Slavery in Western Europe Essay Example
Slavery in Western Europe Essay Example

Slavery in Western Europe Essay Example

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  • Pages: 4 (959 words)
  • Published: September 30, 2021
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Hernan landed on the coast of mexico with the goal of gathering information from the local Indians. He gained their trust and received gifts, including 20 women, one of whom was Marina ("Malinche"), who became his wife and also served as his interpreter. Marina bore him a son named Martin. In order to conquer the entire Mexican empire, Cortes sailed to different locations, including Veracruz. His soldiers were able to obtain citizenship there, allowing Cortes to easily be elected as captain general and chief justice by his numerous soldiers. Through this, Cortes was able to shake off the authority of Velazquez. Cortes accomplished something no other leader had achieved by disciplining his army, which caused the locals to develop a fondness for them.

To ensure complete loyalty from his soldiers, Cortes demonstrated his commitment by burning his ships, leaving conquest as their onl


y path to survival. He then proceeded to venture into the heart of Mexico, employing a combination of force and diplomacy with the locals while minimizing conflict. Cortes achieved a significant breakthrough in his conquest by exploiting the political turmoil between local leaders and their oppressed subjects, ultimately gaining over 200,000 Indian allies. One notable example was the nation of Tlaxcala, engaged in a continuous war with Montezuma, the ruler of the Aztec empire. Though initially resistant, Tlaxcala became Cortes's most devoted ally after their defeat. Despite Montezuma's warnings and attempts to dissuade him, Cortes persevered and entered Tenochtitlan (later known as Mexico City) on November 8, 1519. Accompanied by his small Spanish force and only 1,000 Tlaxcaltecs.

Montezuma, in his trust and belief that Cortes was the incarnation of the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, welcome

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him with great honor. This allowed Cortes to exploit Montezuma's religious conversion and seize control of the country by capturing the monarch. Marina, focusing on Montezuma's complex and mysterious mindset, ultimately managed to make him willingly submit to her master, leading to Cortes becoming the ruler of Tenochtitlan. In mid-1520, Spanish forces led by Panfilo Narvaez arrived from Cuba to challenge Cortes' authority over the Aztec capital. However, leaving a small group of Spaniards and Tlaxcaltecs under Pedro de Alvarado as a garrison in Tenochtitlan, Cortes defeated Narvaez and incorporated his army into his own. 2.

Henry, the third surviving son of King John II and his wife Phillipa, may have been born in Porto where he was baptized. It is likely that he was born in Casa do Inflante (Prince's House), also known as Mint, or possibly at the Monastery of Leca do Bailio in Leca de Palmeira. When Henry was 21 years old, he, his father, and brother captured the Moorish port of Ceuta in northern Morocco. This port had been a base for Barbary pirates who raided the Portuguese coast and sold captured dwellers in the African slave market. Encouraged by this success, Henry began to explore the unknown coast of Africa. His goals were to discover the source of West Africa's gold trade, find the Christian Kingdom of Prester John, and put an end to pirate attacks on the Portuguese coast.

Given that Mediterranean ships were slow and not well-suited for voyages under his direction, Henry played a key role in developing a faster and more maneuverable ship called the caravel. With this new type of ship, the Portuguese were able to explore

shallow waters and rivers with ease.

The indentured servitude labor system involved individuals working for a specific number of years to secure passage to a new world. This system was widely utilized in the 18th century in the British colonies in North America and other locations. It primarily benefited poor individuals from Britain and Germany, granting them passage to the American colonies where they would work for a set period before gaining independence to work on their own. These individuals were purchased by employers from sea captains responsible for transporting them to the new land. Crossing into the new colonies was risky, but at the end of their term, they would receive "freedom dues" and become free members of society with the ability to own property and engage in lawful activities.

Indentured servants were prohibited from marrying without their owner's approval, and if they did, they would face physical punishment and additional labor. This rule aimed to ensure uninterrupted work for female servants, particularly in the event of pregnancy. While slavery had largely diminished in Western Europe by the 1500s and appeared to be declining elsewhere, Spain and Portugal persisted with slavery as they led colonization efforts in the Americas. Consequently, slaves were transported from Europe to the New World. From the 1500s to 1800s, around 10 million Africans were captured and taken to the New World, resulting in an estimated death toll of 1.5 million during transportation.

The Portuguese discovered a well-established system of slavery in West Africa from 1400 onwards. They used this system to provide labor for their sugar plantations in the Azores Islands. Muslim traders and powerful African kingdoms held

Africans captive and sold them as property across Africa and the Mediterranean. The Portuguese explorations allowed them to gain control over the slave trade, expanding their influence in Africa. As a result, sugar production flourished in the fifteenth century in the Madeira Islands, Canary Islands, and Azores thanks to this abundant supply of enslaved human labor.

The Portuguese slavery on these islands was distinct from the slavery in Africa. In Africa, slavery did not necessarily pass down through generations or last permanently. It was not driven by race, but rather by warfare or tribal disagreements. The Portuguese, like other Europeans, played a role in the slave trade. Consequently, African populations dwindled as many men were taken as slaves, and Africans can be found today in various parts of the world affected by slave trade.

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