Science chapter 1 flashcards

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anatomy
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the branch of science that deals with the structure of body parts- their forms and how they are organized
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physiology
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the functions of body parts- what they do and how they do it
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atoms
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what chemicals consist of, microscopic atoms
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molecules
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formed using atoms
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macromolecules
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small molecules can combine in complex ways to form them
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cell
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the basic unit of structure and function
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organelles
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all cells of humans and other complex organisms contain structures called this, carry out specific activities
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tissue
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cells may e organized into layers or other structures that have common functions called this
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organs
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groups of different tissues that interact
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organ systems
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groups of organs that function closely together compose organ systems
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organism
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made up of organ systems and is a living thing
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metabolism
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the sum total of all of the chemical reactions in the body that break substances down and build them up
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water
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the most abundant chemical in the body
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foods
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substances that provide the body with necessary chemicals (nutrients) in addition to water
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oxygen
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a gas that makes up about one-fifth of ordinary air.
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heat
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a form of energy, the product of metabolic reactions.
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pressure
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an application of force to something.
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internal environment
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conditions and elements that make up the inside of the body, surrounding the cells
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homeostasis
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condition of a stable internal environment
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homeostatic mechanisms
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the body maintains homeostasis through a number of self regulating control systems, or this
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receptors
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provide information about specific conditions in the internal environment
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set point
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tells what a particular value should be, such as body temperature
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negative feedback
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a mechanism that restores the level of a biochemical or other balance in the internal environment
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axial
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the head, neck and trunk
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appendicular
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upper and lower limbs
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cranial cavity
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houses the brain
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vertebral canal
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contains the spinal cord within the sections of the backbone
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thoracic cavity
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hollow space inside the chest containing the thoracic organs
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abdominopelvic cavity
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space between the diaphragm and the pelvic outlet that contains the abdominal and pelvic viscera
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abdominal cavity
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stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, and most of the small and large intestines
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pelvic cavity
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the portion of the abdominopelvic cavity enclosed by the hip bones
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oral cavity
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containing the teeth and the tongue
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nasal cavity
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located within the nose and divided into right and left portions by a nasal septum
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orbital cavities
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containing the eyes and associated skeletal muscles and nerves
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middle ear cavities
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containing the middle ear bones
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parietal
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refers to the membrane attached to the wall of a cavity
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visceral
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refers to the membrane that is deeper and covers an internal organ such as a lung.
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pleural membranes
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are separated by a thin film of watery fluid with they secrete
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integumentary system
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includes hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands
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skeletal system
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consists of bones, as well as ligaments and cartilages that bind bones together
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anatomical position
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the body is standing erect, face forward with the upper limbs at the sides and the palms forward.
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superior
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means that a body part is above another part
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inferior
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means that a body part is below another body part
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anterior
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means toward the front
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posterior
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means toward the back
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medial
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refers to an imaginary mid-line dividing the body into equal right and left halves.
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lateral
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means toward the side, away from the imaginary mid-line
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bilateral
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refers to paired structures one of which is on each side
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ipsilateral
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refers to structures on the same side
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contralateral
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refers to structures on the opposite side
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proximal
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describes a body part that is closer to a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part
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distal
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is the opposite of proximal, a particular body part is farther from a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part is
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superficial
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means situated near the surface
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deep
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describes parts that are more internal than superficial parts
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sagittal
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refers to a lengthwise plane that divides the body into right and left portions.
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transverse
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refers to a plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions
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frontal
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refers to a plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
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epigastric region
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upper middle portion
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right and left hypochondriac regions
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lie on each side of the epigastric region
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umbilical region
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the middle portion
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right and left lumbar regions
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lie on each side of the umbilical region
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hypogastric region
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lower middle portion
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right and left iliac regions
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lie on each side of the hypogastric region
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abdominal
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the region between the thorax and pelvis
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acromial
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the point of the shoulder
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antebrachial
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the forearm
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antecubital
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the space in front of the elbow
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axillary
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the armpit
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brachial
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the arm
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buccal
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the cheek
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carpal
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the wrist
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celiac
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the abdomen
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cephalic
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the head
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cervical
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the neck
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costal
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the ribs
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coxal
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the hip
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crural
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the leg
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cubital
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the elbow
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digital
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the finger or toe
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dorsal
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the back
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femoral
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the thigh
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frontal
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the forehead
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genital
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the reproductive organs
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gluteal
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the buttocks
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inguinal
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the groin
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lumbar
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the loin
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mammary
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the breast
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mental
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the chin
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nasal
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the nose
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occipital
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the lower posterior region of the head
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oral
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the mouth
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orbital
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the bony socket of the eye
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palmar
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the palm of the hand
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patellar
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the front of the knee
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pectoral
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the chest
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pedal
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the foot
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pelvic
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the pelvis
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perineal
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the perineum
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plantar
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the sole of the foot
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popliteal
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the area behind the knee
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sacral
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the posterior region between the hip bones
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sternal
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the middle of the thorax
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sural
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the calf of the leg
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tarsal
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the instep of the foot
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umbilical
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the naval
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vertebral
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the spine column
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cardiology
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branch of medical science dealing with the heart and heart diseases
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cytology
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study of the structure, function, and abnormalities of cells.
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dermatology
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study of the skin and its diseases
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endocrinology
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study of hormones, hormone-secreting glands, and their diseases
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epidemiology
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study of the factors determining the distribution and frequency of health-related conditions in a defined human population
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gastroenterology
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study of the stomach and intestines and their diseases
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geriatrics
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branch of medicine dealing with older individuals and their medical problems
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gerontology
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study of the aging process
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gynecology
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study of the female reproductive system and its diseases
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hematology
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study of the blood and blood diseases
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histology
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study of the structure and function of tissues
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immunology
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study of the body’s resistance to infectious disease
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neonatology
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study of newborns and the treatment of their disorders
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nephrology
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study of the structure, function, and diseases of the kidneys
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neurology
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study of the nervous system and its disorders
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obstetrics
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branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy and childbirth
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oncology
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study of cancers
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ophthalmology
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study of the eye and eye diseases
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orthopedics
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branch of medicine dealing with the muscular and skeletal systems and their problems
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otolaryngology
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study of the ear, throat, and the larynx, and their diseases
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pathology
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study of the structural and functional changes that disease causes
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pediatrics
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branch of medicine dealing with children and their diseases
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pharmacology
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study of drugs and their uses in the treatment of disease
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podiatry
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study of the care and treatment of feet
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psychiatry
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branch of medicine dealing with the mind and its disorders
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radiology
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study of X rays and radioactive substances and their uses in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases
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toxicology
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study of poisonous substances and their effects upon body parts
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urology
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branch of medicine dealing with the urinary system, apart from the kidneys and the male reproductive system, and their diseases

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