SATP US History Test review shared from another teacher

Flashcard maker : John Smith
Plessy vs. Ferguson
supported Jim Crow laws; separate is equal
Wabash vs. Illinois
only federal government could regulate trade from interstate railroad commerce; states have no power
Muller vs. Oregon
the Supreme Court upheld state’s right to limit female employee working hours; remember Triangle Shirtwaist fire!!!
Schneck vs. US
National securities over liberties; freedom of speech during WWI
Korematsu vs. US
WWII; Japanese Internment, rights can be denied in a time of war.
Brown vs. Board
Separate is not equal; integration
Gideon vs. Wainwright
Right to Attorney
Miranda vs. Arizona
Reading the rights when being arrested
Roe vs. Wade
abortion privacy
1st Amendment
Free Speech, Assembly, Religion Petition, Press
14th Amendment
Granted citizenship to former slaves
15th Amendment
Black men can vote
16th Amendment
Income tax
17th Amendment
Direct election of Senators; expanded democracy because more people had a say-so in who became senator
18th Amendment
Prohibition of alcohol
19th Amendment
Women’s suffrage
21st Amendment
Repeal of Prohibition
24th Amendment
No Poll Taxes
26th Amendment
Lower voting age to 18
Laissez Faire
Economic activities should be free of governmental interference, regulations, and restraint
ICC
1st federal agency monitoring business operations, created to regulate railroad produces (Interstate Commerce)
Sherman Anti- Trust
Law banning trust that restrained interstate trade or commerce, outlawed practices considered harmful to consumers
Populism
Farmer’s political movement
McKinley tariff
Higher tariff favoring big business
Factors of Industry
Rich People, poor People, Smart People, Systems of transportation and communication, stable government, and markets
Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie’s belief that rich should give back to their communities/ society
Ida Tarbell
\”Muckraker\” who criticized Rockefeller
USS Maine
Ship that exploded off coast of Cuba leading to Spanish- American War
Roosevelt Corollary
TR’s foreign policy of intervention in Latin America; America comes to be regarded as the \”world’s policeman\” as a result
Panama Canal
completed in 1914 to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans for trade and military purpose
Hawaii
\”pear ripe for the picking\”; needed for military base and refueling station
Treaty of Versailles
Big Four wrote; US rejected would leadership role
Example of 1920s Nativism
National Origins and Emergency Quota Acts; KKK; Red Scare
Causes of the Great Depression
Agricultural problems, consumer debt, gap between rich and poor, high tariffs, speculation and margin buying
FDIC
New Deal banking regulation
New Frontier
JFK’s goals and policies, equal opportunity.
Eminent domain
Power of a government to take private property for public use.
WPA
New Deal government funding of cultural activities
Works Progress Administration
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
Minimum wage and maximum hours
OPA
Office of Price Administration (operated the rationing system during WWII)
ORSD
Office of Research and Scientific Development (agency that oversaw the development of the first atomic bomb)
Executive Order 9906
Forced Japanese Americans into internment camps during WWII (FDR)
Populist Party
Political party made up of farmers
Dawes Act
Goal was to assimilate Native Americans into the mainstream of American life by dividing tribal lands into individual holdings
Homestead Act
People given 160 acres of land, had to stay five years. Done by Lincoln to encourage westward expansion.; BOOMERS AND SOONERS
Assimilate
To be absorbed into the main culture of a society
Reservations
Public lands where Native Americans were forced to live by the federal government
Social Gospel
Belief that Christians have a responsibility to confront social problems such as poverty
New Immigrants
Massive wave of immigrants who came to America between 1880 and 1924
Protective Tariff
Tax on imported goods making the price high enough to protect domestic goods from foreign competition
Spoils System
The political party in powers gives jobs to its supporters, rather than to people based on their qualifications
Bessemer Process
method for making steel more efficiently. Caused steel production to increase.
Collective Bargaining
process in which employees negotiate with labor unions about hours, wages, and other working conditions; UNIONS
Chinese Exclusion Act
Prohibited immigration of Chinese to US
American Federation of Labor
Alliance of skilled workers. Supported bread and butter issues such as high wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions
Knights of Labor
Labor union that sought to organize all workers and focused on broads social reforms
Horizontal Integration
When one company gains control over other companies that produce the same product; McDonald’s owns Burger King and Wendy’s too
Vertical Integration
When a company controls both the production and distribution of its product; McDonald’s owns the bun maker, the meat plants, the tomato farms, the mustard maker….
Social Darwinism
Belief that the fittest survive in both nature and society. Wealthy business and industrial leaders used this to justify their success
Century of Dishonor
Created public awareness of the federal governments long of betraying and cheating Native Americans; book by Helen Hunt Jackson
Espionage Act
prohibited many forms of speech during wartime
Deficit Spending
practice of a nation paying out more money than it is receiving; used to help pull the nation out of an economic depression or recession (FDR New DeAL)
Wagner Act
Ensured workers the right to organize and collective bargain
Tennessee Valley Authority
Government agency that built dams to control flooding and generate electric power
Dust Bowl
The Central and southern Great Plains during the 1930s when the region suffered from drought and dust storms
New Deal
Programs enacted by Pres. Franklin Roosevelt during the Great Depression to promote economic recovery and social reform
Teller Amendment
US would not have control over Cuba.
Lend- Lease Act
US providers military supplies to the Allies (World War II)
GI Bill
provided education, housing and employment aid to veterans
Cold War
Rivalry between the US and the Soviet Union
Taft-Hartley Act
Limited the power of labors unions
Federal Highway Act
Created the Interstate Highway System
Clayton Anti-trust Act
clarified Sherman Act on topics like price discrimination, price fixation, and unfair business practices.
Pure Food and Drug Act
prevents manufacturing, sale, or transport of adulterated, misbranded, or poisonous foods, medicines, or liquors.
Interstate Commerce Act
regulated RR industry, rates must be \”reasonable and just\”.
Space Race
Competition between the US and Soviet Union to develop[ the technology to land on the moon
McCarthyism
Making accusations of disloyalty (Communism) without sufficient evidence
Containment
Designed to block the spread of Soviet influence (Communism)
Brinkmanship
Belief hat only by going to the brink of war could the US protect itself against communist aggression
Berlin Airlift
US and Britain flew supplies to West Berlin during the Soviet Blockade of Berlin
Marshall Plan
offered economic aid to Western European countries after WWI; effort to prevent spread of communism
War Powers Act
law passed by congregated to limit the President’s war making powers
Truman Doctrine
President Truman’s promise to help nations struggling against communist movements
Arms race
Nations compete to build more powerful weapons
Domino Theory
Idea that is a nation falls to communism, its closest neighbors will also fall under communist control
Great Society
President Johnson’s goals in the areas of healthcare, education, the environment, discrimination, and poverty
Baby Boom
Increase in births between 1945 and 1964
Equal Pay Act
law that required both men and women to receive equal pay for equal work
United Farm Workers
Labor Unions of farm workers that used nonviolent tactics, including a workers’ strikes and a consumer boycott; Cesar Chavez…GRAPES!
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
authorized Pres. Johnson to send more combat forces to South Vietnam to fight a war against North Vietnam
War on Poverty
President Johnson’s programs that would help the country’s poor through education, training, proper health care and nutrition
NOW
Feminist organization founded by Friedan and Steinhem to fight for equal rights for women NATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF WOMEN
ERA
Proposed amendment to the Constitution to guarantee equal right regardless of gender
Phyllis Schlafly
Conservative who fought against passage of the ERA
Betty Friedan
author of \”The Feminine Mystique\” which argued that the traditional women’s role was unfulfilling
Grape Boycott
Method used by UNITED FARM WORKERS to gain recognition of their union by the large farm operations and grocery store chains
Freedom Rides
Organized to gain public awareness and pressure Kennedy administration
Thurgood Marshall
NAACP lawyer who argued the Brown case before the supreme Court and later became the first African- American Supreme Court Justice
Malcolm X
One of several civil rights leaders with vastly different ideas and tactics from MLK
Peace Corps
JFK’s organization of volunteer workers sent to \”third world\” countries to teach valuable skills
Rosa Parks
Inspired the modern- day civil rights movement through her leadership an example in the Montgomery Bus Boycott
MLK
Civil Rights leader who preached and Practiced passive resistance and civil disobedience, or the refusal to follow unjust laws
NATO
Post WWII military alliance between the US and nations of Western Europe; objective was to contain communism
Ronald Reagan
Republican president whose popular tax cuts combined with military modernization left the nation with its first $1 Trillion deficit
Reaganomics
economic policies of Reagan, reduction of taxes and promotion of unrestricted free-market activity
Glass Steagall
Act which created FDIC; protected your investments in bank accounts after bank runs during the Great Depression (New Deal Program)
AAA
Paid farmers to leave acreage un- planted in order to bring down supply and force prices up (New Deal)
CCC
Employment program for young, unmarried men (New Deal)
Frances Perkins
First female cabinet secretary; Secretary of Labor
Vital natural resources
Work force, oil, coal, mineral, and water
Andrew Carnegie
Scottish immigrant who made a fortune in the steel industry and then spent the rest of his life giving it away; wrote \”The Gospel of Wealth\” about the rich’s obligation to give back to society
Robber Baron
refers to idea that capitalists took advantage of their workers and practiced ruthless and unethical business tactics
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Positions in federal government to be awarded based on merit, not political affiliation.
SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)
restrain arms race between US and Soviet Union
VISTA
JFK’s volunteers in service to America, anti-poverty program
Selective Service Act
authorized federal government to raise a national army for the American entry into WWI by drafting
Social Security Act
FDR, federal old age and disabled benefits
War Production Board
agency of the US government that supervised war production during WWII, FDR
Roosevelt’s Big Stick Policy
leaders should strive for peace while also keeping other nations aware of its military power
Bay of Pigs
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. JFK
USS MAINE
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
YELLOW JOURNALISM
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
MUCKRAKER
1906 – Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
POLITICAL MACHINE
A group that controls the activities of a political party; TAMMANY HALL, BOSS TWEED
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn’t invade Cuba
38TH
Dividing line between North and South Korea
17TH
Dividing line in Vietnam
Civil Rights Act 1964
1964; banned discrimination in public places, employment, etc…
Civil Rights Act 1968
this law banned discrimination in housing, the segregation of education, transportation, and employment, it helped African Americans gain their full voting rights.
Freedom Summer
1964 effort to register African American voters in Mississippi
WEB Dubois
Opposed Booker T. Washington. Wanted social and political integration as well as higher education for 10% of African Americans-what he called a \”Talented Tenth\”. Founder of the Niagara Movement which led to the creation of the NAACP.
Booker T Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Stokely Carmichael
head of the SNCC making a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization
World War I
War sparked by assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism
World War II
War fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Allies and the Axis, involving most countries in the world. The United States joined the Allies in 1941, helping them to victory. Caused by Nazi Germany and appeasement
Zimmermann Note
A secret document from Germany to Mexico:Join the war on the Central Powers side WWI (cause USA join Allies)
Atlantic Charter
Agreement signed by President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill in 1941 outlining the two nations’ war aims (World War II)
Progressive Era
1890 – 1920, Progressives tended to be women, middle class, and live in urban areas. Progressives sought to use government influence to solve societal problems.
Gilded Age
1870s – 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
immigration quotas
Limited the number of immigrants allowed entry into the United States through a national origins quota.
Red Scare
A period of general fear of communists
detente
Relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China; led to trade with China
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Harlem Renaissance
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Moral Majority
A movement begun in the early 1980’s among religious conservatives that supported primarily conservative Republicans opposed to abortion, communism and liberalism.
Camp David Accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel (Hosted by Carter in the US)
Patriot Act
This law passed after 9/11 expanded the tools used to fight terrorism and improved communication between law enforcement and intelligence agencies
Iran Contra
scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement (US, Canada, Mexico) Bill Clinton
NATO
NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION….Alliance of the allied powers against the Soviets

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