Section 2 – Project Management Concepts

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique
product, service, or result.
A project has a definite
beginning and a definite, measurable end.
A project has reached its end when any of the following are true:
– The goals and objectives of the project have been achieved
– all the deliverables have been completed.
– It becomes evident that the project objectives will not or cannot be achieved.
– There is no longer a need for the project.
– The project has been terminated.
A project is unique
it involves something that has not been done previously. It night or might not include repetitive activities.
Progressive elaboration means
that the ability to provide detailed information about project constraints, issues, needs, etc., and increases as work progresses.
Project management is the application of
knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.
The five Process Groups:
– Initiating
– Planning
– Executing
– Monitoring & Controlling
– Closing
Portfolios are defined as
projects, programs, sub-portfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives.
A program is a
group of related projects, subprograms, and program activities managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually.
Subprojects are used when
you need to break down a project into smaller, more manageable components.
Project Management Office
Project Management Office is an
organizational structure that standardizes the project-related governance processes and facilitates the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools, and techniques.
A Project Management Office (PMO) is a… (3 things)
– A central area for project personnel, who can be loaned out to projects on an as-needed basis (sharing of resources).
– A center for documentation, templates, project policies, and other common organization tools and techniques needed for project support.
– A center for the determination and implementation of project standards.
What are the Triple Constraints?
– Time
– Scope
– Cost
What is a Constraint?
A constraint is any restriction or limitation that will affect the performance of the project, or even the time when an activity can be scheduled.
What are 3 constraints in addition to the Triple Constraint?
– Quality
– Resources
– Risk
Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following strategic considerations (7):
– Market Demand
– Strategic Opportunity/Business
– Social Need
– Environmental Consideration
– Customer Request
– Technological Advance
– Legal Requirement
3 types of PMO structures within organizations:
– Supportive
– Controlling
– Directive
A Supportive PMO
provide a consultative role to projects by supplying templates, best practices, training, access to information and lessons learned from other projects.
A Controlling PMO
provide support and require compliance through various means.
A Directive PMO
take control of the projects by directly managing the projects. the degree of control provided by the PMO is high.
The project manager manages:
the constraints (scope, schedule, cost, quality, etc.) of the individual projects.
The PMO manages
the methodologies, standards, overall risks/opportunities, metrics, and interdependencies among projects at the enterprise level.
Project managers should possess the following competencies
– Knowledge
– Performance
– Personal
Business value is defined as
the entire value of the business, the total sum of all tangible and intangible elements
Operations are
ongoing endeavors that produce repetitive outputs
Project-Based Organizations
The different types of organizations of PBOs
– Functional
– Mixed
– Projectized
What are the 3 types of Matrix Organizations?
– Weak
– Balanced
– Strong
In a Functional Organization, the ____________ has complete control
Functional Manager
In a Projectized Organization, the _____________ has complete control
Project Manager
In a Matrix Organization, the ____________ share control
Functional Manager & Project Manager
Organizational Process Assets (OPAs) are
the plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization.
Organizational Process Assets (OPAs) include the following:
– Standards and policies
– Performance Measurement Criteria
– Templates
– Change Control Procedures
– Communication requirements
– Procedures for financial controls, change control, issue and defect management, risk control, and project closure
– Project Files
– Historical information and lessons learned
– Databases for financials, configuration management, issues, and defects
Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) refer to
conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project.
Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) include the following:
– Government and industry standards
– Organizational culture and structure
– Existing Infrastructure
– Existing Human Resources
– Personnel Administration
– Marketplace Conditions
– Stakeholder Risk Tolerances
– Commercial databases
– Project Management Information System (PMIS)
An Example of a “Project Management Information System” (PMIS) would be:
Microsoft Project
A stakeholder is
an individual, group, or organization who may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project.
Project Governance
The alignment of the project with stakeholders’ needs or objectives.
Stakeholder identification is a continuous
process throughout the entire project life cycle
Example of project stakeholders are:
– Sponsor
– Customers and users
– Sellers
– Business Partners
– Organizational Groups
– Functional Managers
– Other stakeholders
Predictive Life Cycle (plan-driven)
the product and deliverable are defined at the beginning of the project and any changes to scope are carefully managed.
Adaptive Life Cycle (change-driven / agile)
the product is developed over multiple iterations and detailed scope is defined for each iteration only as the iteration begins.
The 4 characteristics of the Project Life Cycle:
– Starting the Project
– Organizing and Preparing
– Carrying out the Project work
– Closing the Project
Cost and staffing levels are _____ at the start
Cost and staffing levels are at their _____ when the work is being carried out
Cost and staffing levels _____ when the project draws to a close
drop rapidly
Risk and uncertainly are _____ at the start of the project
The 2 Phase to Phase relationships
– Sequential
– Overlapping
In a Sequential relationship:
a phase starts only when the previous phase is complete
In an Overlapping relationship:
a phase starts prior to completion of the previous one.
Iterative and incremental life cycles are
ones in which project phases intentionally repeat one or more project activities as the project team’s understanding of the project increases
What is the normal duration of a Adaptive Life Cycle (Agile)?
2 – 4 weeks, known as sprints.
A “tight matrix organization” refers to what?
colocating the project team
Standards are ______, Regulations are ________.
Optional, required

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