Reproduction and Development Topic 4

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asexual reproduction
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a method of reproduction in whch all the genes passed on to the offspring come from a single individual or parent
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cloning
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a technique used to make identical organisms
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development
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the changes that occur from the fertilized egg to a complete individual; occurs by mitosis and differentiation of cells
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differentiation
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the process that transforms developing cells into specialized cells with different structures and functions
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egg
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a sex cell produced by a female
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embryo
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an organism in the early stages of development (prior to birth)
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estrogen
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a hormone (produced by the ovaries) that controls female sexual development and the reproductive process
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expressed
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the way that an unseen gene is seen in an organism as an actual physical trait
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fertilization
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the process that combines a sperm cell and an egg cell
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fetus
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the unborn, developing young of an animal during the later stages of develoment
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gamete
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an egg or sperm cell; a sex cell
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gene expression
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Activation of a gene that results in the formation of a protein; the result of activated genes
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meiosis
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the process that results in the formation of sex cells (sperm and eggs)
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mitosis
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the process that divides the cell’s nucleus into two, each with a complete set of genetic material from the parent cell
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ovary (pl.ovaries)
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the organ of the human female reproductive system that produces an egg cell, the female gamete
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placenta
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the organ that enables nutrients and oxygen to pass from the mother’s blood to the fetus, and waste products to pass from the fetus to the mother’s blood
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progesterone
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a hormone associated with sexual development and the reproductive system
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recombination
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the additional mixing of genetic material from a sperm and egg which results in a unique combination of genes
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sex cell
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an egg (female) or a sperm (male)
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sexual reproduction
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a method of reproduction that involves two parents to produce offspring that are genetically different from either parent
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species
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a group of organsims that share certain characteristics and can mate with one another, producing fertile offspring
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sperm
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the male sex cell
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testes
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the male reproductive organ that produces sperm and the hormone testosterone
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testosterone
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a hormone associated with male sexual development and reproduction
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uterus
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the organ, in female animals, where the embryo develops into a fetus
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zygote
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the cell that results from the joining of the egg and sperm

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