Regents Chemistry Review – Quarter 1

Flashcard maker : Clarence Louder
covalent bond
type of chemical bonding that occurs when electrons are shared between atoms
lewis dot structure
symbol showing the chemical symbol and valence electrons
Rule of Eight (octet rule)
atoms gain, lose, or share electrons to get 8 valence electrons (a stable octet)
hydrocarbon
organic compound containing just carbon and hydrogen
isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas and different properties
alkane
organic hydrocarbon having only single bonds
intermolecular force
force of attraction between molecules that results from varying degrees of positive and negative charge on the ends of the molecule
chemical potential energy
a form of potential energy that results from the positive-to-negative attractions within chemical bonds
endothermic reaction
reaction that absorbs energy
exothermic reaction
reaction that releases energy
heat of reaction
amount of energy released or absorbed by a chemical reaction
activation energy
amount of energy required to break the bonds to “kick off” a reaction
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy can not be created nor destroyed during an ordinary chemical or physical change
alkene
organic hydrocarbon having a double bond
alkyne
organic hydrocarbon having a triple bond
saturated hydrocarbon
hydrocarbon having only single bonds; alkanes
unsaturated hydrocarbons
hydrocarbons having at least one double or triple bond; alkenes & alkynes
Number of significant figures in the measurement 1,230 mm
3
metals
class of elements that are shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, malleable, ductile, and react with acid to form hydrogen gas
metalloids
class of elements that have some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals
Br and Hg
The only two elements that are liquids at room temperature
plum pudding model
early model of the atom that defined the atom as a positive mass with negative particles scattered throughout; proposed by Thomson
atomic number
the number shown on the periodic table that represents the number of electrons in the atom
gold foil experiment
experiment in which positive alpha particles were directed at a sheet of gold foil – found that most of the atoms went straight through which led to the conclusion that the atom is mostly empty space
neutron
particle with no charge found in the nucleus of the atom
bright-line spectrum
pattern of light produced when excited electrons fall from higher to lower energy levels, releasing light
orbital
three-dimensional region within the atom in which there is a high probability of finding an electron
What is the energy-level electron configuration of sulfur?
2-8-6
metallic bonding
type of bonding in which the valence electrons are mobile in a sea of electrons surrounding positive ions
term for the modern model of the atom
wave-mechanical model charge-cloud model quantum-mechanical model
12.0 cm x 10 cm round the answer to the correct number of significant figures
100 cm2
valence electrons
electrons in the outermost energy level of the atom
compound
Two or more elements chemically-combined in a fixed ratio; substance has different properties than the elements that make it up
mixture
two or more substances physically combined in a variable ratio
pure substance
sample that has a constant, uniform composition throughout; elements and compounds, but not mixtures
synthesis reaction
a chemical reaction with the format
A + B -> AB
activity series
list of elements arranged in order by their reactivity
single replacement reaction
type of reaction with the format
A + BC -> AC + B
Law of Conservation of Mass
law that states that matter (mass) can not be created nor destroyed during an ordinary chemical or physical change
combustion reaction
a type of reaction with the format
hydrocarbon + oxygen gas -> carbon dioxide + water + energy

 

 

Type of organic compound with the format

 

 

 

R – Cl

 

 

halide

 

 

O

||

‘R’ – C – OH

 

 

organic acid

 

 

 

 

 

O

||

‘R’ – C – ‘R’

ketone

 

 

 

 

molar mass of NaOH

 

 

40 grams (per 1 mole)

 

 

 

Given the balanced equation

2 H2 + O2 -> 2 H2O

 

How many moles of water will be produced if 4 moles of H2 reacts completely

 

 

4 moles of water

 

 

How many grams of iron would be needed to have 0.5 moles?

 

 

 

 

 

27.9 grams of iron

 

 

What is the mass in grams of 1.25 moles of H2O?

 

 

 

 

 

22.5 grams

 

 

 

Calculate the number of moles in 20.04 grams of calcium

 

 

 

0.5 moles

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