Research M2

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Which hypothesis would be classified as a statistical hypothesis? Answers: A. Oxygen inhalation by nasal cannula of 2 L/min will decrease oral temperature measurement taken with an electronic thermometer. B. Oxygen inhalation by nasal cannula of 2 L/min does not affect oral temperature measurement taken with an electronic thermometer. C. There will be a greater decrease in anxiety scores for patients receiving informational videos before open heart surgery than for patients receiving standard printed information. D. There will be a difference in the performance accuracy of adult nurse practitioners and family nurse practitioners in formulating accurate diagnoses and acceptable interventions for suspected cases of domestic violence Quiz # 1
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Correct B: This hypothesis is worded in such a way as to be a statistical hypothesis.
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How is a hypothesis different from a research problem? Answers: A. There is no difference between a research problem and a hypothesis. B. A hypothesis is theory based and a research question is practice based. C. A hypothesis attempts to answer the question posed by the research problem. D. A research problem defines clinical research and a hypothesis defines basic research. Quiz # 1
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Correct C: A hypothesis attempts to answer the research question.
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The nurse researcher notes the following statements in a research article: “This study explored changes in coping and emotion that occur between the preoperative and the postoperative period. Further, the relationship between coping and emotion preoperatively and postoperatively were evaluated. Finally, the influence of preoperative coping and emotion on postoperative emotion is documented.” This section is which part of a research study? Answers: A. Results B. Method C. Purpose D. Hypothesis Quiz # 1
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Correct C: The example encompasses the aims or goals that the investigator hopes to achieve with the research, not the question to be answered.
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What is the key difference between the independent and dependent variables? Answers: A. The dependent variable should change in response to manipulation of the independent variable. B. The independent variable should change in response to manipulation of the dependent variable. C. Although both the dependent and independent variables are manipulated, only the dependent variable is considered an intervention. D. The dependent variable relies on personal or demographic variables for strength, whereas the independent variable is strong enough to stand alone. Quiz # 1
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Correct A: Dependent variables change in response to manipulation of independent variables in experimental research.
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Which statement represents a potential area of research for a novice nurse researcher? Answers: A. “Most of our hospital admissions come in at night.” B. “It is difficult to find personnel willing to work the night shift.” C. “It seems that most of the patient falls on our unit occur during the night shift.” D. “The night shift personnel are not attending promptly to the needs of our patients.” Quiz # 1
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Correct C: A specific patient problem is identified, and its potential contribution to the scientific body of nursing knowledge is promising. The problem is relevant to patients’ state of health.
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Which part of the following research question is the dependent variable? “How does maternal employment among health care professionals affect infant health during the first 6 months of life?” Answers: A. Infant health B. Maternal employment C. First 6 months of life D. Health care professionals Quiz # 1
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Correct A: Infant health is the consequence or presumed effect that changes regarding maternal employment as the independent variable.
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Which research problem is testable for the nurse researcher as currently written? Answers: A. Should mothers addicted to crack cocaine be permitted to raise their children? B. Is the classroom an appropriate place to teach sex education to 10-year-old children? C. Are elders residing in assisted-living facilities satisfied with their level of social interaction? D. Is a positive HIV/AIDS status sufficient rationale for limiting the employment of elementary school teachers? Quiz # 1
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Correct C: This example implies variables that can be measured and suggests a comparative nonexperimental design study. The independent variable is residence: residing in assisted-living facilities and not residing in assisted-living facilities; the dependent variable is social interaction.
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The initial review of the literature helps the investigator to: Answers: A. Organize the summary B. Identify statistical tests C. Identify the need to extend knowledge base D. Determine the scope of the study Quiz # 1
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Correct C: This might be discovered in the initial review of the literature.
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How is a hypothesis related to a theory? Answers: A. Hypotheses can determine the validity of a theory. B. Hypotheses must be based on sound scientific rationale. C. Theories can determine the validity of a hypothesis. D. Theories can be used to evaluate the merit of a hypothesis. Quiz # 1
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B: A sound hypothesis is consistent with an existing body of theory and Feedback: research findings.
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The nurse researcher notes the following statements in a research article: “This study explored changes in coping and emotion that occur between the preoperative and the postoperative period. Further, the relationship between coping and emotion preoperatively and postoperatively were evaluated. Finally, the influence of preoperative coping and emotion on postoperative emotion is documented.” This section is which part of a research study? Answers: A. Results B. Method C. Purpose D. Hypothesis Quiz # 1
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Correct C: The example encompasses the aims or goals that the investigator hopes to achieve with the research, not the question to be answered.
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What is the key difference between the independent and dependent variables? Answers: A. The dependent variable should change in response to manipulation of the independent variable. B. The independent variable should change in response to manipulation of the dependent variable. C. Although both the dependent and independent variables are manipulated, only the dependent variable is considered an intervention. D. The dependent variable relies on personal or demographic variables for strength, whereas the independent variable is strong enough to stand alone. Quiz # 1
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Correct A: Dependent variables change in response to manipulation of independent variables in experimental research.
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After an idea or a clinical situation first emerges as a potential research problem for the nurse researcher, what is the appropriate next step in designing a research study? Answers: A. Identifying the variables B. Formulating a hypothesis C. Performing a literature review D. Validating financial resources for a research project Quiz # 1
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Correct C: The literature review helps identify the relationship among potential variables and helps the researcher further define the research question, address gaps in the literature, and extend the knowledge base related to potential variables.
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Which hypothesis is nondirectional? Answers: A. Hospitals with an infection-control nurse will have fewer instances of sepsis among inpatients than hospitals without an infection-control nurse. B. There will be a greater weight loss among dieting patients who receive a weekly supportive telephone call from a dietitian than among dieting patients who do not receive a weekly supportive phone call. C. There will be a difference in stage of disease for prostate cancer among men who had an abnormal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening compared with men who had an abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) screening. D. Children who receive weekly counseling for one year after the death of a parent will perform better in school than children who do not receive weekly counseling after the death of a parent. Quiz # 1
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Correct C: This example includes a nondirectional hypothesis; there is no expected direction evident.
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Which hypothesis fails to meet the criteria of testability? Answers: A. Proper handwashing prevents spread of infection. B. Consistent practice of low-impact aerobic exercise will increase coordination among older adults. C. Patients who use guided imagery during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures will have reduced perceptions of emotional distress compared with patients who do not use guided imagery. D. Postoperative patients who receive around-the-clock scheduled analgesics will have lower levels of pain compared with postoperative patients who receive analgesics on an as-needed (PRN) schedule. Quiz # 1
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Correct A: This statement does not suggest that there is a predicted outcome as specifically as the other examples; the term proper is value laden.
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What type of hypothesis is demonstrated by the following statement? “There will be no difference in the number of adverse events among patients discharged two days after an abdominal hysterectomy compared with patients discharged four days after an abdominal hysterectomy.” Answers: Response Feedback: A. Nondirectional hypothesis B. Directional hypothesis C. Deductive hypothesis D. Null hypothesis Quiz # 1
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Correct D: This is a null hypothesis, stating that there is no relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
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Which factors or considerations constitute the feasibility of a research study that proposes to include teenage mothers and their experience with postpartum depression? Answers: A. Availability of the participants B. Direction of the hypotheses C. Gaps in the literature D. Design of the study Correct A: A study’s feasibility is determined by practical considerations, such as availability of subjects.
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Correct A: A study’s feasibility is determined by practical considerations, such as availability of subjects.
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What are the four components of a clinical question? Answers: A. Population, inference, comparison, outcome B. Population, intervention, clinical, outcome C. Population, implication, clinical, objective D. Population, intervention, comparison, outcome Quiz # 1
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Correct D: The four components of a clinical question are population, intervention, comparison, and outcome.
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Which part of the following research question is the dependent variable? “How does maternal employment among health care professionals affect infant health during the first 6 months of life?” Answers: A. Infant health B. Maternal employment C. First 6 months of life D. Health care professionals Quiz # 1
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Correct A: Infant health is the consequence or presumed effect that changes regarding maternal employment as the independent variable.
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There is a positive relationship between nurse attitudes toward AIDS patients and the number of AIDS patients they have cared for. Identify the type of hypothesis. Answers: A. Null B. Nondirectional C. Directional D. Causal Quiz # 1
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“C” Incorrect A: The example is not a null hypothesis; a null hypothesis specifies no relationship. Incorrect B: The example is a directional hypothesis, not a nondirectional hypothesis. Incorrect D: The word relationship indicates an association testing hypothesis.
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Select the independent variable in the following research purpose: This study will compare the effect of warm and cold applications on the resolution of intravenous (IV) infiltrations in hospitalized, postoperative elderly patients. Answers: A. Postoperative elderly patients B. Resolution C. Warm and cold applications D. IV infiltrations Quiz # 1
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Correct C: This answer identifies the variable that is manipulated and that influences the dependent or outcome variable.
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How is a model related to a concept or concepts? Answers: A. A model tests conceptual theories. B. A concept defines the purpose of a model. C. A model demonstrates the relationships among or between concepts. D. Concepts generate the theoretical basis for knowledge depicted in a model. Quiz # 2
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Correct C: A model demonstrates relationships among concepts.
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How many years should be researched in the literature for an evidence-based project? Answers: 1. 3 years is sufficient 2. 5 years is preferred 3. 7 years is expected 4. All literature is to be included Quiz # 2
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(CORRECT): 2. Typically, it is preferable to review the most recent 5 years of literature.
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What is the significance of the following statement found in a study’s abstract? “This research was an exploratory descriptive investigation of the pregnancy experiences of a multiethnic group of pregnant adolescents.” Answers: A. Aims B. Design C. Significance D. Implications Quiz # 2
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Response Feedback: Correct B: The statement describes the design of the study.
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Which of the following sets of terms contains the most closely related concepts? Answers: a. Conceptual literature, empirical literature, data-based literature. b. Empirical literature, scientific literature, theoretical literature c. Theoretical literature, conceptual literature, research literature d. Data-based literature, research literature, empirical literature. Quiz # 2
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d. Data-based literature, research literature, empirical literature.
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How is a review of the literature most effectively organized? Answers: A. Retrieved materials B. Theoretical summaries C. Importance of the author D. Variables being studied Quiz # 2
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Response Feedback: Correct D: The variables being studied provide a useful organizational approach to the literature review; there are other approaches too.
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Where in a report of a quantitative research study would you expect the gaps or conflicts about the phenomenon studied to be identified? Answers: A. Analysis of data B. Research design C. Problem statement D. Review of the literature Quiz # 2
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Response Feedback: Correct D: A literature review describes what is known as well as what is not known about a phenomenon being studied.
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How is evidence-based practice derived? Answers: 1. From research on patient outcomes 2. From theories that ground practice 3. From multidisciplinary collaborations 4. From the need to lower health care cost Quiz # 2
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Response Feedback: Rationale (CORRECT): 1. Research on patient outcomes provides the evidence for safe and effective nursing practice.
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Which manuscript title suggests the article is conceptual in nature? Answers: 1. The effects of using guided imagery relaxation on seven measures of stress 2. A study of stress experienced by mothers of young, chronically ill children 3. An exploration of the effects of change on nursing practice in acute ambulatory settings 4. Leading the initiative: the role of the advanced practice nurse practitioner in developing quality assurance programs in an ambulatory surgical setting Quiz # 2
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Not # 2
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The first step for the researcher is to: Answers: 1. analyze and manage the data. 2. define the specific clinical problem. 3. propose research hypotheses. 4. recognize general problem areas. Quiz # 2
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Not # 2
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What is an appropriate method of eliminating irrelevant sources when the nurse researcher conducts an electronic search for articles for a literature review on a selected topic? Answers: A. Collect and critically read all articles related to the topic published in the last 10 years. B. Select for printout only those articles whose abstracts indicate usefulness. C. Avoid articles from clinical journals. D. Avoid articles that do not include the term study in the title. Quiz # 2
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Response Feedback: Correct B: This approach narrows the search to a more manageable focus.
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A student conducting an electronic search of the literature is simultaneously using two databases, CINAHL and MEDLINE. The keywords used selected 2050 citations. What can be deduced from this? Answers: 1. There has been a great deal of research in this area 2. CINAHL and MEDLINE duplicate the literature 3. The keywords were not sufficiently narrow 4. A third database is needed to limit the search Quiz # 2
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Response Feedback: Rationale (CORRECT): 3. The student should review the keywords used and narrow the search.
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How are theory and practice interrelated for the hospital-based nurse researcher? Answers: A. Practice is the operational definition of theory. B. Practice provides the opportunity to test theory. C. Theory provides the evidence on which practice is based. D. Theory generates questions that are used to refine practice. Quiz # 2
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Response Feedback: Correct B: Practice environments provide settings to test theory.
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What factor limits the usefulness of the World Wide Web as a source of information for research consumers? Answers: 1. Downloading can be a slow process. 2. Nontext capabilities reduce the professionalism of presentations. 3. There is little quality control over the information on some web sites. 4. Much of the available information is too technical to be understood by the casual reader. Quiz # 2
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Correct 3: There is little quality control over the information on some web sites.
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The purpose of the National Center for Nursing Research is to: Answers: 1. prevent the mitigation of the effects of chronic illness. 2. remove nursing from the sphere of scientific investigation. 3. replace the nursing process with research methodology. 4. support research into patient-care policies and procedures. Quiz # 2
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Correct # 1
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How is nursing research significant to the profession of nursing? Answers: A. It allows nursing responsibility to be more specifically defined. B. It allows liability within the practice of nursing to be decreased. C. It allows a specialized body of knowledge to be generated for use in health care delivery. D. It allows the scope of nursing practice to be expanded into areas formerly reserved for other disciplines. Quiz # 2
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Response Feedback: Correct C: Theory-based nursing research provides a foundation for evidence-based nursing care. Nursing research generates a specialized scientific knowledge base that empowers the nursing profession to anticipate and meet constantly shifting challenges of health care delivery to multiple populations.
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What should be a part of the critique of a quantitative research report? Answers: A. Applying the findings in clinical practice B. Summarizing the major steps of the research process C. Constructively evaluating a study for its strengths and weaknesses D. Determining whether the phenomenon studied by participants can be recognized as their own Response Feedback: Quiz # 2
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Correct C: Research critique is constructive evaluation of a study’s strengths and limitations.
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How are theoretical and conceptual frameworks different? Answers: A. Conceptual frameworks are more appropriate for qualitative studies, and theoretical frameworks are more appropriate for quantitative studies. B. Theoretical frameworks are individually developed by researchers, and theoretical frameworks already exist. C. Conceptual frameworks are individually developed by researchers, and theoretical frameworks already exist. D. Theoretical frameworks are theory generating, and conceptual frameworks are theory testing. Quiz # 2
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Response Feedback: Correct C: Conceptual frameworks are developed by researchers; theoretical frameworks already exist.
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A student finds most of the articles retrieved during an electronic search of the literature are not useful. What is the best next step to take? Answers: 1. Use the articles obtained, since there has been little research conducted in the area 2. Change the keywords and do another search 3. Change the study and focus of the literature review 4. Use a print index to retrieve older documents Quiz # 2
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Response Feedback: Rationale (CORRECT): 2. The student most likely did not use the keywords most appropriate for retrieval of relevant information.
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A topic most closely conforming to the priorities that have been suggested for future nursing research in the NINR’s strategic plan is: Answers: a. Nursing staff morale and turnover b. Palliative care at the end of life c. Factors associated with patient compliance with treatment d. Number of doctorally prepared nurses in various clinical specialties Quiz # 2
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Correct B: Palliative care at the end of life
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The purpose of an operational definition is to: Answers: a. state the expected relations between the variables under study b. designate the overall plan by which the research will be conducted. c. specify how a variable will be defined and measured d. assign numerical values to variables Quiz # 2
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Correct C: specify how a variable will be defined and measured
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A researcher wants to investigate the effect of patients’ body position on blood pressure. The study would most likely be of which type? Answers: A. Insufficient information to determine B. Quantitative C. Either quantitative or qualitative (researcher preference) D. Qualitative Quiz # 1
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Response Feedback: B: Because this study would involve a measurable, numeric outcome—blood pressure—it should most likely be a quantitative study.
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Which statement would be an example of a clinical question? Answers: A. What is it like to have postpartum depression? B. Does the use of weight-reduction aids increase the likelihood of developing postpartum depression? C. Are diet and exercise effective weight-reduction aids for postpartum women? D. Diet and exercise are not effective as weight-reduction aids for postpartum women. Quiz # 1
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Response Feedback: Correct C: This statement is worded as a clinical question.
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Stages of change is a construct that was developed within which of the following? Answers: A. The Theory of Planned Behavior B. The Health Belief Model C. The Transtheoretical Model D. Health as Expanding Consciousness Model Quiz # 3
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C. The Transtheoretical Model Response Feedback: In the Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska et al., 2002), the core construct is stages of change, which conceptualizes a continuum of motivational readiness to change problem behavior. Becker’s Health Belief Model (HBM) is a framework for explaining people’s health-related behavior, such as health-care use and compliance with a medical regimen. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 2005), which is an extension of another theory called the Theory of Reasoned Action, offers a framework for understanding people’s behavior and its psychological determinants. Rosa (2011) based her study of the process of transformative nursing practice in caring for patients with a chronic illness in Margaret Newman’s (1997) Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness.
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Which of the following concepts are central to nursing models? Select all that apply. Answers: A. Health B. Human beings C. Environment D. Nutrition Quiz # 3
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A, B, C Response Feedback: Human beings, environment, and health are three of the four concepts central to models of nursing, with nursing being the fourth, as opposed to nutrition. These conceptual models have been defined and linked in diverse ways to emphasize the relationship among them.
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The nurse-theorist Pender developed which of the following? Answers: A. Social Cognitive Theory B. Adaptation Model C. Health Belief Model D. Health Promotion Model Quiz # 3
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C. Health Promotion Model Response Feedback: Pender’s (2006) Health Promotion Model (HPM) focuses on explaining health-promoting behaviors, using a wellness orientation. An example of a model of nursing used by nurse researchers is Roy’s Adaptation Model. The Social Cognitive Theory was developed by Bandura, and the Health Belief Model was developed by Becker.
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The power of theories lies in their ability to do which of the following? Answers: A. Prove conclusively that relationships exist among the phenomena studied B. Articulate the nature of relationships among phenomena C. Minimize the number of words required to explain phenomena and, thereby, eliminate semantic problems D. Explain large segments of human experience Quiz # 3
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B. Articulate the nature of relationships among phenomena Response Feedback: A theory is an abstract generalization that systematically explains relationships among phenomena, but does not prove these relationships conclusively. Schematic models (or conceptual maps) are graphic representations of phenomena and their interrelationships using symbols or diagrams and a minimal use of words. Grand theories (or macro theories) attempt to describe large segments of the human experience, but this is not true of all theories.
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Which of the following are central concepts in conceptual models of nursing? Select all that apply. Answers: A. Social support B. Health C. Human beings D. Environment Quiz # 3
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Health, Human beings, Environment Response Feedback: The concepts central to models of nursing are human beings, environment, health, and nursing. Social supports are not a concept central to models of nursing.
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The Health Promotion Model would best be described as which of the following? Answers: A. Descriptive theory B. Grounded theory C. Middle-range theory D. Borrowed theory Quiz # 3
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C. Middle-rand theory Response Feedback: Examples of middle-range theories that have been used in research include Beck’s (2012) Theory of Postpartum Depression; the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms (Lenz et al., 1997), Kolcaba’s (2003) Comfort Theory, Pender’s Health Promotion Model, and Mishel’s Uncertainty in Illness Theory (1990). Middle-range theories are specific to certain phenomena. Descriptive theory thoroughly describes a phenomenon. Non-nursing models used by nurse researchers (e.g., Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory) are referred to as borrowed theories; when the appropriateness of borrowed theories for nursing inquiry is confirmed, the theories become shared theories. Some qualitative researchers seek to develop grounded theories, data-driven explanations to account for phenomena under study through inductive processes.
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Self efficacy is a widely-used construct that was originally developed within which of the following? Answers: A. Social Cognitive Theory B. The Uncertainty in Illness Theory C. The Health Belief Model D. The Health Promotion Model Quiz # 3
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A. Social Cognitive Theory Response Feedback: Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1985, 2001), which is sometimes called self-efficacy theory, offers an explanation of human behavior using the concepts of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and incentives. Becker’s Health Belief Model (HBM) is a framework for explaining people’s health-related behavior, such as health-care use and compliance with a medical regimen. Nola Pender’s (2006) Health Promotion Model (HPM) focuses on explaining health-promoting behaviors, using a wellness orientation. Mishel’s Uncertainty in Illness Theory (Mishel, 1990) focuses on the concept of uncertainty—the inability of a person to determine the meaning of illness-related events.
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The nurse-theorist Roy developed which of the following? Answers: A. Uncertainty in Illness Model B. Adaptation Model C. Health Promotion Model D. Theory of Stress and Coping Quiz # 3
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B. Adaption Model Response Feedback: An example of a model of nursing used by nurse researchers is Roy’s Adaptation Model. Mishel’s Uncertainty in Illness Theory (Mishel, 1990) focuses on the concept of uncertainty—the inability of a person to determine the meaning of illness-related events. Nola Pender’s (2006) Health Promotion Model (HPM) focuses on explaining health-promoting behaviors, using a wellness orientation. Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984, 2006) Theory of Stress and Coping offers an explanation of people’s methods of dealing with stress.
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The belief that a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder will learn appropriate behaviors from continued positive reinforcement of acceptable behavior patterns can generate a research hypothesis. This generalization of the relationship between phenomena is known as which of the following? Answers: A. Null Hypothesis B. Model C. Theory D. Framework Quiz # 3
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C. Theory Response Feedback: Classically, theory is defined as an abstract generalization that explains how phenomena are interrelated. The relationships in this case are between the concepts of ADHD and positive reinforcement. Models are more loosely structured than theories and deal more in abstracts. Frameworks relate to the conceptual underpinnings of a study. A null hypothesis suggests that no relationship exists between concepts. In this case, we are looking at the relationship between ADHD and positive reinforcement with the hypothesis that a relationship does exist.
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The nurse-theorist Mishel developed which of the following? Answers: A. Health Promotion Model B. Transtheoretical Model C. Uncertainty in Illness Theory D. Adaptation Model Quiz # 3
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C. Uncertainty in Illness Theory Response Feedback: Mishel’s Uncertainty in Illness Theory (Mishel, 1990) focuses on the concept of uncertainty—the inability of a person to determine the meaning of illness-related events. Pender’s (2006) Health Promotion Model (HPM) focuses on explaining health-promoting behaviors, using a wellness orientation. An example of a model of nursing used by nurse researchers is Roy’s Adaptation Model. Prochaska developed the Transtheoretical Model.
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Visual representation of the relationships among phenomena used in both quantitative and qualitative research is known as which of the following? Answers: A. Descriptive theory B. Conceptual map C. Framework D. Shared theory Quiz # 3
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B. Conceptual Map Response Feedback: Conceptual maps or schematic models link concepts and represent them graphically through boxes, arrows, or other symbols. Although theories and frameworks build through concepts they are not necessarily always depicted through a schematic representation.
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A set of logically interrelated propositions is associated with which of the following? Answers: A. Classical theory B. Descriptive theory C. Schematic model D. Conceptual model Quiz # 3
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A. Classical Theory Response Feedback: In the classical use of theory, researchers test hypotheses deduced from an existing theory. An emerging trend is the testing of theory-based interventions. Concepts are also the basic elements of conceptual models, but concepts are not linked in a logically ordered, deductive system. Schematic models (or conceptual maps) are graphic representations of phenomena and their interrelationships using symbols or diagrams and a minimal use of words. Descriptive theory thoroughly describes a phenomenon.
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Every study has which of the following? Answers: A. Conceptual model B. Framework C. Schematic model D. Theory Quiz # 3
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B, Framework Response Feedback: A framework is the conceptual underpinning of a study. Not every study is based on a theory or conceptual model, but every study has a framework. Schematic models (or conceptual maps) are graphic representations of phenomena and their interrelationships using symbols or diagrams and a minimal use of words; not every study has a schematic model.
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The building blocks of theory are which of the following? Answers: A. Hypotheses B. Concepts C. Relationships D. Frameworks Quiz # 3
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B. Concepts Response Feedback: As classically defined, theories consist of concepts and a set of propositions that form a logically interrelated system, providing a mechanism for deducing hypotheses from the original propositions. Schematic models (or conceptual maps) visually represent relationships among phenomena, and are used in both qualitative and quantitative research. Like theories, conceptual models can serve as springboards for generating hypotheses.
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Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory of Stress and Coping has been used in nursing research to correlate the relationship between stress and anxiety in primary caregivers of patients with dementia. This is an example of which of the following? Answers: A. Grounded theory B. Framework C. Shared theory D. Conceptual model Quiz # 3
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C. Shared Theory Response Feedback: The Theory of Stress and Coping is one of five non-nursing models or theories that have frequently been used in nursing studies, thus making it a shared theory. Grounded theory is a tradition of qualitative research. Concepts are the building blocks of theories. Theories can serve as the basis of a framework in a study although there is no specific indication above that it was used in a specific research study.
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Research on the recovery process of young adults following post-traumatic amputation of a lower extremity would best be furthered by using which of the following conceptual models of nursing? Answers: A. Becker’s Health Belief Model B. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory C. Prochaska’s Transtheoretical Model D. Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model Quiz # 3
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D. Sister Callista Roy’s Adaption Model Response Feedback: In the Adaptation Model, humans are considered adaptive systems that cope with change through adaptation. A patient with an amputation of a lower extremity would have the need to cope with this loss and adapt to the change in mobility resultant from the trauma. Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1985, 2001), which is sometimes called self-efficacy theory, offers an explanation of human behavior using the concepts of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and incentives. Self-efficacy concerns people’s belief in their own capacity to carry out particular behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation). In the Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska et al., 2002), the core construct is stages of change, which conceptualizes a continuum of motivational readiness to change problem behavior. Becker’s Health Belief Model (HBM) is a framework for explaining people’s health-related behavior, such as health-care use and compliance with a medical regimen.
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Which of the following are overall objectives of the use of theories in research? Select all that apply. Answers: A. To determine the research design and methods of data collection B. To stimulate new research C. To provide a mechanism for deducing hypotheses D. To explain relationships among phenomena Quiz # 3
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B, C, & D Response Feedback: Classically, theory is defined as an abstract generalization that explains how phenomena are interrelated. As classically defined, theories consist of concepts and a set of propositions that form a logically interrelated system, providing a mechanism for deducing hypotheses from the original propositions. Theories can also help to stimulate research by providing both direction and impetus. The research design and methods of data collection are directly related to the research problem and research question and are not primarily determined by the theory.
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Theories are created and invented as opposed to being discovered. Theories are built inductively from which of the following? Answers: A. Research questions B. Research problems C. Observations D. Correlations Quiz # 3
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C. Observations Response Feedback: Theory and research have a reciprocal relationship. Theories are built inductively from observations, and research is an excellent source for those observations. The theory, in turn, must be tested by subjecting deductions from it (hypotheses) to systematic inquiry. Thus, research plays a dual and continuing role in theory building and testing. Correlations, research questions, and research problems are part of the research designs that validate or test the relationship between concepts.
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Nursing theories that are more restricted in their generality and set out to explain a smaller focus of the human experience are known as which of the following? Answers: A. Grand theories B. Classical theories C. Propositions D. Middle-range theories
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D. Middle-range theories Response Feedback: Middle-range theories explain a portion of the human experience such as decision-making or infant attachment. Grand theories or macro-theories explain large segments of human experience and tend to be more general. Classically defined, theories consist of concepts and a set of propositions that form a logically interrelated system, providing a mechanism for logically deducing new statements from original propositions.
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The Theory of Stress and Coping is an example of which of the following? Answers: A. A grounded theory B. A nursing model C. A borrowed theory D. A grand theory Quiz # 3
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C. A borrowed theory Response Feedback: An example of a model of nursing used by nurse researchers is Roy’s Adaptation Model. Grand theories (or macro theories) attempt to describe large segments of the human experience. Non-nursing models used by nurse researchers (e.g., Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory) are referred to as borrowed theories; when the appropriateness of borrowed theories for nursing inquiry is confirmed, the theories become shared theories. The Theory of Stress and Coping is an example of a borrowed theory. Some qualitative researchers seek to develop grounded theories, data-driven explanations to account for phenomena under study through inductive processes.

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