Socialization Exam 1 Flashcards

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Socialization is the process
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whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture
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The analysis of Isabelle and Genie is important because it emphasizes the relevance of
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social interaction in human development
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The self is the
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distinct identity that sets us apart from others
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In forming a sense of ourselves, we imagine how we appear to others and how others perceive us, and finally we develop a feeling about ourselves as a result of these impressions. This sociological approach to the development of a self represents the views of which sociological perspective?
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interactionist perspective
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The process of mentally assuming the perspective of another, thereby enabling one to respond from that imagined viewpoint, is known as
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role taking
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Which term was used by George Herbert Mead to refer to the child’s awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole?
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generalized other
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The term \”significant others\” is
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George Herbert Mead’s term for those individuals who are most important in the development of the self.
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Bob is on his first date with Mary, whom he really likes. He tries to act in a manner that will cause her to like him, too, and to want to go out with him again. This is an example of
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impression management.
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A child spends a lot of time putting objects into his mouth and touching everything in sight. This child is probably in which stage of development, according to Jean Piaget?
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sensorimotor
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Rites of passage are
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means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person’s status
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A young girl decides that she wants to become an Olympic swimmer. She takes swimming lessons, joins her school’s swimming team, reads magazine articles about champion swimmers, and goes to swimming meets at a nearby college. This is an example of
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anticipatory socialization
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A woman who was socialized from infancy to become a wife and mother settles comfortably into being a homemaker in her twenties and early thirties. However, her husband dies suddenly, and she finds that she must enter the paid labor force in order to support herself and her two children. This woman will most likely have to undergo a process of
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resocialization.
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Which of the following is considered a total institution?
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a prison
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. Children shape and form their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior based on cultural messages they receive from
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all of these
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As primary agents of childhood socialization, schools play a critical role in teaching children the values and customs of the larger society. This view of the socialization process is most likely of particular interest to which sociological perspective?
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functionalist perspective
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According to a report by the American Association of University Women, girls face some important challenges resulting from differential treatment based on sexism in U.S. schools. This analysis most likely reflects which sociological perspective?
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conflict perspective
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Which of the following terms refers to the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships?
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social structure
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Jan, Randy, and Terry are science majors, and when they graduate from college, they find jobs as a nurse, a midwife, and a hospital administrator, respectively. These new positions are examples of
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statuses.
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Ascribed statuses may be based on an individual’s
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all of these
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An achieved status is a social position
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attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
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A master status is a
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status that dominates others and thereby determines a person’s general position within society.
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Elaine is a clinical sociologist who practices marriage and family therapy. She is also a college professor. One of her current students asks her if she can make an appointment for a therapy session. Elaine tells the student that she will refer her to a colleague because she feels that holding therapy sessions with a student might create
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role conflict
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A (an) __________ is any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with each other on a regular basis.
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group
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The conflict view holds that social institutions
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maintain the privileges of the powerful individuals and groups within a society
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Sociological research that maps sexual relationships among high school students is an example of research on
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social networks
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Émile Durkheim suggested that as a society becomes more complex in the transition from agrarian to industrial, the nature of social solidarity becomes more
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organic
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. In a small town in the Midwest, all of the children attend the same school and most of the community members attend the same church. Everyone in this community knows everyone else, and they have shared numerous experiences with one another. This community would be characterized by Ferdinand Tönnies as a
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Gemeinschaft.
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. In Gerhard Lenski’s view, societal organization is highly dependent on its level of
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technology.
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A preindustrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available in order to live is called a (an)
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hunting-and-gathering society
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In the most technologically advanced form of preindustrial society, members are engaged primarily in food production. They increase their crop yields through such innovations as the plow. This type of society is called a (an)
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agrarian society
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A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services is called a (an)
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industrial society
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A society whose economic system is engaged in the processing and control of information is called a
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postindustrial society
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A primary group is a small group that is
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characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation
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Which term is used to refer to a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding?
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secondary group
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Any group or category to which people feel they belong is called a (an)
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in-group
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A group to which people feel they do not belong is called a (an)
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out-group.
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The destructive consequences of tensions between in-groups and out-groups would probably be stressed by which sociological perspective?
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conflict perspective
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A college law enforcement major watches the behavior of television police detectives with great admiration. These detectives could be considered
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reference group.
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Special-purpose groups designed and structured in the interests of maximum efficiency are known as
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formal organizations.
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A bureaucracy is a (an)
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component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency.
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A college is run by a board of trustees, which hires a president, who in turn selects vice presidents, deans, and other administrators. This is an example of the bureaucratic characteristic of
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hierarchy of authority.
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A woman and her two children walk into a homeless shelter. They are obviously starving, dirty, and the children are crying. The shelter attendant refuses them admittance, although there is ample room in the shelter, because the mother does not have the proper identification card. This is an example of
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goal displacement
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The \”iron law of oligarchy\” is a principle
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of organizational life according to which even democratic organizations will become bureaucracies ruled by a few individuals
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Which of the following terms is used by sociologists to refer to print and electronic means of communication that carry messages to widespread audiences?
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mass media
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Which sociological perspective would likely contend that the role of the mass media is to provide socialization, enforce social norms through public events, and create social stability and cohesion through collective experiences?
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functionalist perspective
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Which sociological perspective(s) would be most likely to emphasize that the mass media exacerbate many divisions in our society, including those based on gender, race, ethnicity, and social class?
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conflict and feminist perspectives
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Which medium experiences the least amount of gatekeeping?
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the Internet
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What is the term used to describe the set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests?
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the dominant ideology
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Fans of the TV show Star Trek (known as Trekkies) meet in costume at a convention celebrating the anniversary of the show’s conception. Which sociological perspective would be most likely to focus attention on this event?
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interactionist perspective
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Mass media is distinguished from other social institutions by the necessary presence of
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an audience
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The term \”social control\” refers to
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techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.
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\”Sanctions\” are defined as
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penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm
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Jennifer is attending a business luncheon with several corporate executives. At one point during the meal, she reaches in front of another executive for a saltshaker and hits the executive’s arm as he is about to put a spoonful of soup in his mouth. The soup spills on his shirt, and he glares at Jennifer. The glare is an example of a (an)
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informal sanction.
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Being arrested for murder would be an example of a (an)
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formal sanction.
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Which sociological perspective emphasizes that societies literally could not operate if massive numbers of people defied standards of appropriate conduct?
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functionalist perspective
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Which of the following terms refers to going along with one’s peers, with peers defined as individuals of a person’s own status who have no special right to direct that person’s behavior?
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conformity
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Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the association between the use of surveillance techniques as a means of social control and the power of an authoritarian government?
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conflict perspective
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In Émile Durkheim’s view
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the punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and thus contribute to social stability
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Bob works as a cashier in a supermarket. His boss instructs him to include the price of a new broom—which Bob’s boss has deceptively placed near the register—on everyone’s bill. Bob’s boss also encourages him to change the dates on expired food items so the items can continue to be sold. Eventually, Bob begins to develop his own deceptive sales practices. This is an example of
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differential association.
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A sociologist studies how a teacher’s attitudes toward particular students affects students’ performance. Students of similar abilities who are \”teacher’s pets\” perform at a high level, and students who are viewed as \”troublemakers\” perform poorly. This would illustrate which explanation of deviance?
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labeling theory
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Which sociological perspective would be particularly concerned about studies that show that White criminal offenders receive shorter sentences than comparable Latino and African-American offenders?
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conflict perspective
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Crime is a violation of
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criminal law for which formal penalties are applied by some governmental authority
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A professional criminal is
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a person who pursues crime as a daily occupation, developing skilled techniques, and enjoying a degree of status among other criminals
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The work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in the smuggling and sale of drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other illegal activities is called
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organized crime
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A corporate vice president is convicted of attempting to bribe a presidential aide. This type of crime is called
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white-collar crime.

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