Research Final

The independent variable in the research question, “What is the effect of noise levels on postoperative pain and blood pressure fluctuations in ICU patients?” is which of the following?
A.Noise levels
B.Blood pressure
C.ICU patients
D.Postoperative pain
A
The purpose of an operational definition in a quantitative study is to do which of the following?
A.Designate the conceptual underpinnings of a variable
B.State the expected relationship between the variables under investigation
C.Assign numeric values to variables
D.Specify how a variable will be measured
A
The overall plan for answering a research question—the architectural backbone of a study—is called which of the following?
A.Sampling plan
B.Research design
C.Proposal
D.Hypothesis
B
The aggregate of those to whom a researcher wishes to generalize study results is which of the following?
A.Population
B.Sampling plan
C.Gatekeepers
D.Sample
A
Which of the following terms is used by both qualitative and quantitative researchers to refer to the abstractions under study?
A.Concept
B.Theory
C.Phenomenon
D.Variable
A
Which of the following is true of an experimental study? Select all that apply.
A. It is a type of qualitative research
B. It tests causal relationships
C. It can be called a clinical trial
D. It includes an intervention or treatment
B,C,D
The dependent variable in the research question, “Is the quality of life of nursing home residents affected by their functional ability or hearing acuity?” is which of the following?
A.Functional ability
B.Hearing acuity
C.Quality of life
D.Residence in a nursing home
C
For which of the following pairs of variables is there most likely to be a relationship that could be described as causal?
A.Gender and depression
B.Age and health beliefs
C.Stress and coping style
D.Degree of physical activity and heart rate
D
Which of the following is a datum from a qualitative research study on the labor and delivery experiences of women over age 40?
A.14.6 hours of labor
B.”It was a nightmare–much more painful than I ever imagined.”
C.15 women with a vaginal delivery
D.60 minute interviews one day after delivery
B
The aggregate of those to whom a researcher wishes to generalize study results is which of the following?
A.Sampling plan
B.Gatekeepers
C.Population
D.Sample
C
The Health Promotion Model would best be described as which of the following?
A.Grounded theory
B.Descriptive theory
C.Borrowed theory
D.Middle-range theory
D
A hypothesis that states there is no relationship between the independent variable(s) and the dependent variable(s) is called which of the following?
A.Simple hypothesis
B.Null hypothesis
C.Research hypothesis
D.Non-directional hypothesis
B
The hypothesis, “A person’s emotional status is not affected by a relocation to a nursing home” is which of the following?
A.Not testable
B.Nondirectional
C.Directional
D.Null
D
“Does maternal stress during the first trimester of a pregnancy affect the infant’s birth weight?” is which of the following?
A.A statement of purpose
B.A portion of a problem statement
C.A research question
D.A hypothesis
C
Which of the following are overall objectives of the use of theories in research? Select all that apply.
A. To explain relationships among phenomena
B. To stimulate new research
C. To provide a mechanism for deducing hypotheses
D. To determine the research design and methods of data collection
A,B,C
“This study aimed to explore the meaning of the experience of living with a colostomy” is which of the following?
A.A statement of purpose
B.A hypothesis
C.A portion of a problem statement
D.A research question
A
The hypothesis, “Women who jog regularly are more likely than those who do not to have amenorrhea” is which of the following?
A.Directional
B.Nondirectional
C.Not testable
D.Null
A
Theories are created and invented as opposed to being discovered. Theories are built inductively from which of the following?
A.Research problems
B.Research questions
C.Correlations
D.Observations
D
A research hypothesis indicates the expected relationship between which of the following?
A.The independent variable and the dependent variable
B.The functional and causal nature of the variables
C.Statistical testing and the null hypothesis
D.The statement of purpose and the research questions
A
The building blocks of theory are which of the following?
A.Relationships
B.Hypotheses
C.Frameworks
D.Concepts
D
___ is the major research ethical issue in the story of Henrietta Lacks.
Informed consent
Henrietta’s cells were used to develop the ___ vaccine.
Polio
Henrietta’s cells were the first human cells to be kept alive in culture and grow ___.
Indefinitely
___ wrote “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks”.
Rebecca Skloot
Henrietta’s ___ was published in 2013 without ___.
Genome, consent
The name given to Henrietta Lacks’ cells used in research is ___.
HeLa
The ___ reached an agreement with the Lacks family regarding researchers’ use of Henrietta’s ___ in August 2013.
NIH, genome
An Institutional Review Board’s primary purpose is to review the scientific merits of completed research.
False
From a research standpoint, a person who does not have the competence to give his or her informed consent is considered a vulnerable subject.
True
A person’s voluntary participation in an interview indicates implied consent, and so a formal consent form is not necessary.
False
An important function of a rigorous research design in a quantitative study is to have control over which of the following?
A.Outcome variables
B.Carryover variables
C.Confounding variable
D.Mediating variables
C
A true experiment requires which of the following? Select all that apply.
A. Control
B. Randomization
C. Intervention
D. Blinding
A,B,C
Studies that collect data at one point in time are called which of the following?
A.Time series
B.Cross-sectional studies
C.Longitudinal studies
D.Crossover studies
B
A study that followed, over a 20-year period, 500 users and 500 non-users of oral contraceptives to determine if there were any long-term side effects would be which of the following?
A.Retrospective study
B.Time series
C.Prospective study
D.Crossover study
C
Which of the following research designs is weakest in terms of the researcher’s ability to establish causality?
A.Non-experimental
B.Quasi-experimental
C.Pre-test/Post-test
D.Experimental
A
The researcher controls confounding variables in order to answer which one of the following questions?
A.Where will the data collection occur?
B.What other variables may influence the results?
C.Who needs to know sensitive information about the research details?
D.When will the data on the variables be collected?
B
Which quantitative research design will most strongly support evidence-based practice?
A.Factorial Design
B.Randomized Control Trial Design
C.Correlational Design
D.Time-Series Design
B
What study design flaw may lead to a failure to achieve statistical significance?
A.Small sample size
B.Cross-sectional data collection
C.Adequate exposure to the intervention
D.Variables precisely defined
A
A control group in an experiment is always the group that gets “usual care.”
False
In an experiment, the researcher manipulates (deliberately varies) the independent variable.
True
All types of probability sampling designs involve randomness in the selection process.
True
The major criterion in assessing the adequacy of a sample in a quantitative study is the degree to which it represents the characteristics of interest in the population.
True
In a quantitative study, larger samples are more likely to represent the population on the attribute of interest than smaller samples.
True
Each element in the population has an equal chance of being selected in quota sampling.
False
The researcher handpicks people to be included in a study in purposive sampling.
True
Blood type is measured on which of the following:
A.Nominal scale
B.Ordinal scale
C.Interval scale
D.Ratio scale
A
Reliability refers to the extent to which an instrument measures the concept that the researcher thinks is being measured.
False
Which of the following is an example of ratio measurement:
A.Likert scale response to questions
B.Twenty-four hour oral intake in cc’s
C.Eye color (blue, brown, hazel, green)
D.Ability to perform activities of daily living
B
Which of the following is an example of ordinal measurement:
A.Milligrams of a medication dosage
B.Levels of education (associate’s degree, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree)
C.Score on the HESI examination in nursing
D.Gender (male, female, transgender)
B
Which of the following is an example of a nominal measurement:
A.Age in years
B.Hand dominance (right or left)
C.Grams of carbohydrate intake
D.Emotional intelligence quotient
B
Percentages are often used to describe characteristics of samples.
True
In a normal distribution, the mean, median, and mode are the same value.
True
If the tail of a distribution is skewed to the right, the data are negatively skewed.
False
The most commonly used alpha level in nursing research is
A.0.005
B.0.0001
C.0.05
D.0.001
C
Descriptive statistics are used to make inferences about a population based on data from the sample.
False
Measures of variability include (select all that are correct)
A. Mode
B. Standard Deviation
C. Range
D. Confidence Interval
B,C
A Type I error is the failure to reject a false null hypothesis.
False
A Type II error occurs when we do not reject a null hypothesis that is false.
True
Which of the following signifies the strongest relationship;
A.t = – .60
B.M = 0.80
C.r = .55
D.r = 1.04
C
One of the characteristics of a normal distribution is which of the following:
A.The values are positively skewed
B.95% of the values are within 2 standard deviations above and below the mean
C.It is bimodal
D.The mean is 100
B
When a researcher accepts the null hypothesis when it really should have been rejected, the researcher: Select all that apply.
A.committed a type I error
B.committed a type II error
C.obtained significant results
D.obtained nonsignificant results
B,C
T-test
statistical procedure for testing mean differences among 2 groups
ANOVA
statistical procedure for testing mean differences among 3 or more groups
Chi-square
test for differences among groups using non-parametric data
Pearson’s r
tests for the significance of a correlation between two variables
If the tail of a distribution is skewed to the left, the data are negatively skewed.
True
The most frequent data value in a set of data is the
A.mode
B.median
C.mean
D.Average
A
Selecting an alpha of 0.05 so that the research hypothesis is supported when it would not be if the alpha were set at 0.01 is
A.Unethical
B.Ethical
A
If data are highly uniform, a low peak will be observed in a graphic representation of the data.
False
Frequency distributions an effective way to present inferential statistics.
False
In which section of a research report would the following sentence most likely appear: “Patients who coughed were significantly more likely to have spontaneous dislodgement of small-bore nasogastric tubes than patients who did not”?
A.Introduction
B.Method section
C.Results section
D.Discussion
C
The criterion used by quantitative researchers involving the soundness of the evidence is which of the following?
A.Generalizability
B.Validity
C.Reliability
D.Credibility
B
Which of the following is an aspect of trustworthiness used in evaluating the strength of evidence in a qualitative study?
A.Credibility
B.Reliability
C.Reflexivity
D.Triangulation
A
A conclusion drawn from evidence presented in a study is called which of the following?
A.Credible
B.Valid
C.Inference
D.Statistically significant
C
When a research report undergoes a “blind” review for a journal, it means which of the following?
A.The authors of the report do not know who the editor of the journal is.
B.The journal editors do not know who submitted the report.
C.The report is published without indicating the authors’ names.
D.The reviewers making recommendations about publication are not told who the authors are.
D
The term emergent design in qualitative inquiry refers to a research design that emerges at which of the following times?
A.During the conduct of a literature review
B.Before the study is begun
C.While the researcher develops a conceptual framework
D.While the researcher is in the field collecting data
D
Which of the following is an issue that a qualitative researcher attends to in planning a study? Select all that apply.
A. Determining the maximum amount of time available for field work
B. Selecting research instruments
C. Identifying needed equipment for field work
D. Selecting a site
A,C,D
Ethnographers strive to do which of the following?
A.Develop an etic perspective
B.Link the etic and emic perspectives into a unified whole
C.Understand human cultures
D.Understand the essence of a phenomenon
C
A study that focused on the meaning of sacrifice among wounded military personnel during war time would likely use which of the following?
A.A phenomenological approach
B.An ethnography
C.Case studies
D.A grounded theory approach
A
The question, “What are the basic social processes women use to maintain balance through their menopausal transition?” is an example of a research question within which of the following traditions?
A.Ethnography
B.Grounded theory
C.Qualitative description
D.Phenomenology
B
A critical concern for qualitative researchers in their sampling decisions is which of the following:
A.Recruiting a sample that can facilitate saturation quickly and efficiently.
B.Accessing information-rich sources of data.
C.Obtaining a sample that is representative of the population.
D.Obtaining a sample with high potential for generalizability.
B
Which of the following statements about sampling is true?
A.Quantitative researchers establish eligibility criteria, but qualitative researchers do not.
B.Focus groups would not be used in qualitative descriptive studies.
C.Extreme case sampling is a type of theoretical sampling.
D.Convenience sampling is used by both qualitative and quantitative researchers.
D
Which of the following is a type of purposive sampling? Select all that apply.
A. Maximum variation sampling
B. Extreme case sampling
C. Snowball sampling
D. Typical case sampling
A,B,D
Which of the following statements about participant observation is true?
A.In a participant observation study, participants are observed but not questioned.
B.Participant observers may use single, multiple or mobile positioning
C.Participant observers must maintain the same level of participation throughout the study.
D.Participant observers most commonly record their observations by videotaping all events and transactions they observe
B
The first major step that a researcher must undertake in qualitative analysis is which of the following?
A.The use of quasi statistics
B.Search for appropriate metaphors
C.Search for major themes
D.Developing a system for organizing and indexing the data
D
Which of the following statements is true?
A.Qualitative researchers typically develop a category scheme before they collect the data.
B.Content analysis is the analytic method used in phenomenologic studies
C.CAQDAS is available for managing qualitative data.
D.Narrative materials tend to be linear, which simplifies the coding process.
C
Steps generally employed in the management and analysis of qualitative data include which of the following? Select all that apply.
A. Developing a category scheme.
B. Validating themes and patterns.
C. Searching for recurrent themes and patterns.
D. Testing hypotheses
A,B,C
The process referred to as constant comparison involves which of the following?
A.Comparing two researchers’ interpretation of the data
B.Comparing elements present in one data source with those in another
C.Comparing data from the study with data and categories from other similar studies
D.Comparing the researchers’ interpretation of the data against study participants’ interpretation
B
Which of the following accurately describes a task that CAQDAS software can accomplish? Select all that apply?
A. Inform the researcher of how to best analyze the data
B. Facilitate examination of relationships between codes
C. Code interview portions and observational records
D. Allow retrieval of portions of text corresponding to specific codes for analysis
B,D
Which of the following is a significant challenge in qualitative analysis?
A.Deducing particulars from a universal
B.Mastering the standard procedures for analyzing qualitative data
C.Lack of narrative materials to analyze
D.Reducing data for reporting purposes
D