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Rogers: person centered theory/ humanistic psychology

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Humanistic Theorists
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rogers and maslow
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the humanistic perspective
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-higher more developed and healthier qualities -phenomenological approach -the present is emphasized -individuals are responsible for their on life outcomes -the past doesnt determine the present -the human condition can be improved by changing the environment
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Preview of rogers
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individual diff: doesnt focus on it adaptation/adjustment: client centered therapy, insight oriented therapies cognitive processes: you should be____ culture/society: improvement of society development: conditions of worth
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Bio
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born in Illinois in 1902 raised in a fundamentalist christian home lived on a farm studied of the university of Wisconsin and at unton theological seminary psychology degree from Columbia university held several clinical and academic positions president of APA died in 1987
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Actualizing tendency
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-the tendency in all organic life to expand, extend, develop, mature -to express and activate the capacities of the organism -provides motivation and social responses
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Organismics valuing process
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-inner experience that provides a subconscious guide to growth -please do not distrust your inner feelings/gut
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The fully functioning person
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-open to experience (similar to costa and McCrea) -existential living: live fully in the moment -organismic trusting: do you trust yourself to make decisions -experiential freedom: making meaning of our situations -creativity: adapt, new ways of dealing with life circumstances
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creativity requirements
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All 3 are needed -openness to experience -internal locus of evaluation: look in on your own point of view. look at own choices -ability to toy with elements and concepts
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Creativity requirements example of parents of preschool children who encourages creativity
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-respect opinions and encourage expression -curious, to explore and questions things *Disagreed with: -do not allow my child to get angry with me -I feel my child is a bit of a disappointment
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Subjective experiences, values, and science
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-spirituality and subjectivity are consistent with rogers theory -which does not aspire to be value-free -rogers thought values are important biased towards client
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the self
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ideal self-real self discrepancy = incongruence
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People nuture others growth in these ways
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-being genuine -being accepting -be empathetic *no conditions of worth
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Client-centered therapy
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-directions form the client (rather than the therapists insight) -unconditional positive regard (prizing) -congruence (therapist is genuine and honest) -empathetic understanding (therapist should understand the client’s experience
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Necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic progress
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1. two persons are in psychological contact 2. the client is in a state of incongruence 3. the therapist is congruent or integrated in the relationship 4. the therapist experiences unconditional positive regard 5. the therapist experiences an empathetic understanding and attempts to communicate this experience to the client 6. the communication to the client of the therapists empathetic understanding and unconditional positive regard is to a minimal degree achieved.
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Therapy
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-person centered therapy -encounter groups – humanistic education -Q-sort results: real life and ideal-self descriptions come closer
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therapeutic approaches
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unconditional positive regard congruence empathy
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Person center therapy
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roger’s orientation to therapy and education which focuses on the experience of the client or student rather than the therapist or teacher
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encounter group
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growth enhancing technique in which a group of people openly and honestly express their feelings and opinions
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Criticisms
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-rogers therapy is no more effective than other therapy -overly optimistic -unconditional positive regard for kids is impractical -disregards human capacity for evil