natural approach
natural genuine learning situations where they use both conscious understanding of a language and subconscious (take cues from visual and commands)

communicative language approach
focus on students communicating naturally in second language; conversation instead of grammar; teaching strategies: role play, games, interviews, negotiation

integrated language teaching
reading, writing and speaking are integrated; content and lanugage instruction are integrated; collaborative and supportive environment

effective strategies for oral skills
frequent testing and surveys, speaking and vocabulary games for practice, flashcards, commands, visuals

communicative competence
ability to understand appropriate behaviors and language for various situations

informal methods to assess oral language
interviews, oral reports, summaries, descriptions, presentations, dialogue journals

formal methods to assess oral language
MELA-O, Woodcock Munoz Language, IDEA

interpretation of oral

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language results
assess student in both language and see if the problem is just in on language, look for educational history and family history, pysch exam in L1

strategies for teaching reading for literate ELLs
connections between reading strategies, teach alphabetic and phonemic differences, use read alouds, partner reading and modeling, and explicit instruction of vocabulary

strategies for teaching reading for non-literate ELLs
teach sight words, language orally, introduce written words, provide clues to remind, teach direction of reading,

relationship and transfer of 1st language reading skills
rely on students’phonemic awareness in 1st language and make explicit the differences, effect on pronunciation and decoding strategies, mostly positive and helpful

factors that affect L2 reading development
literacy and literate background in L1, learning disability, academic experience, cultural background knowledge

adaptation of reading instruction
explicitly teach vocabulary, grouped reading, multiple assessments, culturally relavant instruction, age-appropriate instruction, teach phonemic awarness and phonics

sheltered strategies and reading intervention approaches
1) students should have access to early literacy programs in L1 2) early assessments in L1 for learning disabilities and literacy level 3) provide grade-level content in English by giving simple directions 4) comprehensible input 5) make connections and use clear baackground 6) teach reading strategies and focus on vocabulary 7) word webs and KWL charts

advantages of reading assesment
frequent leveling to scaffold students to higher levels

The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test assesses four basic areas of English oral language proficiency: Vocabulary, Comprehension, Syntax, and Verbal Expression which includes Articulation; testing for mainstreaming

Language Assessment Battery
tests speaking, reading listening and writing, used to place ESL students

BIlingual Syntax Measure II
tests oral skills for grade 3-12; can be used for placement and language development for IEPs

basic reading and writing skills

Language Experience Approach
approach to writing instruction from personal experience; stories about personal experiences are written by teacher and read together until learner associates written form of word with spoken; can also be a group activity restating stories read by teacher

Dialogue Journal
journal kept by two people, usually student and adult

approaches for teaching writing instruction
building background, modeling text type, guided practice and independent writing

knowledge of writing process for ELLs
brainstorming, outlining, drafting, revising and editing; teaching revision can be hard for students to rearrange and rephrase ideas

selection of purposeful writing activities
writing about personal experiences, writing for a purpose, KWL< word wall, text reconstruction, sequencing sentences, cloze reading and writing, jumbled sentences

formal elements of written English
narrative, poetic, expository, persuasive

informal writing assessments
teacher feedback, formative assessments (analytical-micro analysis and holistic analysis)

interpretations and use of assessment information
affects placement, focus on mechanics and content strategies, future lessons

strategies for teaching subject matter and for developing ELL CALP
1) providing comprehensible input 2) providing explicit instruction 3) integrating content and language objectives 4) supporting students’ use of English to discuss and consider subject matter content

comprehensible input
way of speaking and explaining that the students can understand (modeling, visuals, hands-on activities, demonstrations, gestures,body language

explicit instruction in academic language and vocabulary
KWL charts, vocab development, student experiences,illustrations, webbing

integration of content and language objectives
practice strategies for marking up the text, review objective several times in class

student discussion of subject matter content
group discussion, hands-on, engaging, partners, independently, students can apply content and language objectives, 4 corners, send a problem, jigsaw

adaptation of content material for ELLs
graphic organizers, rewrite dense texts, books-on-tape, jigsaw reading, highlighting concepts for newcomers so they do not have to read the whole thing, marginal notes, outlines to help students take notes, teacher-created study guides that go with textbooks

promotion of content area learning
using visuals, explicitly teaching cognitive strategies, permitting students to use dictionaries

Woodcock Munoz Language Survey
tests CALP in Spanish and English; provide information on student’s cognitive and academic language proficiency; individually administered; in both English and Spanish; test for ESL to determine bilingual eligibility; can also be used to identify LDs

Gersten SEI Theory
Early Exit Bilingual: some initial instruction in L1, primarily for reading but also for clarification, instructions in L1 are phased out rapidly

Ramirez SEI Theory
Late Exit Bilingual: students continue to have 40% of instruction in L1 even after classified fluent in English

Lambert SEI Theory
Transitional Bilingual: initially instruction is 90% L1 then shifts towards English

Rossel and Baker SEI Theory
SEI: students of diff. L1s together; teachers use English and aids to focus on content rather than language

Dialect diversity in English
ELLs learn more than 1 standard English, many dialects

Bernstein Sociolinguistic Theory
language is part of class and people use certain codes when speaking

Hymes Sociolinguistic Theory
there is a connection between society, culture and language

Labov Sociolinguistic Theory
created the term of ebonics, African American English has its own rules and should be respected

Cohesion (discourse feature)
how sentences connect structurally (ellipsis, conjunctions, etc.)

use of pragmatics (discourse feature)
changing the word order changes the meaning

semantics (discourse feature)
words with connotative meanings (dual meanings)

coherence (discourse feature)
how topic is organized as a whole

system by which sounds and words are organized

smallest unit of meaning in language (e.g: act, cat, pre)

total stock of morphemes in a language

smallest unit of sound in language (sss in snake)

interlanguage development
the emerging language system person creates based on L1 and L2 knowledge to communicate in L2

language transfer
student applies knowledge of L1 to L2

role of 1st language on 2nd language
more academic understanding you have in L1, more you can apply to L2; cognitive development in L1 at home helps L2

factors that affect L2 acquisition
age, motivation/attitude towards L2, learning style, environmental factors, personality, status of L1 and culture in L2

cognitive processes needed to internalize language rules and vocabulary in L2
memorization; categorization and generalization (categorize and generalize vocabulary); metacognition

Stages of Language Acquisition in L1
needs interaction (nativisit vs. nurture)

Stages of Language Acquisition in L2
silence, nonverbal, understands more than can produce; early speech production to speech emergence to intermediate fluency

(Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) ability to function in academic L2; takes 5-7 years

Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills: surface skills students pick up in 1-2 years of being around native L2 speakers

Krashen 2nd Language Acquisition Theory
requires natural interactions (not grammar drills), students will pick up grammar rules naturally by being immersed in L2; need to interact with language w/o worrying about being corrected

Pinker Language Acquisition Theory
we are predisposed to learn language; language is a human instinct

Piaget Language Acquisition Theory
children think before they speak; speaking just reflects this thinking; language is a way for children to represent their world

Chomsky Language Acquisition Theory
Chomsky says that children are born with a knowledge of the principles of the grammatical structure of all languages, and this inborn knowledge explains the success and speed with which they learn language.

Vygotsky Language Acquisition Theory
zone of proximal development: teach students one step from their mastery zone; students need interaction to learn a language; language does not exist in a vacuum (sociohistorial context)

Basic Inventory of Natural Language (BINL)
oral language test for tracking language development and progress; tests oral language proficiency

World Instructional Design and Assessment

Sheltered Instructional Observation Protocol

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