
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_____ is a social theory about gender identity and sexuality that emphasizes the importance of difference and rejects as restrictive the idea of innate sexual identity.
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Queer theory
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What sort of social mobility is possible in a caste system?
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There is little or no chance of social mobility
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What are the tastes, habits, and expectations that children \”inherit\” (or learn) from their parents that help to achieve material success in life called?
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Cultural capital
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Which of the following is a form of stratification in which all positions are awarded on the basis of merit?
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Meritocracy
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The Welfare Reform Act of 1996 ended the concept of entitlements by requiring recipients of welfare to find work within 2 years of receiving assistance. How was has this changed the lives of the poor?
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Moving from welfare to work did not substantially increase income levels, it simply shifted the poor from welfare to low-paying jobs
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Many workers at auto plants in Michigan have recently lost their jobs as plants close. For the vast majority of these workers, this has resulted in ___.
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Vertical social mobility
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When young people go away to college, its often the first time that they make friends with people of substantially different class statuses. Sometimes this leads to tension when the wealthier member of a friendship is obvious to his friend’s class status & suggests activities that are beyond the friend’s means. This tension results from a lack of
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Class consciousness
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According to Karl Marx, what social relations matter in a capitalist system?
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Economic relations
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Mother Teresa was a person with tremendous power & prestige, yet she was very poor. Mother Teresa is an example of ___.
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Status inconsistency
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According to the class lecture and discussion, what is a problem with the poverty line definition?
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The poverty line def. Does not account for regional differences (e.g. CA has a different standard of living than Alabama)
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An accountant with a college degree & a license from the state accounting board works for the Dept. Of Defense as a senior auditor. He makes about $100,000 a year & will soon retire with benefits & a pension. This accountant belongs to the ___.
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Upper middle class
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When the children of working-class parents manage to attend college and get a job in a professional field, it is an example of ___.
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Intergenerational mobility
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CHAPTER 6: DEVIANCE What is the justification for harsh sentencing guidelines, like California’s \”three strikes’ law?
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deterrence of future crime
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The poet Lucy Grealy had a series of operations as a child that eventually resulted in the removal of one-third of her jaws. As a result, she experienced ___
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stigma
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Why was imprisonment such a rare type of punishment before the nineteenth century?
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earlier societies did not have sufficient resources to operate prisons
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The parents of a deviant child often want to find some way to excuse their offspring’s behavior, and its common to hear them say \” he just fell in with a bad crowd.\” Which symbolic interactionists theory of deviance does this explanation most closely resemble?
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differential association
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\” A student who is caught plagiarizing may come to believe she is unable to write about cheating’ this ex from the textbook explains plagiarism using __
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labeling theory
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What happened to the pseudo patients in David Rosenhan’s \”on being sane is an insane place?\”
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they were all finally released, but the diagnoses were that their ‘illnesses\” were in \”in remission\”
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If you decided that you could never get into a good school and so could never get a good job, you might decide to sell drugs a a way of making a living. According to Robert Merton, what sort of deviant would you be?
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an innovator
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CHAPTER 4: THE SELF & INTERACTION
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.
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Young army recruits arriving at boot camp are about to enter
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a total institution
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Chris speilman was forced to choose between staying with this sick wife and playing prof football. What sort of sociological phenomenon was he expressing?
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role conflict
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According to Sigmund Freud, what are the parts of the mind?
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id , ego, superego
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How does chapter 4 the self and interaction define the \”self\”?
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the experience of a personal identity, distinct from other
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What is the Thomas theorem?
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\”if people define situations as real, they are real in consequences\”
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If a bride is upset on her wedding day bc her family members don’t’ seem excited enough for her, sociologist might argue that family members are violation ___
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the feeling rule
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Which of the following is an example of an altered life circumstance that will require some degree of resocilaization?
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all of the above (getting new job, starting a family, getting divorce)
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How does an individual come to process an achieved status?
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an achieved status is earned
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How is the term\” master status\” defined?
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status that seems to override all other statuses that an individual may possess
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According to the lecture and text, which of the following agents of socialization has the most enduring, life-long impact on the individual?
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family
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Nature comes from the Latin word \”natus’ which means ___ ; nurture comes from the Latin word \”nutritus’ which means ___
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to be born; to be nourished
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The looking-glass self explains __
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how we develop a self-concept based on our perceptions of other’s judgments of us
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. ____ is presenting yourself as a member of a different group than the stigmatized group you belong to.
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Passing
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\”___ the population, the more likely its member are to commit crimes.\”
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the younger
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. \”___\” are more likely to commit crime.\”
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males
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The Amish have neither the resources nor the desire to use prison as a sanction against members of their community who violate the rules. What sanction do they use instead?
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shunning
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Social control is defined as ___.
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the formal and informal mechanisms used to increase conformity to values and norms and thus promote social cohesion.
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CHAPTER 3: CULTURE Mean girls, cheerleaders, jock :
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the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
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A culture war is best illustrated by which of the following examples?
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anti-abortion advocates demonstrating in front of the family-planning clinic
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_____ is something to which people attach meaning and then use to communicate with others
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a symbol
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6. In America, a married man who has several mistresses is violating a ___, but if he is married into more than one woman at the same time he is violating a ____
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more; law
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How is subculture different from a counterculture?
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both are distinct from mainstream culture, but a counterculture actively opposed important aspects of the mainstream culture
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the article, \”Body Ritual among the Nacirema\” is useful to sociologies because
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it challenges people’s inability to observe their own cultures
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Specified times, like Mardi Gras, when people are allowed to break conventional norms and engage in otherwise unacceptable behaviors (being drunk) are called
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moral holidays
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Which of the following lists norms in order from the most severely enforced to the least?
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taboos, mores, folkways
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When an employee is promoted instead of more deserving coworkers because he has a special relationship with her boss, is an example of?
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the distinction between ideal culture and real culture
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Today it is possible to travel all over the world, especially if you visit major metropolitan areas, without ever having to eat anything but McDonald’ this is an ex of
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cultural leveling
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It’s all too common to see someone driving a car on the busy freeway while cursing and gesturing at another motorist whose poor driving has offended her or him. Cursing and gesturing are not very nice, but are examples of
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negative sanctions
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According to chapter 3 cultural crossroads, the most significant component of culture is
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language
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How is the study of culture different from sociologist than for anthropologist?
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sociologist usually study a culture they belong to
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CHAPTER 2: STUDYING SOCIAL LIFE
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.
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The scientific method is the standard procedure for acquiring and verifying empirical (concrete, scientific) knowledge. According to the text, how many steps are there to this procedure?
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7
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Every four years, when it’s time to elect a president, we pay much attention to surveys, although we usually call them polls. Even though there are more than 300 million people in the United States, most political pollsters ask about 1,000 people who they plan to vote for and use that information to predict how the election will turn out. Who is sample for a presidential poll?
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the 1,000 people who are asked who they will vote for
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When high schools want to ask students about sensitive subjects like drug use or sexual health, they often use surveys, rather than a more direct form of communication like interviews. Why?
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Surveys allow student to answer the question in private and assure the confidentiality of their responses
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Which of the following are disadvantages of using existing sources of data for research?
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A and C
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When conduction experiments, how is the experimental group different from the control group?
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The experimental group receives the independent variable, and the control group does not.
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Sociologists who administer interviews can only gather data from a limited number of people because___.
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interviews are too time consuming
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Which of the following is an advantage of replicability in experiments?
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Experiments can be performed again and again in order to measure change
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A closed-ended question is one that___.
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limit the possible responses
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What is a pilot study?
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a smaller study used to investigate the feasibility of a large one.
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Before beginning a research project, what will a good researcher always do?
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review the literature in order to become familiar with earlier research that relates to her topic
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If a sociologist watches a lot of television and counts the number of times women play roles with lower status than men, what research method is he using?
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content analysis
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If a piece of sociological research is representative, it means that___.
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the smaller group of people studied can tell us something about a large group
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Max Weber argued that sociologists should aim for value-free sociology. What does this mean?
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sociologists should not allow personal beliefs to influence their research
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What can an institutional review board do if has reservations about the safety or ethics of a research project?
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It may stop the project from going forward, at least until changes have been made
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In the 1980s, many politicians argued that listening to heavy metal music led teenagers to commit suicide. This is an example of___.
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a hypothesis
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CHAPTER 1: SOCIOLOGY AND REAL WORLD
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.
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What did W.E.B DuBois in common with Harriet Martineau
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Both were intrigued by America’s democratic promise, but disappointed in its hypocritical injustices
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There is a relationship between education and income: the higher the level of education completed, the greater the income. Identify the independent variable in this relationship.
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education
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5. One of Karl Marx’s most important achievements was developing a theory of praxis. Marx believed that intellectuals should ___.
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not just theorize about the world, but change it
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According to queer theorists, how should we think about sexual identity?
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sexual identity is fluid and can change over an individual lifetime
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Which of the following people sound like they’re experiencing anomie
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A teenager in a gothic phase is dressed all black, reads poems about death and suicide, and feels as though no really cares about him
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Which of the following is the most serious critique of structural functionalism?
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It tends to argue that any social feature that exists must serve a function
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Which of the following is a major critique of conflict theory?
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In focusing on conflict and change, it sometimes ignores the stable and enduring parts of society
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What economic system emerged during the Industrial Revolution?
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capitalism
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Who coined the phrase \”survival of the fittest?\” (note: this statement focuses on the social philosophy philosophy called Social Darwinism)
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Herbert Spencer
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Which social theory was developed mostly in the United States?
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Symbolic interactionism
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Which of the following statement best describes the approach taken by macro sociologist?
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Marcosociology directly examines large scales social structures in order to see how they affect individual lives

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