Essay On Risk

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Traditionally, risk has been defined as
a. any situation in which the probability of loss is one
b. any situation in which the probability of loss is zero
c. uncertainty concerning the occurrence of loss
d. the probability of a loss occuring
c
Objective risk is defined as
a. the probability of loss
b. the relative variation of actual loss from expected loss
c. uncertainty based on a person’s mental condition or state of mind
d. the cause of loss
b
An insurance company estimates its objective risk for 10,000 exposures to be 10 percent. Assuming the probability of loss remains the same, what would happen to the objective risk if the number of exposures were to increase to 1 million?
a. it would decrease to 1 percent
b. it would decrease to 5 percent
c. it would remain the same
d. it would increase to 20 percent
a
Uncertainty based on a person’s mental condition or state of mind is known as
a. objective risk
b. subjective risk
c. objective probability
d. subjective probability
b
The long-run relative frequency of an event is based on the assumption of an infinite number of observations with no change in the underlying conditions is called
a. objective probability
b. objective risk
c. subjective probability
d. subjective risk
a
Which of the following statements about a priori probabilities is correct?
a. they are subjective probabilities based on ambiguity in the way in the way probability is perceived
b. they are subjective probabilities that may vary among individuals because of factors such as age, gender, education, and the use of alcohol
c. they are objective probabilities that can be determined by deductive reasoning
d. they are objective probabilities that can be determined by subjective reasoning
c
An individuals personal estimate of the chance of loss is
a. an objective probability
b. an objective risk
c. a subjective probability
d. an a priori probability
c
A peril is
a. a moral hazard
b. the cause of loss
c. a condition which increases the chances of loss
d. the probability that loss will occur
b
An earthquake is an example of a
a. moral hazard
b. peril
c. physical hazard
d. objective risk
b
Dense fog that increases the chance of an automobile accident is an example of a
a. speculative risk
b. peril
c. physical hazard
d. moral hazard
c
Faking an accident to collect insurance proceeds is an example of a
a. physical hazard
b. objective risk
c. moral hazard
d. attitudinal hazard
c
Carelessness or indifference to a loss is an example of
a. physical hazard
b. objective probability
c. moral hazard
d. attitudinal hazard
d
Some characteristics of the judicial system and regulatory environment increase the frequency and the severity of loss. The hazard is called
a. moral hazard
b. physical hazard
c. attitudinal hazard
d. legal hazard
d
Taylor tobacco company is concerned that the company may be held liable in court of law and ordered to pay a large damage award. The characteristics of the judicial system that increase the frequency and severity of losses are known as
a. moral hazard
b. particular risk
c. speculative risk
d. legal hazard
d
A phrase that encompasses all the major risks faced by a business firm is
a. financial risk
b. speculative risk
c. enterprise risk
d. pure risk
c
Which of the following statements about financial is (are) true?
1. Enterprise risk does not include financial risk
2. Financial risk is easily addressed through the purchase of insurance
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
d
All of the following are considered financial risks EXCEPT
a. the decline in value of a bond portfolio because of rising interest rates
b. increased cost of production because of rising commodity prices
c. loss of money because of adverse movements in currency exchange rates
d. destruction of a production facility caused by an explosion
d
A pure risk is defined as a situation in which there is
a. only the possibility of loss or no loss
b. only the possibility of profit
c. a possibility of neither profit nor loss
d. a possibility of either profit or loss
a
The premature death of an individual is an example of a a. pure risk
b. speculative risk
c. fundamental risk
d. physical hazard
a
Kathleen was just named Risk Manager of ABC company. She has decided to create a risk management program which considers all of the risk faced by ABC-pure, speculative, operational, and strategic-in a single risk management program. Such program is called
a. financial risk management program
b. enterprise risk management program
c. fundamental risk management program
d. consequential risk management program
b
Which of the following statements about speculative risks is true?
a. they are almost always insurable by private owners
b. they are more easily predictable than pure risks
c. they may benefit society even though a loss occurs
d. they involve a chance of loss
c
An automobile that is a total loss as a result of a collision is an example of which of the following types or risk?
1. Speculative Risk
2. Diversifiable Risk
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
b
All of the following are programs to insure fundamental risks EXCEPT
a. federally subsidized flood insurance
b. auto physical damage insurance
c. social security
d. unemployment insurance
b
All of the following are examples of personal risks EXCEPT
a. poor health
b. unemployment
c. premature death
d. flood
d
Which of the following is a reason why premature death death may result in economic insecurity
1. Additional expenses associated with death may be incurred
2. The income of the deceased person’s family may be inadequate to meet its basic needs
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
c
Which of the following are often consequences of long-term disability
1. Continuing medical expenses
2. Loss of reduction of employee benefits
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
c
All of the following are examples of direct property losses except
a. the loss of a person’s jewerly
b. the destruction of a firm’s manufacturing plant by an earthquake
c. the cost of renting a substitute vehicle while a collision-damaged car is being repaired
d. the vandalism of a person’s vehicle
c
The extra expense incurred by a business to stay in operation following a fire is an example of a
a. fundamental risk
b. speculative risk
c. direct loss
d. indirect loss
d
Which of the following statements about liability risks is (are) true
1. Future income and assets can be attached to pay judgements if inadequate insurance is carried
2. There is an upper limit on the amount of loss
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
a
All of the following are burdens to society because of the presence of risk EXCEPT
a. The size of an emergency fund must be increased
b. Individuals may profit from accepting a speculative risk
c. Society is deprived of certain goods and services
d. Mental fear and worry are present
b
Loss control includes which of the following?
1. Loss Reduction
2. Loss Prevention
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
c
Following good health habits can be categorized as
a. loss prevention
b. risk retention
c. non-insurance transfer
d. personal insurance
a
From the insured’s perspective, the use of deductibles insurance contracts is an example of
a. risk transfer
b. loss control
c. risk avoidance
d. risk retention
d
The use of fire-resistive materials when constructing a building is an example of
a. risk transfer
b. loss control
c. risk avoidance
d.risk retention
b
All of the following statements about risk retention are true EXCEPT
a. It may be used intentionally if commercial insurance is unavailable
b. It may be used passively because of ignorance
c. Its use is most appropriate for low-frequency, high severity types of risks
d. Its use results in cost savings if losses are less than the cost of insurance
c
All of the following are methods of non-insurance transfer EXCEPT
a. entering into a hold-harmless agreement
b. avoiding dangerous activities
c. hedging risk using future contacts
d. incorporating a business
b
Curt borrowed money from a bank to purchase a fishing boat. He purchased property insurance on the boat. Curt had difficulty making loan payments because he did not catch many fish, and fish prices were low. Curt intentionally sunk the boat, collected from his insurer, and paid off the loan balance. This scenario illustrates a problem of
a. adverse selection
b. moral hazard
c. non-diversifiable risk
d. attitudinal risk
b
Jenna opened a successful restaurant. One night, after the restaurant had closed, a fire started when the electrical system malfunctioned. In addition to the physical damage to the restaurant, Jenna also lost profits that could have been eared while the restaurant was closed for repairs. The lost profits are examples of
a. direct loss
b. non-diversifiable risk
c. speculative risk
d. indirect loss
d
Brad started a pest control business. To protect personal assets against liability arising out of the business, Brad incorporated the business. Brad’s use of the corporate form of organization to shield against personal liability claims illustrates
a. fundamental risk
b. non-insurance transfer
c. risk retention
d. objective risk
b
ABC Insurance Company plans to sell homeowners insurance in five Western states. ABC expects that 8 homeowners out of every 100, on average, will report claims each year. The variation between the rate of loss that ABC expects to occur and the rate of loss that actually does occur is called
a. objective probability
b. subjective probability
c. objective risk
d. subjective risk
c
Williams Company installed smoke detectors, a sprinkler system, and fire extinguishers in its new manufacturing facility. These devices are all examples of
a. loss control
b. non-insurance transfer
c. risk avoidance
d. risk retention
a
Tyndal Products Company produces cereal. The company has entered into contracts to deliver 500,000 boxes of cereal during the next 18 months. The company is concerned that the prices of two ingredients, corn and wheat, may increase over the next 18 months. The company used grain futures contracts to hedge the price risk associated with these commodities. Tyndal’s use of hedging illustrates which risk management technique?
a. non-insurance transfer
b. risk avoidance
c. risk retention
d. risk assumption
a
Cathy’s car hit a patch of ice on the road. The car skidded off the road and hit a tree. The presence of ice on the road is best described as a
a. peril
b. subjective risk
c. physical hazard
d. indirect loss
c
Jim and Paula Franklin started a dry cleaning business. The business may be succesful or it may fail. The type of risk that is present when either a profit or loss could occur is called
a. pure risk
b. subjective risk
c. non-diversifiable risk
d. speculative risk
d
Ben is concerned that if he injures someone or damages someone’s property he could be held legally responsible and required to pay damages. This type of risk is called
a. speculative risk
b. liability risk
c. non-diversifiable risk
d. property risk
b
MLX Drug Company would like tot market a new hypertension drug. While the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was testing the drug, it discovered that the drug produced a harmful side effect. When MLX learned of the FDA’s test result, MLX abandoned its plan to produce and distribute the drug. MLX’s reaction illustrates
a. risk avoidance
b. hedging
c. risk transfer
d. risk retention
a
ABC Health Insurance Company sells health insurance in one state. Recently, that state’s legislature passed a law forbidding health insurers from considering an individual’s health history when selecting applicants to insure. This change in law will increase the possibility of unprofitable results for ABC. This type of hazard is an example of
a. physical hazard
b. legal hazard
c. moral hazard
d. attitudinal hazard
b
All of the following are characteristics of the liability risk that most people face EXCEPT
a. a lien may be placed on your income and assets to satisfy a legal judgement
b. substantial legal expenses may be incurred defending the claim
c. there is no upper limit on the amount of loss
d. owning liability insurance eliminates the possibility of being held legally liable
d
Which of the following statements about chance of loss and risk is (are) true?
1. If the chance of loss is identical for two groups, the objective risk must be the same
2. Two individuals may perceive differently the risk inherent in a given activity
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
b
A risk that affects only individuals or small groups and not the entire economy is called
a. diversifiable risk
b. pure risk
c. speculative
d. non-diversifiable risk
a
All of the following are commercial risks EXCEPT
a. the loss of business income
b. the risk of insufficient retirement income
c. the risk of being sued
d. the risk of property damage
b
All of the following are characteristics of insurance EXCEPT
a. risk avoidance
b. pooling of losses
c. payment of fortuitous losses
d. indemnification
a
Which of the following is implied by the pooling of losses?
a. sharing of losses by an entire group
b. inability to predict losses with any degree of accuracy
c. substitution of actual loss for average loss
d. increase of objective risk
a
According to the law of large numbers, what happens as the number of exposure units increases?
a. actual results will increasingly differ from probable results
b. actual results will more closely approach probable results
c. non-diversifiable risk will decrease
d. objective risk will increase
b
according to the law of large numbers, what should happen as an insurer increases the number of units insured?
a. the amount the insurer expects to pay in claims should decrease
b. underwriting expenses should decrease
c. actual results will more closely approach expected results
d. the insurer’s profitability should become more variable
c
Characteristics of a fortuitous loss include which of the following
1. The loss is certain to occur
2. The loss occurs as a result of chance
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
b
From the viewpoint of the insurer, all of the following characteristics of an ideally insurable risk EXCEPT
a. the loss must be accidental
b. the loss should be catastrophic
c. the premium must be economically feasible
d. there must be a large number of exposure units
b
From the standpoint of the insurer, all of the following are characteristics of an ideally insurable risk EXCEPT
a. the loss must be unintentional
b. it eliminates intentional losses
c. the loss must be indeterminable
d. the loss must be measurable
c
Why is a large number of exposure units generally required before a pure risk is insurable?
a. it prevents the insurer from losing money
b. it eliminates intentional losses
c. it minimizes moral hazard
d. it enables the insurer to predict losses more accurately
d
The requirement that losses should be accidental and unintentional in order to be insurable results in which of the following
1. Decrease in moral hazard
2. More accurate prediction of future losses
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
c
Which of the following is implied by the requirement that a loss should be determinable and measurable to be insurable?
1. The loss must be definite as to place
2. The loss must be definite as to amount
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
c
Methods by which insurers may minimize or avoid catastrophic losses include which of the following
1. The use of reinsurance
2. Concentrating coverage written in one geographic region
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
a
Which of the following types of risks best meets the requirements for being insurable by private insurers?
a. market risks
b. property risks
c. financial risks
d. political risks
b
Reasons why market, financial, and production risks are often uninsurable include which of the following?
1. The potential to produce a catastrophic loss is great
2. The chance of loss cannot be accurately measured
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
c
Which of the following types of risks is normally uninsurable by private insurers?
a. personal risks
b. property risks
c. liability risks
d. market risks
d
Which of the following is a result of adverse selection?
a. the insurer’s financial results will be substantially improved
b. persons most likely to have losses are also most likely to seek insurance at standard rates
c. it is unnecessary for the insurance company to use underwriting
d. insurance can be written only by the federal government
b
The tendency for unhealthy people to seek life or health insurance at standard rates is an example of
a. moral hazard
b. fundamental risk
c. attitudinal hazard
d. adverse selection
d
Which of the following statements regarding insurance and gambling is true?
1. Insurance is used to handle existing pure risks, while gambling creates a new speculative risk
2. Insurance usually involves risk avoidance, while typically involves only risk reduction
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
a
In addition to marketing life insurance, life insurers typically sell which of the following products?
1. retirement annuities
2. disability income insurance
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
c
Inland marine insurance provides coverage for
a. goods being shipped on land
b. premature death of members of armed forces
c. goods being shipped on on ocean-going vessels
d. liability of exposures of non-profit organizations
a
All of the following are classified as casualty insurance EXCEPT
a. life insurance
b. general liability insurance
c. workers compensation insurance
d. burglary and theft insurance
a
Which of the following is a form of casualty insurance
a. fire insurance
b. general liability insurance
c. inland marine insurance
d. ocean marine insurance
b
The term “multiple-line insurance” is used to describe a type of insurance that combines which of the following coverages into a single contract?
a. workers compensation and health insurance
b. life and disability insurance
c. property and casualty insurance
d. pensions and annuities
c
All of the following are benefits to society that result from insurance EXCEPT
a. less worry and fear
b. elimination of moral hazard
c. indemnification for loss
d. loss prevention
b
Which of the following statements about the insurance industry as a source of investments are true?
1. These funds result in a lower cost of capital than would exist in the absence of insurance
2. These funds tend to promote economic growth and full employment
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
c
All of the following are social costs associated with insurance EXCEPT
a. insurance company operating expenses
b. fraudulent claims
c. inflated claims
d. increased cost of capital
d
A group of farmers agreed that if any farmer suffered a property loss, the loss would be spread over the entire group. In this way, each farmer is responsible for the average loss of the group rather than the actual loss that the farmer sustained. Which characteristic of insurance is embodied in this agreement?
a. pooling of losses
b. fortuitous losses
c. risk avoidance
d. indemnification
a
XYZ Insurance Company writes coverage for most perils which can damage property. XYZ, however, does not write flood insurance on property located in flood plains. Which requirement of an ideally insurable risk might be violated if XYZ wrote flood insurance on property located in flood plains
a. there must be a large number of similar exposure units
b. the loss should not be catastrophic
c. the chance of loss must be calculated
d. the losses must be determinable and measurable
b
ABC appliance offers a warranty requiring an annual fee. The warranty may be purchased at the time of sale or at any time within the first year after the appliance was purchased. The warranty fee after the date of purchase is twice the time-of-purchase fee. When asked why the fee was higher after the date of purchase, ABC’s president said, “buying a warranty is voluntary. We’ve noted that those who buy the warranty after the purchase date have a greater need for service.” Charging the same rate or a lower rate after the date of purchase would expose ABC to what problem that also impacts private insurers?
a. excessive premiums
b. reduced claims
c. bad investments
d. adverse selection
d
Alpha Insurance Company insures a broad range of risks, including whatever is not covered by fire, marine, and life insurers. Which term best describes the wide range of risks written by Alpha Insurance?
a. fidelity insurance
b. casualty insurance
c. social insurance
d. property insurance
b
LMN Insurance markets homeowners insurance. The LMN homeowners policy combines property and casualty coverage in the same contract are called
a. mono-line policies
b. multi-year policies
c. multiple-line policies
d. manuscript policies
c
One branch of government insurance programs has a number of distinguishing characteristics. These programs are compulsory, they are financed by mandatory contributions rather than general tax revenues, and benefits are weighted in favor of low-income groups. These government insurance programs are called
a. welfare programs
b. social insurance programs
c. casualty insurance programs
d. private insurance programs
b
Gina would like to buy a house. She will pay 10 percent of the cost of the house as a down payment and borrow the other 90 percent from a mortgage lender. The home will serve as collateral for the loan. The lender requires Gina to purchase property insurance on the home so that the collateral supporting the loan will be protected. This scenario illustrates which of the following benefits of insurance to society?
a. enhancement of credit
b. reduction of fear and worry
c. source of investment funds
d. incentives for loss prevention
a
ABC insurance company calculated the amount that it expected to pay in claims under each policy sold. Rather than selling the insurance for the amount it expected to pay in claims, ABC added an allowance to cover the cost of doing business, including commissions, faces, and acquisition expenses. This allowance is called a
a. policy dividend
b. premium
c. expense loading
d. rate credit
c
JKL insurance company estimates that 14 out of every 100 homeowners it insures will file a claim each year. Last year, JKL insured 200 homeowner. According to the law of large numbers, what should happen if JKL insures 2,000 homeowners this year?
a. the total number of claims filed by JKL policy owners should increase
b. the total dollar value of claims will decrease
c. the average size of loss will decline in value
d. the actual results will more closely approach the expected results
d
Apex insurance company wrote a large number of property insurance policies in an area where earthquake losses could occur. When the president of Apex was asked she feared that a severe earthquake might put the company out of business, she responded, “Not a chance. We transferred most of that risk to other insurance companies.” An arrangement by which the insurer that initially writes insurance transfers to other insurer part of all of the potential losses associated with such an insurance is called
a. hedging
b. speculating
c. reinsurance
d. loss avoidance
c
Bronson Casualty Company sells casualty insurance only. Which of the following coverages could you purchase from Bronson Casualty Company?
a. life insurance
b. fire insurance
c. marine insurance
d. liability insurance
d
Which of the following statements regarding insurance and hedging is (are) true?
1. insurance involves the transfer of insurable risk while hedging handles risk that is typically uninsurable
2. both insurance and hedging rely on the law of large numbers to reduce risk
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
a
Ashley opened an all-you-can-eat buffet. The cost per-person was based upon what Ashley believed an average restaurant patron would consume. The restaurant began to lose money. Ashley concluded that her patrons had “above average” appetites, and were attracted to her restaurant because they could eat as much as they wanted while being charged an average price. A similar phenomenon exists in insurance markets. The problem is called
a. moral hazard
b. adverse selection
c. attitudinal hazard
d. fundamental risk
b
Which of the following is (are) true concerning private insurance?
1. social insurance programs are private insurance programs
2. both individuals and businesses purchase private insurance
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
b
Adverse selection occurs
a. when an insurance company loses money on its investments
b. when individuals intentionally bring about a loss in order to collect from an insurer
c. when catastrophic losses occur as a result of a natural disaster
d. when applicants with a higher-than-average chance of loss seek insurance at standard rates
d
Risk management is concerned with
a. the identification and treatment of loss exposures
b. the management of speculative risks only
c. the management of pure risks that are uninsurable
d. the purchase of insurance only
a
A situation or circumstance in which a a loss is possible, regardless of whether a loss occurs, is called a
a. deductible
b. loss exposure
c. loss avoidance
d. peril
b
Pre-loss objectives of risk management include which of the following
1. preparing for potential losses in the most economical way
2. reduction of anxiety
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
c
A risk manager is concerned with
1. identifying potential losses
2. selecting the appropriate techniques for treating losses
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
c
Sources of information that can be used by a risk manager to identify pure loss exposures include all of the following EXCEPT
a. risk analysis questionnaires
b. currency and exchange rates
c. physical inspections
d. past losses
b
Loss severity is defined as the
a. probable size of the losses which may occur during some period
b. probable number of losses that may occur during some period
c. probability that any particular piece of property may be totally destroyed
d. probability that a liability judgement may exceed a firms net worth
a
Loss frequency is defined as the
a. probable size of the losses that may occur during some period
b. probable number of losses that may occur during some period
c. probability that any particular piece of property may be totally destroyed
d. probability that a liability judgment may exceed a firms net worth
b
The worst loss that could ever happen to a firm is referred to as the
a. maximum possible loss
b. probable maximum loss
c. frequency of loss
d. severity of loss
a
The worst possible loss that is likely to happen is referred to as the
a. maximum possible loss
b. probable maximum loss
c. frequency of loss
d. severity of loss
b
All of the following statements about avoidance are true EXCEPT
a. certain loss exposures are never acquired
b. certain loss exposures may be abandoned
c. the chance of loss for certain loss exposures be reduced to zero
d. it can be used for any loss exposure facing a firm
d
Abandoning an existing loss exposure is an example of
a. avoidance
b. retention
c. non-insurance transfer
d. insurance transfer
a
Which of the following conditions is (are) appropriate for using retention?
1. losses are difficult to predict
2. the worst possible loss is not serious
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
b
Which of the following statements regarding the use of retention is (are) true?
1. retention is best used for loss exposures that have a low frequency and a high severity
2. a financially strong firm can have a higher retention level than a firm whose financial position is weak
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
b
All of the following statements about captive insurers are true EXCEPT
a. they may act as a profit center by insuring parties other than the parent company
b. they provide a way to obtain types of insurance that may be unavailable from commercial insurers
c. they increase the volatility of the parent company’s earnings
d. they make it easier for a firm to have access to reinsurance
c
Which of the following statements about self-insurance is (are) true?
1. It is a planned retention
2. state law usually prohibits its use for workers compensation
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
a
All of the following are potential advantages for retention EXCEPT
a. lower expenses
b. increased cash flow
c. encouragement of loss prevention
d. protection from catastrophic losses
d
A restaurant owner leased a meeting room at the restaurant to a second party. The lease specified that the second party, not the restaurant owner, would be responsible for any liability arising out oft the use of the meeting room, and that the restaurant owner would be “held harmless” for any damages. The restaurant owner’s use of the hold-harmless agreement is an example of
a. retention
b. self insurance
c. insurance
d. non-insurance transfer
d
All of the following are disadvantages of non-insurance transfers EXCEPT
a. the party to whom the potential loss is transferred may be unable to pay
b. the transfer may fail because the contract language is ambiguous
c. the only potential losses that can be transferred are those that are not commercially insurable
d. the non-insurance transfer may be costly
c
ABC insurance retains the first $1 million of each property damage loss and purchases insurance for that part of any property loss that exceeds $1 million. The insurance for property losses above $1 million are called
a. excess insurance
b. liability insurance
c. coinsurance
d. primary insurance
a
Which of the following statements about the use of deductibles is (are) true?
1. They represent risk retention by insurance purchasers
2. they tend to increase the cost of adjusting small claims
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
a
Which of the following about statements about an excess insurance plan is true?
a. the insurer does not participate in a loss until it exceeds the amount the firm has decided to retain
b. the insurer pays first up to some specified level; the insured then pays all losses exceeding the insurer’s retention level
c. losses in excess of a specified amount are not covered
d. the insured and insurer share equally in any loss that occurs
a
Factors a risk manager must consider in selecting an insurer include which of the following
1. the availability of risk management services
2. the financial strength of the insurer
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
c
An insurance policy specifically written and designed to meet the needs of an insurance purchaser is called a
a. manuscript policy
b. bureau policy
c. standard policy
d. excess policy
a
All of the following are disadvantages of using insurance in a risk management program EXCEPT
a. there is an opportunity cost because premiums must be paid in advance
b. considerable time and effort must be spent selecting and negotiating coverages
c. it results in considerable fluctuations in earnings after losses occur
d. attitudes toward loss control may become lax when losses are insured
c
Which of the following types of loss exposures may be appropriately handled through the purchase of insurance?
1. high-frequency, low-severity
2. low frequency, high-severity
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
b
Which of the following types of loss exposures are best handled by the use of avoidance?
a. low-frequency, low-severity
b.low-frequency, high-severity
c. high-frequency, low-severity
d. high-frequency, high-severity
d
Low-frequency, low-severity loss exposure are best handled by
a. avoidance
b. retention
c. insurance
d. non-insurance transfer
b
All of the following statements about the administration of a risk management program are true EXCEPT
a. the risk manager is an important part of a firm’s management team
b. a risk management policy statement can be used to educate top executives about the risk management process
c. if a risk management program is properly designed, periodic review of the program is unnecessary
d. in order to properly identify loss exposures, the risk manager needs the cooperation of other departments
c
Cal was just hired as a XYZ Company’s first risk manager. Cal would like to employ the risk management process. The first step in the process Cal should follow is to
a. evaluate potential losses faced by XYZ company
b. formulate a treatment plan for XYZ Company’s loss exposures
c. identify the potential losses faced by XYZ Company
d. implement and and administer a risk management plan for XYZ Company
c
Members of Mid-SOuth Petroleum Distributors, a trade group, had trouble obtaining affordable pollution liability insurance. The members formed a group captive that is exempt from many state laws that apply to other insurers. This group captive is called a
a. reinsurance pool
b. Lloyd’s association
c. alien insurer
d. risk retention group
d
Acme Company has three identical manufacturing plants, one on the Texas Gulf Coast, one in southern Alabama, and one in Florida. Each plant is valued at $50 million. Acme’s risk manager is concerned about the damage which could be caused by a single hurricane. The risk manager believes there is an extremely low probability that a single hurricane could destroy two or all three plants because they are located so far apart. What is the probable maximum loss associated with a single hurricane
a. $0 million
b. $50 million
c. $100 million
d. $150 million
b
What is Acme’s maximum possible loss associated with a single hurricane?
a. $0 million
b. $50 million
c. $100 million
d. $150 million
d
Laura Evans is risk manager of LMN Company. Laura decided to retain certain property losses. All of the following methods which Laura can use to fund retained property losses EXCEPT
a. private insurance
b. current net income
c. funded reserve
d. borrowed funds
a
Parker Department Stores has been hurt in recent months by a large increase in shoplifting losses. Parker’s risk manager concluded that while frequency of shoplifting losses was high, the severity is still relatively low. What is (are) the appropriate risk management techniques to apply to this problem?
a. retention
b. loss control and retention
c. transfer through insurance
d. avoidance
b
Barb, who is self employed, is the main breadwinner for her family. Barb does not have a disability income insurance because she has never stopped to consider the impact of long-term disability upon her family. Barb’s treatment of the risk of disability is best described as
a. risk transfer
b. passive retention
c. risk avoidance
d. active retention
b
Ryan decided to review his personal risk management program. His car is 10 years old, and he would receive little money from his insurer if the car was damaged or destroyed. Ryan decided to drop the physical damage insurance of his car. From a risk management perspective, dropping the physical damage insurance of the car is best described as
a. increasing the use of avoidance in the risk management program
b. increasing the use of non-insurance transfer in the risk management program
c. increasing the use of retention in the risk management program
d. increasing the use of risk control in the risk management program
c
To better understand her company’s operations, a risk manager asked a production manager to draw a diagram tracing the steps in the production and distribution of the company’s products. Such a diagram, which is useful in risk identification, is called a
a. financial statement
b. risk management matrix
c. flowchart
d. risk management audit
c
In reviewing his company’s operations, a risk manager noticed that all of the company’s finished goods were stored in a single warehouse. The risk manager recommended that the finished goods be divided among three warehouses to prevent all of the finished goods from being destroyed by the same peril. Dividing the finished goods among three warehouses illustrates
a. risk avoidance
b. risk control
c. insurance
d. non-insurance transfer
b
Which of the following statements about a personal risk management program is (are) true?
1. insurance and retention are the only technique used to handle potential losses
2. the steps in a personal risk management process are the same steps used by businesses
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 or 2
b
Bev lives in the suburbs and works downtown. She drives to work, and her most direct route to work would require her to pass through an area where carjacking and drive-by-shootings are common. Bev does not drive through this area. Instead she uses a route which adds ten minutes to her commute. Which risk management technique is Bev using with respect to the risk of injury while driving through a dangerous area?
a. non-insurance transfer
b. avoidance
c. passive retention
d. loss reduction
c
Brenda identified all of the pure loss exposures her family faces. Then she analyzed these loss exposures, developed a plan to treat these risks, and implemented the plan. the process Brenda conducted is called a
a. personal insurance programming
b. personal estate planning
c. personal financial planning
d. personal risk management
d
Which statement about a company’s cost of risk is (are) true?
1. cost of risk includes insurance premiums and retained losses
2. reducing the cost of risk increases profitability
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
c
A useful measure of an organization is the total of the organizations expenditures for treating loss exposures including retained losses, loss control expenses, insurance premiums, and other related expenses. This measure is called the organization’s
a. cost of capital
b. cost of goods sold
c. cost of risk
d. cost of equity
c
Mark owns a 1998 sedan. The last time Mark renewed his auto insurance, he decided to drop the physical damage insurance on this vehicle. How is Mark dealing with the auto physical damage exposure in his personal risk management program?
a. risk transfer
b. passive retention
c. avoidance
d. planned retention
d
Purchasing health insurance illustrates the use of which personal risk management technique?
a. avoidance
b. risk transfer
c. loss control
d. risk retention
b
Which of the following statements about captive insurance companies is (are) true?
1. a captive insurance company established by a US company must be domiciled in the United States
2. a captive insurance company may be owned by several parents
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
b
Which of the following is least likely to occur during a “hard” insurance market period?
a. difficulty in obtaining insurance
b. tightening underwriting standards
c. high insurer profits
d. increasing premiums
c
Which of the following statements concerning the selection of risk management techniques and insurance market conditions is true?
1. It’s easier to purchase affordable insurance during a “soft” market than during a “hard” market
2. Retention is used more during a “soft” market than during a “hard” market
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. both 1 and 2
d. neither 1 or 2
a

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member