Semester 2

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Acid 

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A substance that is a hydrogen ion donor when dissolved in water or involved in a reaction.
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Activation Energy 

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The minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction.
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Activity Series 

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A list of elements ranked according to their reactivity, or the ease with which they undergo a chemical reaction.
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Alkaline 

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A term used to describe a solution or substance that has the properties of a base.
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Alkane 

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A saturated hydrocarbon which means that all of the carbons are bonded with single bonds.
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Alkene
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An unsaturated hydrocarbon containing a carbon-carbon double bond.
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Alkyne 

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An unsaturated hydrocarbon containing a carbon-carbon triple bond.
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Alpha Particle 

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A particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons, like the nucleus of a helium atom, that is given off by certain radioactive elements during nuclear decay.
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Angular Momentum Quantum Number 

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Symbolized by l, indicates the sublevel, or type of orbital, an electron is in.
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Base 

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A substance that is a hydrogen acceptor in a reaction, or a substance that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
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Beta Particle 

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An electron, or positron, given off when a nucleus breaks down during the nuclear decay of certain radioactive elements.
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Biochemistry 

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The study of the chemistry involved with living organisms.
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Biotechnology
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The application of the knowledge of biochemistry to create new processes or products that are useful to humans.
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Buret 

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A measuring instrument made of a long, graduated glass tube with a tap at the bottom that is used to dispense accurate amounts of fluid.
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Boiling 

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The change of a liquid to a gas/vapor, both within the liquid and at its surface.
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Boiling Point 

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The temperature at which a heated substance changes from a liquid to a gas; the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure.
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Catalyst 

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A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical process without being consumed by it.
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Chain Reaction 

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A series of reactions in which the material or substance that starts a reaction is also produced by the reaction and is available to start another reaction.
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Colligative property 

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A property of a solvent that depends on the number of solute particles dissolved in it, but not on the identity or nature of those solute particles.
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Diffusion
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The gradual mixing of two gases because of the spontaneous, random motion of their particles.
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Condensation Point 
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The temperature at which a given substance changes from a gas to a liquid.
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Condensing
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Changing a gas/vapor to a liquid.
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Dilute 

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Decrease the concentration of a solution by adding additional solvent.
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Dynamic Equilibrium 

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A state of balance in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal even though the forward and reverse reactions continue to occur.
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Dipole-Dipole Forces 

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Intermolecular attractions between polar molecules.
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Endothermic Process 

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A chemical or physical change that absorbs energy from the surroundings.
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Energy 

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The ability to cause change or the ability to do work.
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Entropy 

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The property that describes the disorder of a system (S).
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Enzyme
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A molecule that catalyzes biological reactions.
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Equilibrium Constant 

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The value obtained when equilibrium concentrations are plugged into the law of mass action equilibrium expression. The equilibrium constant is represented by the letter K and is constant for a given system at a given temperature.
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Equilibrium Position 

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A given set of equilibrium concentration values.

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Evaporating 

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The change of a liquid to a gas, or vapor, which occurs at the surface of the liquid.
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Fission 

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A nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus splits into fragments, usually two fragments of comparable mass, with the release of large amounts of energy in the form of heat and radiation.
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Free Energy 

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The combined enthalpy-entropy function of a system (G) that helps predict spontaneity.
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Freezing
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Changing a liquid to a solid.
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Freezing Point 

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The temperature at which a given substance changes from a liquid to a solid.
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Fusion
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A nuclear reaction in which the nuclei of two very small atoms, such as two hydrogen isotopes, combine together into one larger nucleus.
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Gamma Rays 

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High-frequency electromagnetic radiation that is emitted by the nuclear decay of a radioactive element.
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Gas 

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The state or phase of matter that has an indefinite shape and volume.
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Hess’s Law;

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If a process can be written in multiple steps, the enthalpy change of the overall process will be equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes of all the steps.
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Heterogeneous Mixture;

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A mixture in which the composition and properties are not uniform throughout the mixture.
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Homogeneous Mixture;

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A mixture in which the composition and properties are uniform, or the same, throughout the mixture.
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Hydrogen Bonding;

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Intermolecular attractions between two molecules that both contain a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a strongly electronegative atom (N, O, or F).
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Ideal Gas;

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A model gas that conforms perfectly to all of the assumptions of the kinetic theory.
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Indicator;

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A weak acid or base that changes colors with a change in pH.
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Intermolecular Forces;

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The forces of attraction that occur between individual molecules.
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Ion-Dipole Forces;

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The attraction between the partially charged poles of a polar molecule and charged ions.
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Joule;
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The SI derived unit used to measure energy or work.
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Law of Conservation of Energy
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Energy can be converted form one form to another, but it is not created or destroyed in ordinary physical and chemical processes.
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Law of Mass Action;

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A general description of the equilibrium condition, including an equation that defines the equilibrium constant.
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LeCh;telier’s Principle 

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If a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the position of the equilibrium will shift in a direction that helps to reduce the effect of that change.
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Liquid
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The state or phase of matter that has an indefinite shape but a definite volume.
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London Dispersion Forces 

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Intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons that create instantaneous and temporary dipoles.
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Melting 

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Changing a solid to a liquid.
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Melting Point 

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The temperature at which a given substance changes from a solid to a liquid.
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Metabolism 

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All of the biochemical reactions occur within a given organism.
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Mixture 

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A combination of two or more substances, each retaining its individual composition and properties.
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Molality
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The concentration of a solution in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
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Molarity 

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The number of moles of solute in one liter of solution.
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Nonrenewable Resources 

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Natural resources that are used at a faster rate than they can be replaced.
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Oxidation 

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When a substance loses one or more electrons during a reaction, therefore attaining a higher, more positive, oxidation number.
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Oxidation-Reduction Reaction 

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A reaction in which electrons are exchanged from one substance to another, also called redox.
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Oxidizing Agent 

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A reactant species containing the element being reduced, causing another substance to be oxidized.
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Partial Pressure 

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The individual pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture.
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Phase 

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A distinct form of matter in which all chemical and physical properties are identical for a given sample, such as solid, liquid, and gas.
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Plasma 

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The state or phase of matter in which the electrons have been separated from the atoms, often called ionized gas.
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Precipitate 

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A solid that separates from a solution, usually an insoluble product formed from a chemical reaction in an aqueous solution.
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Quantization 

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The concept that energy exists in discrete units or levels.
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Quantized
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The concept that energy exists in discrete units or levels.
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Quantum Numbers 

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Numbers that specify the properties of atomic orbitals and of their electrons.
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Radioactive Decay 

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The process by which unstable atomic nuclei break down and release radiation.
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Reducing Agent 

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A reactant species containing the element being oxidized in the reaction, causing another substance to be reduced.
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Reduction
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When a substance gains one or more electrons during a reaction, therefore attaining a lower, more negative, oxidation number.
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Renewable Resources
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Natural resources that can be replaced at the same rate or even faster than they are used.
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Saturated Solution 

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A solution containing the maximum amount of solute able to be dissolved under those conditions.
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Solid 

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The state or phase of matter that has a definite shape and volume.
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Solute 

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In a solution, the substance that is in a lower quantity, the substance being dissolved.
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Solution 

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A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
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Solvent 

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In a solution, the substance that is in a greater quantity, the dissolving medium.
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Specific Heat Capacity 

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The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a one gram of the substance by one degree Celsius.
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Spontaneous 

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A change in a system that proceeds without a net input of energy from an outside source.
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Spontaneous Generation 

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An obsolete theory that organisms can originate from inanimate matter.
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Thermochemistry 

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The study of the changes in energy that accompany chemical reactions and physical changes.
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Titrant
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The solution being added from the buret in a titration.
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Titration 

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The controlled addition and measurement of the amount of a solution with a known concentration to a measured volume of a solution with unknown concentration to determine the unknown concentration.
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Unsaturated Solution 

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A solution containing less solute than a saturated solution under the given conditions.
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Vapor 

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Gas
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Vapor Pressure 

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The pressure exerted by the vapor particles that evaporate from a liquid (or solid).
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Work 

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The process of causing matter to move against an opposing force.
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Closed System 

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A system in which energy is exchanged between the system and surroundings but matter is not exchanged.
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Open System 

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A system in which both matter and energy are exchanged freely between the system and the surroundings.
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Percent by Mass 
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The number of grams of solute in 100 grams of solution.

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