Rise of Big Business (2)

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
After the Civil War, one way business leaders tried to eliminate competition was by
forming monopolies or trusts
What factor limited the growth of labor unions during the late 1800s?
most employees were very hostile toward workers’ efforts to organize
What describes the U.S. economy from the end of the Civil War to 1900?
it experienced an era of unmatched economic growth
Andrew Carnegie was a leading figure in the growth of
steel industry
The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory led to
new factory safety laws
What advantage were sweatshops to the textile industry?
they kept the cost of production low
Where did the industrial revolution originally start?
England
Where did John D. Rockefeller start the Standard Oil Company?
Cleveland, Ohio
What was the name of Rockefeller’s oil company?
Standard Oil Company
What two laws did the government pass to stop monopolies during the Big Business Era?
Interstate Commerce Act and Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Who owned the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory?
Max Blanck and Isaac Harris
What building was the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory located at?
Asch Building
What city was Triangle Shirtwaist Factory located?
Manhattan
What was the date of Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire?
March 25, 1911
Where did Andrew Carnegie build his steel plant?
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania
Where did John D. Rockefeller set up his oil refinery?
Cleveland, Ohio
What process made Andrew Carnegie’s steel industry powerful?
vertical integration
How much steal was Andrew Carnegie producing for the nation?
one third
What we the hazardous conditions in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory?
cramped space, one working elevator, locked doors, narrow fire escape, long hours, little pay and rotted hose
Who use vertical integration?
Andrew Carnegie
Who use horizontal integration?
John D. Rockefeller
Which tycoon created a monopoly?
John D. Rockefeller
Who developed the assembly line?
Henry Ford
Who did Andrew Carnegie sell his business to?
J.P. Morgan
What is the name of J.P. Morgan’s banking company?
J.P. Morgan and Cooperation
Who formed the American Federation of Labor?
Samuel Gompers
Where was American Federation of Labor?
Columbus, Ohio
What were the goals of the American Federation of Labor?
higher wages, shorter hours, and improve working conditions
Who could join the American Federation of Labor?
skilled workers
Who named the era the “Gilded Age?”
Mark Twain
Who was president of the Knights of Labor?
Terrence Powderly
What was the goals for the Knights of Labor?
shorter work day, end to child labor, and equal pay for men and women
Who could join the Knights of Labor?
everyone
What were nicknames for big businessmen of the late 1800s?
tycoons, captains of industry, and robber barons
How did big new companies make shipping and traveling easier?
goods no longer had to change from one railroad line to another
Why were children used in operating machines?
did not require adult strength and children could be hired more cheaply than adults
Why did so many parent turn their children over to factory owners?
their parents were poor and needed money
Why kind of life did the children were bound to have?
they were bound to die or get sick
Who wrote Oliver Twist?
Charles Dickens
What did the book Oliver Twist talk about?
the evils of child labor
In the United States, the main purpose of antitrust legislation is to
increase competition in business
The Federal Trade Commission, the Interstate Commerce Commission, and the Federal Communications Commission are similar in that each
has the power to formulate and enforce regulations
In the United States, organized labor made its greatest membership gains when
the right to unionize and bargain collectively was guaranteed by legislation
In the 19th century, the major national labor unions wanted to improve the position of workers mainly by
obtaining the legal right to organize and bargain collectively
During the latter half of the 19th century, many business organizations in the United States combined into large corporations because
efficiency in production methods could be increased
A major way in which the United States has practiced “economic nationalism” has been to
implement protective tariffs to help American industry
In the United States, industrial unions of the 1880’s and of the 1980’s had similar goals in that both campaigned for
greater job security and higher wages
In response to the demands of farmers and small business owners, Congress enacted laws in the late 19th century that
regulated the activities of railroads and trusts
A negative effect of holding companies, mergers, and pools on the United States during the late 19th century was that these combinations
decreased competition between business
Nativism in the late 19th century was motivated primarily by
hostility toward immigrant workers
During the late 1800’s, labor unions in the United States had their greatest success in
organizing skilled workers into craft unions
The Sherman Antitrust Act, the Social Security Act, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) are examples of
the Federal Government’s response to changes in the economy
What best describes the status of the labor union movement in the United States in 1900?
unions were still struggling to gain public acceptance
The purpose of the Interstate Commerce Act (1887), the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), and the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) was to
eliminate unfair business practices
Why did the United States follow a policy of unrestricted immigration for Europeans during most of the 1800’s?
The American economy needed many unskilled workers
From 1865 to 1900, how did the growth of industry affect American society?
the percentage of Americans living in urban areas increased
During the late 1800’s, a major reaction to the activities of labor unions in the United States was that
courts frequently issued injunctions to stop strikes
Prior to 1880, the number of immigrants to the United States was not restricted mainly because
industry owners wanted cheap labor
Laws requiring individuals to pass civil service examinations to obtain government jobs were enacted to
eliminate patronage and corruption in government hiring
Businesses formed trusts, pools, and holding companies mainly to
increase profits by eliminating competition
The Rockefeller Foundation, Carnegie Hall, and the Morgan Library illustrate various ways that entrepreneurs and their descendants have
supported philanthropic activities to benefit society
The major reason the United States placed few restrictions on immigration during the 1800’s was that
the growing economy needed a steady supply of cheap labor
The American Federation of Labor became the first long-lasting, successful labor union in the United States mainly because it
fought for the rights of skilled workers
In the United States during the late 19th century, much of the prejudice expressed toward immigrants was based on the belief that they would
fail to assimilate into American society
The actions of Jane Addams, Ida Tarbell, and Booker T. Washington illustrate that reform in the United States has
utilized a variety of methods to achieve many goals

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