Regents Chemistry

Flashcard maker : Joseph Fraser

 

What is the same in an isotope and what is different in an isotope?

 

 

Same Protons

 

 

Different Neutrons

What is the nuclear charge of fluorine?

 

+ 9

 

State two major findings about the atom.

The atom is mostly empty space.

The nucleus is small and positive.

Explain how spectral lines are produced, in terms of electrons.

 

Electrons fall from the excited to the ground state.

 

In a nuclear reaction mass is always “lost”. Explain this loss of mass.

Mass was converted to energy.

 

Calculate the average atomic mass of carbon:

 

98% 12C and 2% 14C

 

 

 (98/100) (12) + (2/100) (14) = 12.04

 

Why would two elements have similar chemical properties?

Same group.

Same Valence electrons.

Why does the radius increase as you move down a group?

 

More Shells

 

Describe three properties of metals

 

good conductor

malleable and ductile

 shiny

Describe three properties of nonmetals

 

poor conductor

brittle

dull

Which elements lose electrons when forming ions?

What happens to the radius?

metals

decreases

 

 

Which elements gain electrons when forming ions?

What happens to the radius?

 

nonmetals

increases

Name the four types of chemical reactions.

 

synthesis

decomposition

single replacement

double replacement

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Kinetic Energy Increases

Potential Energy remains the same

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Kinetic Energy remains the same

Potential Energy Increases

 

How is an ionic bond formed, in terms of electrons?

 

Electrons are transferred.

 

How is a covalent bond formed, in terms of electrons?

 

Electrons are shared.

 

What makes a bond more polar, in terms of electronegativity?

 

Greater difference in electronegativity.

 

What makes a covalent bond polar?

 

Unequal sharing of electrons.

 

What makes a covalent bond nonpolar?

 

Equal sharing of electrons.

 

Why is a molecule polar?

(HINT:SNAP)

 

Asymmetrical.

 

Why is a molecule nonpolar?

(HINT:SNAP)

 

Symmetrical.

 

Properties of ionic solids.

 

High Melting Point

Strong forces

Conductor only in the liquid phase

 

Properties of molecular solids(covalent bonds).

 

Low Melting Point

 Weak forces

Poor Conductor

 

Properties of metallic solids.

 

High Melting Point

Strong forces

Great Conductor

 

What makes a good conductor(in terms of particles)?

 

Mobile Particles.

 

How do you increase the solubility of a solid in a liquid?

 

Raise temperature

 

How do you increase the solubility of a gas in a liquid?

 

Lower temperature

Increase pressure

 

State, in terms of molecular polarity, why 1,2-ethanediol is soluble in water.

 

It is polar like water

“LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE”

 

When is a gas most ideal?

 

High Temperature & Low Pressure

 

What happens to the freezing and boiling point when salt is added to water?

 

F.P. decreases

B.P. increases

 

What is entropy?

What phase has the most entropy?

 

Disorder of a system.

gas

 

How do you increase the rate of a reaction?

 

 Increase temperature

 Increase concentration

 Increase surface Area

Increase pressure(gas)

Add a catalyst

 

Why does increasing the temperature increase the rate of a reaction, in terms of the collision theory?

 

There are more collisions.

 

How does a catalyst increase the rate of a reaction?

 

Lowers the activation energy.

 

What occurs at equilibrium?

 

Rates are EQUAL

Concentrations are constant.

 

What type of positive ions do acids produce in water?

 

Acids: Hydrogen(H+) or hydronium.(H3O+)

 

What type of negative ions do bases produce in water?

 

Bases: Hydroxide (OH)

 

What is a neutralization reaction?

 

Acid + Base à Salt + Water

 

What is an electrolyte?

Name three substances that are electrolytes.

 

Substance that conducts electricity in water.

-Acid, Base, Ionic

 

What occurs during oxidation?

 

Lose electrons (LEO)

Oxidation number increases

 

What occurs during reduction?

 

Gain electrons (GER)

Oxidation number decreases

 

 

What is an endothermic reaction?

Draw a potential energy diagram for this reaction.

 

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What is an exothermic reaction?

Draw a potential energy diagram for this reaction

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What is the difference between a voltaic and an electrolytic cell?

 

Voltaic is spontaneous and converts chemical to electrical energy

 

Electrolytic is non-spontaneous and converts electrical to chemical energy.

 

 

What is the purpose of a salt bridge?

 

Allow the flow of ions.

 

What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon in terms of bonding?

 

Saturated- all single bonds between C’s.

Unsaturated- double or triple bond between two C’s.

 

What is an isomer?

 

Same Molecular formula, but different structural formula.

 

Identify the type of organic reaction shown.

(a.)  Br2 + CH4 → CH3Br + HBr

(b.) C4H8 + Cl2 → C4H8Cl2

 

 

(a.) Substitution

     (b. )Addition

 

 

2SO2(g) + O2(g)ßà 2SO3(g) + energy

Explain, in terms of LeChatelier’s principle, why the concentration of SO2(g) increases when the temperature is increased.

 

 

Shifts left.

 

a. Explain, in terms of attraction, why a substance has a low boiling point.

 

b. Explain, in terms of attraction, why a substance has a high  boiling point.

 

a. Weak forces.

b. Strong forces

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A- Reactants

B- Heat of Reaction

C- Products

D- Activation Energy

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