When we “think ourselves away” from the familiar routine to see things in a different, more sociological perspective.
Develop a better understanding of ourselves
According to Thio, by studying and appreciating social diversity, we ultimately
Always open to revision in the light of new evidence
A scientific theory is
An important factor behind the emergence of the new sociological thinking in the nineteenth century
a) new political forms and ideas, such as those expressed in the French Revolution b) New economic forms created in the Industrial Revolution c) New ways of understanding he world in scientific rather than religious terms
Emile Durkheim’s classic study of suicide makes the sociological point that
suicide rates can increase as a result of excessive isolation from people
An early theorist who saw class conflict as the main source of soical change.
The theoretical approach places gender, class, and race at the core of the theory.
The theoretical approach that uses the analogy of the human body in assessing the role of each part of society in the continuation of society as a whole.
The theoretical perspective holds that the grand narratives that have meaning to history in the past no longer make any sense.
Practical Benefits of the study of sociology
a) increased awareness and understanding of cultural differences b) ability to assess the effects, including unintended consequences of public policies c) increased self understanding d) increased understanding of the implications of globalization in your community
There are many different kinds of variables. A variable that produces an effect on another variable is called an
“The better the grades Sheri gets in school, the better paying job she is likely to get.” In this example, the grades are (blank) variable and occupational income is the (blank) variable.
The research method that would give a rich, detailed, inside view of a particular group, setting, or subculture.
Advantage of survey research
Results can be easily quantified and analyzed
The research method that tests hypotheses under controlled conditions
The use of two or more methods of research to verify results is called
The second step in the research procedure
Review the literature (evidence) and familiarize with related research
a) high school students who are members of the chess club b) vegans, that is, strct vegetarians who will not eat eggs or cheese. c) computer hackers who spend their time creating computer viruses d) people who live in Hawaii apart from the core culture
Judging other cultures by the standards of one’s own
Hunting and Gathering Societies
The type of society that is described as the oldest, having little inequality, no divisions of rich and poor, few differences in power, emphasis on cooperation rather than competition, participatory decision making, and the use of simple tools.
Sapir and Whorf
The linguistic hypothesis holds that language predisposes us to see the world in a certain way was developed by these two.
Lisa attended her friend’s wedding wearing cut-off jeans and a tank top. When the minister began the ceremony, Lisa whistled and cheered. Lisa’s mode of dress and behavior at the wedding was a violation of society’s (blank).
Bob works overtime and he therefore cannot spend as much time with his children as he would like. He feels guilty but knows that if he does not work overtime he could lose his job. The is an example of (Blank).
NOT part of the characteristics of Postindustrial Societies
Production of goods through mass employment in business and commercial operations
assessing society by its own cultural standards is known as (blank)
His Role Set
Charles is always overwhelmed with work; among the many activities he develops apart from being a father, he has to write papers, teach too many courses, attend the conference, advise his students, and cheer on his colleagues. His situation is an example of (blank).
the process of changing from a technologically simple society to a more complex one with significant consequences for social and cultural life.
a research method that involves askig questions about opinions, beliefs, or behaviors.
A system of domination which men exercise power over women.
The systematic, scientific study of human society
Durkheim’s terms for the struggle between capitalists, who own the means of production, and the proletariat, who do not.
A group whose members interact formally, relate to each other as players of particular roles, and expect to profit from each other
A collection of relatively objective ideas and facts about the physical and social worlds.
Always subject to verification or refutation by other scientists.
The sociologist searches for new knowledge in the data collected earlier by another researcher.
For humans to be socialized, it is imperative that they have
regular social interaction with adults
Taking the role of the other
A child learns to act like adults she observes. Mead refers to this behavior.
The importance of human conduct
Social scientists have developed alternative theories of child development. All the theroies of child socialization share a common understanding of…
Behavior associated with Jean Piaget’s sensorimotor stage
When a child learns with his senses and body interact with the environment
The stages of cognitive development
Jean Piaget’s theory of child development learning how to think is based on
According to Lawrence Kohlberg, at the third level of moral development, young adults have a postconventional morality, which takes into account the importance of.
Ahead of other children int he areas he has been trained in
Frank is a young boy whose parents surrounded him with books, challenging discussions, and ideas. Based on our understanding of socialization, Frank is probably…
According to George Herbert Mead, when children learn to internalize the values of society as a whole, the take the role of the…
John received a work promotion that will permit him more autonomy than his previous position. Sociologists see these new responsibilities as part of John’s…
The socialization process is complex and involves different and distinct stages throughout the life course. These stages are determined by:
a) biological factors b) social influences c) cultural differences d) economic circumstances
The difference between social identity and self-identity
Social identity focuses on similarities among people, whereas self-identity focuses on individual differences.
Taking on the role of the other
Brooke likes to pretend taht she is a firefighter. She uses her mother’s garden hose to put out pretend fires and climbs trees to rescue her teddy. Mead would say that she is…
The understanding of collaborative behavior among peers
In the fifth stage of the Levels of Development of The Self, the ‘WE’ represents…
Is probably well organized
Bobby receives good grades in school, he is outgoing and participates in several extra-curricular activities. Cooley would suggest that Bobby…
Twixters are financially dependent
Lev Grossman states that the major reason young people have to live back with their parents is because…
Two people walking on a city sidewalk quickly glace at each other and then look away as they pass. Erving Goffman called this type of inteaction…
Studying day-to-day interactions is important because
it gives us insight into the similarities and varieties of behaviors
The study of folk methods people use to make sense of what others say and do
An ethnomethodologist would likely study
the conversations among roommates in a college dormitory
Many people use the Internet as a key tool of communication. The following are disadvantages of electronic communication.
a) Contact between people becomes indirect rather than face-to-face. b) People become isolated from one another as we all work at our own computers. c) We lose then ability to interpret other people’s faces and other forms of nonverbal communication. d) It takes more time to communicate what we want and feel.
Not classified as civil inattention
riding the bus to work
Everyday life is an important part of understanding the social world. The pioneering sociologist who developed it and emphasized the importance of understanding it was…
Not a reason for studying social interaction in everyday life
Examining social interation in everyday life allows sociologists to see how relatively unimportant language is in creating social reality.
The use of the Internet, e-mail, chat rooms, and social networking sites, such as Myspace and Facebook
adds a new and different dimension to the study of everyday life.
Tom see his coworkers as competitors and tends not to share information with any of them. He would be involved in (blank) interaction with his coworkers.
Status and Independence
When the two sexes communicate with each other, women tend to use the language of connection and intimacy, and men the language of…
Presenting his self
Julian was a salesman who took a prospective client to dinner. He dressed carefully, spoke in a confident way, and hoped his guest did not notice his obvious flaws. Julian was involved in…
Social construction of reality
The process by which people create through social interaction a certain idea, feeling, or belief about their environment is called the…
An incongruity between two realities
Humor makes us laugh because almost all jokes contain…
The use of space as a means of communication
Made possible by socialization
The concept of childhood
As a distinct phase of life between infancy and teenage did not arise until the past two or three centuries.
Freud’s term for the part of personality that is irrational, concerned only with seeking pleasure
Example of a social group
A couple married less than a year
Standards of a reference group
A person measures his or her own worth by this.
Example of a social aggregate
people waiting at Terminal C for flight 181
a) It’s not what you know, it’s who you know b) Not all networks are social groups. c) The Bohemian Grove is an elite network.
That term that sociologists use to refer to a group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve a specific goal.
Jane was in charge of a difficult project in a large office. She was a tough leader and kept pushing people to accomplish the project’s goals. She would be an example of an (blank)
A situation that most likely illustrated a primary relationship
A family enjoying a picnic at the beach.
Japanese corporations use a horizontal, collaborative model.
Japanese corporations differ from the bureaucratic model followed by most business organizations in the West in this way.
Characteristics of a bureaucracy
a) Ownership is not in the hands of the workers. b) There is a complete separation between work ad home life c) Each job has a definite and fixed salary attached to it. d) A set of rules governs the conduct of officials at all levels of the organization.
The relationship between group size, intimacy, and stability
Larger groups, such as fraternities, are less intimate than small cliques, but the fraternities are a more stable group and relationships.
The McDonaldization of society
The increased of regulated and standardized of society due to automation.
The privilege that allows leaders to deviate from their group’s norms.
Reference groups provide us with
A standard for judging one’s attitudes and behaviors
People with a common characteristic, such as gender, occupation, or ethnicity, but not necessarily interacting with each other nor gather in one place.
Among the informal controls that we have in our society, the most effective to control deviance is…
Tom Brown was the supervisor of a group of computer programmers. He provided support if needed, but generally allowed member of his group to work by themselves.
Early attempts to explain deviant behavior in individuals were based on the assumption that crime was committed mostly by people with certain physical traits.
In the US, virtually everyone has committed a punishable act
Alex Thio reviews the variety of behaviors that is punishable by fines or jail terms, and concludes that…
If you live in a high crime area, many people you will befriend will be involved in criminal activities, thus increasing your opportunity to learn criminal behavior. The conceptual context for this phenomenon is known as…
According to Edwin Sutherland, how do criminals adopt criminal behavior?
They learn criminal behavior from peers.
A conflict theorist would closely agree with this statement
Deviants are labeled as such by powerful groups who use the label to control the less powerful.
The first day of college, you may have felt a little uncertain about how to behave. Durkheim and other sociologists would describe your feelings as…
Many characteristics of organizations appear orthodox, but activities are all illegal, easy to evade law enforcements, they are called…
Social studies show that prisons
are more likely to create hardened criminals than rehabilitated them.
Now a days, corporate crime, or white-collar crime, occurs at a higher rate than individual criminal acts. The following are examples of corporate crime.
a) A pesticide company dumps pollutants into the local river. b) Food manufacturers label an item as light when in fact in has as many calories as the regular item. c) Auto mobile companies manufacture a car or truck with a high possibility of an explosion on impact with another object. d) Corporate executives lie about company profits.
Differential association and labeling theory
The two theories that explain deviance are classified as symbolic interactionist.
Not an effective deterrent to murder
Most evidence about the impact of capital punishment on murder rates supports the conclusion that capital punishment is….
The popular perception of rape is that it is committed by strangers. However, research suggests that many rapes are not reported because they are committed by…
Prior involvement in drug use
NOT a reason why college students become binge drinkers
Tackling poverty, inequality, and education
The current ‘war on drugs’ focuses on cutting off the supplies of drugs rather than…
The maintenance of written and computerized records by modern organizations is form of…
Human resource management
A style that sees human resources issues as the responsibility of the whole organization, not just the human resources department.
begins from the assumption that all deviant acts are intrinsically criminal.
According to Merton, (blank) wants to replace old values and change the social structure.
True of all systems of social stratification
A person’s life chances are significantly influenced by his or her position.
This conceptualizes the idea that your probability of economic success is largely dependent on your background.
NOT an accurate statement about class systems
The boundaries between classes are very clear cut.
Increased significantly; dropped
During the twentieth century, the real income of blue-collar workers in Western societies has (blank) overall, though it has (blank) in the past twenty years.
Factors that account for racial disparities in wealth and income.
a) education b) parents’ social class c) discrimination
People who work in blue-collar and pink-collar occupations.
What precipitated the emergence of the “new urban poor” in the past quarter century?
a) economic globalization, which led to high unemployment among the unskilled sectors of the lower class b) racial discrimination in hiring for the remaining low-skilled jobs in urban centers c) changes in government policies that cut back or eliminated welfare programs d) the cycle of poverty that is reinforced among the poor.
Social mobility refers to
the movement of individuals and groups between class positions.
Social mobility resulting from changes in the number and kinda of occupations in a society.
Capitalists; the working class
Karl Marx called those who own the means of production (blank) and those who make their living by selling their own labor power for a wage (blank).
How globalization contributed to the increasing inequality in American society.
a) Some companies have lowered wages to compete with other companies that use cheaper third world labor. b) Globalization has encouraged immigration to the United States, thus increasing the low wage labor pool and pushing wages down. c) Labor unions have been weakened by globalization
Best describes the caste system
It is a stratification system based on one’s fix position at birth.
The reality of economic inequalities that continue to grow in society
Consumerism and consumption have blurred class differences to some extent in our society. Television and widespread mall stores reinforce the idea that there are no intense class boundaries. Consumerism and consumption, however, do NOT alleviate…
Two reasons that have been attributed to the emergence of the new urban poor during the past twenty-five years
unskilled and semi-skilled jobs moving overseas, and dramatic cutbacks of government assistance programs.
Not considered cultural capital
Having your child work at a fast food restaurant after school.
A common criticism of the culture of poverty theory
the poor passively accept their circumstance
As a sociological concept, ethnicity refers to
cultural practices and outlooks, including language, history, ancestry, religion, and styles of dress or adornment that end to set people apart.
When people assimilate in to the larger culture, but occasionally participate in ethnic customs, they are practicing…
Preconceived opinions or attitudes held by members of one group toward another are defined as…
Prejudice based on socially significant physical distinction is…
Racism that is not simply the opinions of a small segment of the population but systematically pervades all of a society’s structures and operations is known as:
John celebrates Bastille Day every year by putting out his French flag, drinking French wine, and eating French food. His friend Charles didn’t even know John was French until he attended his latest party. This is an example of…
When a group takes over the attitudes and language of the dominant community.
Why has racism thrived in the period since European expansion in to the rest of the world?
a) As cultural symbols, white and black have long been seen as opposites in European culture, with white representing purity and black symbolizing evil. b) The concept of race itself was invented and spread by Europeans in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. c) Racism was needed to justify the exploitation of nonwhite peoples by Europeans.
An example of the interaction between between micro and macro factors that influence migration
A family that leaves Liberia to escape the civil war moves to Minneapolis, Minnesota, because they can work at a family business.
One of the several problems with the biological classification is that
most people are not physically distinctive.
An example of prejudice
feeling negatively about people from a particular ethnic group.
The long histories of discrimination in education, the economy, politics, and other areas of American life has resulted in…
A social psychological cause of prejudice and discrimination.
According to Robert K. Merton’s analysis of prejudice ad discrimination, the KKK is…
‘Third wave’ of feminism
welcoming men to join women in addressing problems that affect both sexes
A lack of unity regarding the role of women
According to Naomi Wolf, the reason why women have not recognized their power as a majority of the voting population
Gender roles are somewhat flexible from society to society
Cross-cultural studies concerning gender roles suggest that in other societies…
It can be safely said that
nature accounts only for physical differences between men and women
Socialization and culture
According to research, many of the sexual differences found in early childhood, such as boys’ superiority in math, are due to
The role of women in politics today
Women play an important role but they far from achieving equality
Sterotypes that women and men are supposed to be
the basic division of labor underlying traditional gender roles in the United States has been accompanied by many popular
Her emphasis on day care programs shows that she is an one-issue candidate
Mollie wanted to enter a political race against a man. This statement is most likely based on Sexism.
This definition of sexual harrassment was accepted by the Supreme court in 1993
any conduct that makes the workplace environment hostile or abusive.
This is true about the role of women today in the work force
Women are still far from economically equal to men
Some sociologists believe that the elderly should be considered a minority group because
like other minority groups, they face prejudice and discrimination.
Social factors that may contribute to the aging process include all of the following EXCEPT
Social forces such as gender and race
can aggravate the impact of chronic problems of the elderly
Andragogy and geragogy are most likely to emphasize
building on the extensive life experience of older learners
As the number of elderly people continues to grow, which area of public policy will feel the greatest burden
The elderly can be divided into three age groups. Aside from their younger age, what advantages do the young old have over the oldest old?
a) The young old tend to be more educated b) The young old grew up during a time of economic prosperity c) The young old went to school, acquired wealth, and stable employment.
The family that one established through marriage, consisting of oneself and one’s spouse and the future children, is called a family of….
In most societies, people are required to practice, (blank) which is the act of marrying someone from outside one’s group.
The interaction between husband and wife
The aspects of family life that would be of the most interest to symbolic interactionists.
It provides for intrinsic satisfaction as opposed to extrinsic rewards.
one form of family in the United States that has become very common
In modern American society, for the most part, families prefer (blank) residential patterns.
Violence with the American family
has cultural encouragement
Different research projects have found all of the following to be true about the effect of a wife’s employment on the marriage, EXCEPT that it
almost always benefits both husband and wife
Jane was married but after a while she became more concerned about her own needs and interests. She decided to get a divorce an dgo back to school. Her experience was based on what cause of divorce?
an increase in unwed mothers
Two reasons for the increase in single-parent families are increased divorce and
Research has found that children raised by homosexual couples
develop the same as children raised by heterosexual parents.
The rise in cohabitation rates
has raised concerns about the institution of marriage.
Domestic Parternship agreement
In the US, gay couples generally do not have the same legal protection and financial benefits as heterosexual couples. Recently, a number of cities in the U.S. have addressed the issue by providing unmarried couples a…
An outcome for the family that sociologists predict as the most likely…
many diverse forms of the family.
Vary greatly from culture to culture.