Reading Check 7 Essay

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ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized
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According to Freud, defense mechanism are used by the
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individualism
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Professor Shankar believes that her students’ most important personal characteristics are those that distinguish them as uniquely different from most other people. Her attitude best illustrates one of the consequences of
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displacement
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Children who release unexpressed anger toward their parents by kicking the family pet illustrate the defense mechanism of
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the ideal self
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Derek is a third-grade teacher who believes that he should accept his students regardless o their behavioral shortcomings. Derek’s attitude toward his students is an example of Carl Rogers’ concept of
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denial
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A refusal to believe direct and highly credible evidence that your spouse is suffering from a terminal illness best illustrates
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unconscious thought
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Right-hemisphere brain activity enables a split-brain patient’s left hand to carry out instructions the patient cannot verbalize. This best illustrates the importance of
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self-esteem
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After failing his chemistry exam, Charles believes he does not have the intelligence to succeed in school and ultimately in life. Charles’ low opinion of himself is representative of his low
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Conscientiousness
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A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of
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factor analysis
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The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of
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openness
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Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
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unfamiliar, formal situations
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Our personality traits are most likely to remain hidden as we carefully attend social cues in
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reciprocal determinism
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Because Greta is an extravert, she frequently goes to parties, where she is encouraged to laugh and soicialize with her friends. Because Jim is an introvert, he frequently spends weekends in the library, where it’s easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best illustrate what is meant by
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Phallic
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According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during _________ stage
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a trait
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A consistent tendency to be shy is best described as
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an Electra complex
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Some psychoanalysts in Freud’s era believed that girls experienced unconscious sexual desires for their father during the phallic stage. These feelings, they thought, reflected
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a trait
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A characteristic pattern of behavior or tendency to act and feel in a certain way is called
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the spotlight effect
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Although we are nervous about giving a talk in psychology class, simply imagining how much our classmates empathize with us can reduce the threat associated with out experience of
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gene-environment interactions
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Our genetically influenced traits evoke certain responses in others, which lead us to develop specific social-interaction skills. This best illustrates the impact of
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superego
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According to Freud, the part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment is the
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Personality traits
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Sheen is usually animated and talkative when he is with his girlfriend, but he is often quiet and reserved home. He actively participates in many class discussions but frequently seems reluctant to talk with friends at the campus coffee shop. Sheen’s behavior should make us more cautious about overemphasizing the impact of _______ on behavior
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“I have never disliked anyone”
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Which of the following statements would most likely appear on a lie scale
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trait
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Which theorists are most likely to be criticized for underestimating the variability of behavior from situation to situation
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from all human groups
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Features of the Big Five Traits are common to people
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extraversion
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Sheryl is very outgoing and fun-loving. She prefers to be around other people most of the time. She most clearly ranks high on the Big Five trait dimension known as
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latent content
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Matt reported a dream in which he repeatedly fell off a horse. His therapist suggested that his dream reflected Matt’s mixed feelings of affection toward his father. According to Freud, the therapist was attempting to reveal the dream’s
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cultural neuroscience
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In one study, brain scans suggested that collectivists experience greater emotional pain than individualists when viewing other people in distress. This study best illustrates the methods and interests of
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the false consensus effect
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Rusty is a heavy drinker who overestimates the extent to which other people also engage in heavy drinking. Rusty’s overestimate best illustrates
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Phallic
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According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the __________ stage
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Defensive self-esteem
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Kelly loves to boast about her accomplishments and becomes very upset when anyone criticizes her. Kelly most clearly demonstrates
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social-cognitive
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Many colleges assess potential faculty member’s teaching abilities by observing them teach. This best illustrates the use of an assessment strategy favored by ___________ theorists
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Humanistic Theorists
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What has been criticized the most for offering concepts that are vague and based on the theorists’ personal opinions rather than on scientific methods
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superego
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Janine is repulsed by the thought of watching a pornographic video. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Janine’s
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More gambling and more cheating
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Narcissism is associated with
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an inferiority complex
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Alfred Adler was a neo-Freudian who proposed the concept of
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inflated self-esteem
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Researchers have found that personal insults are especially likely to trigger a response or aggression from those who experiene
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Carl Jung
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Which personality theorist would have suggest that many ideas about good and evil that are shard across many different cultures are expressions of universally experience archetypes?
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Free association
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A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind, no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using the technique known as

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