Review 2

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
The shift from using wood as a source of fuel to coal was caused
by a decline in local supplies of wood.
The remains of plants, animals, and microorganisms is commonly referred to as
fossil fuel.
In order for a nation to participate in the Industrial Revolution, they had to have
a source of coal
Which country has the highest per capita energy use for transportation?
United States
The price of a liter of gasoline is determined by
All of these are correct.
the cost of processing crude oil into gasoline,the cost of purchasing crude oil, and state and federal taxes.
Ethanol is produced through the fermentation of
All of these are correct.
sugarcane, wheat, sugar beet, corn.
The first transfer of energy on Earth occurs
during photosynthesis
Which form of coal is relatively abundant and most widely used?
bituminous
Liquefied natural gas is formed
by subjecting natural gas to-162°C
Hydroelectric power plants are most commonly located near
artificial reservoirs
The term “mining heat” refers to which power source?
geothermal
Solar, geothermal, and tidal energy are forms of
renewable resources
Environmental problems associated with large hydroelectric dams include
loss of fertile farmland, destruction of aquatic communities, and relocation of people
The best sites for tidal hydroelectric plants are
bays with narrow openings
Environmental problems associated with wind power are:
hazardous to birds, vibrations cause structural problems, and noise and visual pollution
The price of a liter of gasoline is determined by
All of these are correct.
the cost of processing crude oil into gasoline, the cost of purchasing crude oil, and state and federal taxes.
Choose the correct historical sequence of fuel use in the U.S. from 1800 to the present.
wood, coal, oil, gas
Almost all electrical energy is produced as a result of
burning fossil fuels.
What type of currently available car engine is the only one with zero emissions?
electric
Which fossil fuel is the most abundant?
coal
Coal, oil and natural gas make up ___ of the energy consumed worldwide.
80%
Which type of coal has the least amount of moisture and the greatest amount of fixed carbon?
anthracite
Which of the following processes involves removing materials from the top of a vein of coal to get to the coal beneath?
surface mining
Deposits of plant materials formed in bogs are known as:
peat
The world’s fastest growing energy resource in the 1990s was
wind
Some forms of electromagnetic radiation are
All of these are correct.
X-rays, light, and radio waves.
Uranium mining and milling waste contains low levels of
radioactive materials
The first goal for developing nuclear energy was to
produce bombs.
What is the name of the process in which the fuel is removed from a nuclear plant, its surfaces are cleaned, and people are permanently prevented from coming in contact with the building?
decommissioning
As fission occurs in a nuclear reactor the concentration of U-235 atoms
decreases.
Which of the following is NOT a form of energy released from nuclear disintegration?
delta
Which of the following is NOT a part of the nuclear fuel cycle?
gas cooling of the reactor
Biological effects of ionizing radiation include
All of these are correct.
damage to DNA, mutations, and damage to molecules in cells.
Which of the following cancers is strongly linked to increased radiation exposure?
leukemia
Current development and construction of nuclear power plants is occurring mostly in
Asia.
What type of cancer in children has now been found to be associated with Chernobyl?
thyroid
Biodiversity is a broad term used to describe the
All of these are correct.
diversity of genes, diversity of species, diversity of ecosystems.
Complete extinction occurs when
all individuals of a species are eliminated.
The number one cause of extinction is
habitat fragmentation and loss.
Genetic diversity is influenced by which of the following?
All of these are correct
migration, mutation, sexual reproduction
Which harvesting method allows cutting of mature trees without damaging the forest?
selective harvesting
Which of the following is NOT a technique for managing wildlife?
introduction of exotic species
Species are more likely to become extinct if they
have both a low population density and reproductive rate.
Which of the following causes desertification?
overgrazing and cutting of trees for firewood
The taxonomic group that displays the greatest biodiversity is
insects.
Early towns were usually built
near rivers, lakes, and oceans.
Which of the following encouraged suburban growth?
rising automobile usage
The impacts of urban sprawl include
increased congestion, air pollution, and loss of habitat.
Development along transportation routes is referred to as
ribbon sprawl.
Which term describes the movement of large plates on the surface of the Earth?
plate tectonics
__________ increases the decomposition rate of organic matter.
High temperatures
Which soil profile contains material leached from other horizons?
B
Soil compaction
reduces the amount of air, water, and space available to roots.
Land has characteristics that influence how it can be used, including
soil, climate, and degree of slope.
By avoiding excessive tillage, soil quality is enhanced by
minimizing loss of organic matter.
Soil conservation or quality management practices include
contour and strip farming.
Which of the following do plants need to live?
All of these are correct
water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen
Organisms affect the soil in which of the following ways?
All of these are correct
by releasing nutrients, by burrowing, and through decomposition
Decaying organic material is called
Humus
Soil erosion is linked to which of the following environmental issues?
water pollution
Sustainable agriculture utilizes methods that
do not deplete soil, water, air, or wildlife resources.
“Organically grown” is a legally defined term which requires that
organic farms be certified, organic farms must increase soil fertility, and prohibits the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers.
Which is a typical method used by organic farmers to control pests?
predator or beneficial insects such as the ladybug (ladybird beetle)
A genetically modified organism has had one or more
genes altered.
The Green Revolution refers to
the introduction of new plant varieties and farming methods during the 1950s and 1960s
Which of the following is a characteristic of a perfect pesticide?
All of these are correct
a short-life, affect only target organisms, and would be inexpensive
DDT is an example of a(n)
insecticide.
Which of the following factors is NOT characteristic of a species likely to become extinct?
generalized niche
Which is the greatest cause of extinction?
habitat alteration
A sustainable community seeks to protect and enhance the environment by
valuing and protecting the diversity of nature.
Vacant urban industrial and commercial sites are referred to as
brown fields.
The major problem on federal rangelands is
overgrazing.
Characteristics of high-performance green buildings are
All of these are correct
low flow water fixtures, and location near public transportation, and native vegetation used in landscaping.
Two processes which chemically alter parent material are
oxidation and hydrolysis.
Soil building begins with the physical fragmentation of layers of rock known as
parent material.
Organisms affect the soil in which of the following ways?
All of these are correct
by releasing nutrients, by burrowing, and through decomposition
Beneficial insects are used in agriculture because they
prey on pest insects.
Increased crop yields in the U.S. are the result of
All of these are correct
improved agricultural methods, more efficient machinery, and the application of fertilizers.
Fossil fuels are liquid deposits of iron ore found only in sedimentary rock formations.
False
The higher the price of energy, the more expensive goods and services become.
True
In North America roughly 5% of the world’s population consumes 40% of the gasoline produced in the world by private automobile use.
True
Black lung disease is a hazard of working on oil rigs.
False
The primary problem associated with natural gas is transport of the gas to consumers.
True
The primary limitation of solar energy is the lack of money needed to fund such projects.
False
Soil is a mixture of minerals, organic material, living organisms, air, and water.
True
All reactors contain a core of fuel, a moderator to control the rate of the reaction, and a cooling mechanism.
True
Nuclear fission is the splitting of electrons in the outer shell of an atom.
False
Fragmentation of soil particles occurs from freezing and thawing of water within soil pores and cracks.
True
Most experts feel that the best solution for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste is to bury it in a stable geologic formation.
True
With increasing oil costs, global warming issues, and other factors, interest in nuclear power has returned in some countries.
True
Land is a renewable resource because it can be formed by natural processes.
False
As a result of unplanned development, floodplains and wetlands are often mismanaged.
True
Land that can not be cultivated will not be productive for other uses.
False
As towns became larger, surrounding farmland became suburbia.
True
Loam soil is primarily clay with small amounts of sand and silt.
False
Fertilizers do not alter soil characteristics.
False
Monoculture farming is the best method to use to prevent soil erosion.
False
Currently, the most successful commercial design for harnessing and using solar energy to produce electricity is the parabolic trough.
True
Persistent pesticides decompose quickly and present less of an environmental hazard.
False
Polyculture is a process where different species of plants are grown together in the same place at the same time.
True

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