Raised To Hate And Show Prejudice Sociology

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Has Australia ‘s Generation Y been ‘raised to detest ‘ and demo prejudice towards those of different cultural backgrounds? My Personal Interest Undertaking is a societal probe on the causes and possible grounds of racism in Generation Y towards other civilizations, and whether or non the agents of socialization that affect kids of our coevals from birth are entirely to fault. Having profoundly read the society and civilization course of study during my clip as a pupil partaking in the HSC, I have become interested in ethnocentric behavior, peculiarly in this coevals of Australians. I have taken my captivation and will unite it with a suited thought which in bend will organize the footing of my Personal Interest Undertaking.

I wish to use four primary research methodological analysiss in order to work towards replying my hypothesis. I feel this will supply big sums of quantitative and qualitative research which will in turn farther increase my cognition of the subject at manus, ensuing in a distinguishable Personal Interest Undertaking with dynamic research as its footing. I will use a questionnaire due to its ability to garner a big assortment of information from many different people based on age, gender, spiritual and cultural backgrounds. It will be best suited for my research as it will clearly demo differing positions in relation to my hypothesis. Contented analysis will let me to compare tendencies and differences of different civilizations with Australia and therefore let me to enter and analyze different positions of racism. Observation will let me to plunge myself in a group I feel comfy with in my micro universe of Generation Y and yet witness and record valuable information which works towards replying my hypothesis. Finally, personal contemplation is a alone research methodological analysis as it allows the writer to show their sentiment on the affair at manus, whilst lending to the overall attempt. This will divide my Personal Interest Undertaking from others who may non hold the same degree of personal experience with their subject of pick as I have.

My Personal Interest Project will integrate the cross-cultural constituent of Australia in comparing to the United States. This choice will let me to compare and contrast similarities and differences between the two western states and their stance on cultural bias. This comparing, supported by content analysis and secondary research will let me as a research worker to indulge my ideas and feelings into the kingdom of the unknown, motivating a deeper degree of understanding with a civilization outside of my ain.

My continuity and alteration focal point dressed ores on the different racial attitudes of the current coevals, conversationally known as ‘Generation Y ‘ , in comparing to the older coevalss of ‘Generation X ‘ and the ‘Baby Boomers ‘ . It will besides turn to the future ‘Generation Z ‘ and how Australia will come on from where presently are.

In drumhead, my Personal Interest Project will heighten both my societal and cultural literacy every bit good as improve and develop my fact-finding accomplishments as a current student of the 2010 HSC and a future University pupil.

Log

I began my Personal Interest Project ten months ago with the thought that my subject would be turn toing racism. I have been interested from a immature age on what divides worlds on such a lay waste toing degree as cultural bias so it merely made sense that I would utilize this captivation as the starting point for my research procedure. A overplus of other thoughts sprouted in my caput around the same clip, but none of them seemed to lodge with me like my original premiss.

What began as a rickety start due to cunctation and a barrage of appraisals and prep for other topics, I finally became on path and typed up a questionnaire, which was shortly approved by my instructor and distributed around my school and micro universe with the aid of local concerns and households. I unluckily merely received back half of these questionnaires, but with farther research I discovered I could subject the questionnaires on the cyberspace and station links to it around MySpace and Facebook, engineering helping me where the conventional methods could n’t.

Through the greater return of these questionnaires and a series of observation yearss within my school group, I felt I had collected adequate information in the micro universe to get down the authorship of my Personal Interest Undertaking. I shortly realised nevertheless, that holding an apprehension of merely my micro universe would non adequately allow me reply my original hypothesis ; Has Australia ‘s Generation Y been raised to detest and demo prejudice towards those of different cultural backgrounds? I began secondary research on issues of racism in America as a greater manner to compare and contrast these two states every bit good as fulfil my transverse cultural comparing.

My hapless organizational accomplishments finally grasped a clasp of me when I came to the realization that with merely four hebdomads left staying until the undertaking was due, I had n’t collected the day of the months created from the assorted beginnings I used. This resulted in me holding to travel back over my footers, revisit each cyberspace site and travel over my newspaper articles to roll up the day of the months that each article or beginning was created. While this was evidently clip devouring and irritating, it has since taught me the importance of reading over undertaking guidelines and demands more carefully, a accomplishment that otherwise might non hold been developed had I non undertaken Society & A ; Culture and therefore the Personal Interest Undertaking.

Finally get the better ofing the job of the footers and day of the month accessed fiasco, I was approaching the terminal of my undertaking ‘s development. The last few hebdomads were the busiest of the full procedure as I was making excess research and invariably rewriting my cardinal stuff to do certain it best conveyed my hypothesis and overall findings on cultural bias in Australia ‘s Generation Y, this was further established by my usage of personal contemplation. I finally got it all completed nevertheless and breathed a immense suspiration of alleviation when I knew one time and for all I had achieved what I had set out to make to the best of my ability. For that I hold the thought of the Personal Interest Project in high respects, as I now feel like a more complete single holding taken portion in this research procedure.

Cardinal Material

Has Australia ‘s Generation Y been raised to detest and demo bias to those from differing cultural backgrounds?

“ The biggest job though out the history of adult male is the fact that racism is anything but an anomoly. ” This quotation mark best defines the job of racism and its impact on world. Racism is a destructive force which has plagued the universe for 1000s of old ages and therefore has destroyed community coherence and created divisions in society.

The definition of racism used in Australia ‘s Racial Discrimination Act ( 1975 ) is the 1 contained in Article 1 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. It defines racism as:

“ … any differentiation, exclusion, limitation or penchant based on race, coloring material, descent, or national or cultural beginning which has the intent or consequence of invalidating or impairing the acknowledgment, enjoyment or exercising, on an equal terms, of human rights and cardinal freedoms in the political, economic, societal, cultural or any other field of public life. ”

In comparing, an anon. person ‘s response to the definition of racism in my questionnaire was:

“ Racism is separating any peculiar race, or a group of races as being inferior, or superior, instead than sing them jointly as equal. ”

This quotation mark shows that a individual of this coevals can adequately place and explicate what racism is, taking me to believe that this coevals is educated to the extent to cognize that racism is unacceptable and incorrect on every degree.

Through my research, I have discovered racism can take on many different signifiers. It can run from opprobrious intervention to genocide, merely on the footing of person ‘s ‘race ‘ , or civilization. The most ill-famed illustration of racism was during the Holocaust, the race murder of about six million European Jews during World War II, a “ plan of systematic state-sponsored extinction by Nazi Germany ” . To my astonishment, I have found through my research that that my original construct of racialists is non ever the instance ; in my head they were merely stereotyped loud mouthed, frightened and nescient persons ; but I have discovered they are besides the authoritiess and other involvements that practise favoritism in their direction of land, allotment of resources and the societal policies they pursue to win popular favor.

“ The state is ruled by an elitist Anglo-Saxon dominant category to which smaller ethnic groups have to conform. It consistently advantages the Anglo-Saxon category and marginalises the non-Anglo-Saxon cultural groups, such as those from Muslim and Arab backgrounds. ”

Knowing some of the history of racism in Australia has been of critical importance to me as it has allowed me to work towards going a more socially and culturally literate person. Australia in the nineteenth century was a multi racial and multi cultural state although preponderantly made up of white Anglo-Celts who descended from penal inmates or early colonists. There were many states of Autochthonal people populating here known as Aborigines, whose ascendants had been dated here for what researches claim to be up to 125 000 thousand old ages ago.

The 2nd half of the nineteenth century was marked by the widespread physical eviction of Aboriginal people from their lands across Australia. In the early phases of my research nevertheless, l already cognize that it has n’t entirely been the Indigenous who have been discriminated against in Australia ‘s history. With the political policy of “ populate or perish ” station World War II, the Australian authorities opened up its doors to migrators, largely of north west European heritage – Italians, Greeks, Germans and legion other white European people moved to Australia, seeking a new life. These immigrants, whilst conveying valuable accomplishments to Australia we were short of including trade ‘s people, were discriminated against, and much like immigrants of today, labelled with cultural slurs such as “ wog ” or “ dago ” .

A personal experience that I can remember from the early old ages of my life which relates to this peculiar facet of my Personal Interest Project occurred was when I was five old ages old and I was attach toing my parents in Sydney ‘s interior metropolis. We were walking down the street when we came across two adult work forces contending on the pathway, over grounds that still escape me today. My male parent being the type to quiet state of affairss intervened between the two in an effort to halt the force that myself and others were witnessing before us. His apparently simple petition to halt combat was plenty for both of the work forces to turn their choler towards him, shouting obscene linguistic communication to my male parent, my female parent and I, including slander such as naming us wogs. The combat had come to a halt at this point in clip and my pa, whilst shaken, escorted my Dendranthema grandifloruom and myself off from the scene to forestall anything worse development.

Whilst this may look like a fiddling minute to many who read this, it has resonated with me over the old ages and I can still retrieve the exact inside informations of this event, better than either of my parents can. I think this juncture contributed a big portion towards organizing my original thought and hypothesis for my Personal Interest Undertaking. This facing degree of racism, whilst minor, inspired me to truly seek whether or non this coevals can get the better of racism that has been instilled in us from birth and influenced us from such a immature age.

Through my questionnaire, I discovered that on the inquiry of refuge searchers and immigrants, many receivers responded with racialist and xenophobic remarks. One such individual responded “ I think they should travel back to where they came from and halt blowing our revenue enhancement money ” . I found this remark rather violative, but at the same clip rather dry. This respondent was between the age brackets of 14-17. This indicates to me that although they may hold a portion clip occupation, they would be paying really low sums of revenue enhancement, if any. So why the ailments? I believe this is the nature versus raising function taking signifier, which I believe plays a big portion of racism in this coevals across Australia. Everyone grows up with primary agents of socialization that influence them. From the micro universe of parents and instructors, to the macro universe of the intelligence and media, these agents shape persons from the clip they are born.

Po Bronson, an American journalist and writer, discovered singular findings on the subject of nature versus raising, found through the research in his book “ NurtureShock: New Thinking About Children ( 2009 ) . ” Studies found that yearlings are more inclined to gaze at images of differing cultural backgrounds as opposed to their ain. Interestingly, three twelvemonth olds were handed decks of cards with different kids ‘s faces on them, and when asked to screen out who would be their friend or who they would wish to be their friend, a huge bulk of kids merely picked out other kids of their ain race. Come the clip they were five old ages old, surveies showed that when the same deck of cards was given to them and they were asked to screen out the cards into two hemorrhoids in any manner that they want, 16 per centum used gender to screen out the hemorrhoids, in comparing to 68 per centum who used cultural background.

This research is really of import as it shows that even from a immature age, kids ‘s encephalons are seeking to “ categorize the universe ” , and by seeing those who look like them based on the coloring material of their tegument, they make the early error that those kids must wish the same things they like, and hence are more similar to them. In relation to my Personal Interest Undertaking, this research proves that racism to an extent is instilled in worlds from birth ; that we are cautious of anything different and would instead lodge with people who are similar to us than to blend with those who were “ different ” ; a natural phenomenon.

Unfortunately, there are many negative stereotypes of cultural minorities in Australia, including 1s such as “ Asians are smart ” , “ Arabians are terrorists ” and “ Aborigines are felons. ” I wanted to happen out where these negative images were created. This is n’t natural thought ; this is the nurture side of it. Stereotypes like these are portrayed everyplace in society, coming back once more to the agents of socialization. Movies, music, telecasting shows and the intelligence webs portray disinformation like this on such a frequent footing that it affects us on the psychological degree without many even gaining, altering the rational thought we as worlds have and alternatively coercing us to believe what we hear and see on a certain race must be true.

For illustration, after the Bali Bombings on October 12th, 2002, the Howard authorities used this as an chance to distribute fright into Australian places, utilizing the media as a powerful tool to picture all Muslims as “ terrorist suspects ” . Many Muslim places were stormed by authorities administrations such as the Australian Police and the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation ( ASIO ) , and without any grounds, goods were confiscated and the occupants interrogated.

The mass media has continued to play on this stereotyped word picture of people of Middle Eastern decent. Through my content analysis observation merely five random episodes of two popular animated series ‘ of “ Family Guy ” and “ American Dad! “ , I witnessed two scenes affecting the portraiture of Middle Eastern people as terrorists. In “ Family Guy ” , the supporter Peter Griffin speaks of his “ Palestinian dismay clock ” , which is shown traveling away and quickly detonating his house. In “ American Dad! ” the supporter Stan Smith is seen recognizing his new Islamic neighbors, shortly stating them it would be “ ace ” if they do n’t blow up the metropolis of Cleveland. While these sketchs are evidently created for satirical intents and they stereotype most cultural backgrounds rather every bit, it is these negative portraitures which have shaped the manner the current coevals feels towards people of Middle Eastern decent.

“ Islamaphobia ” has already been confirmed in Australia ; nevertheless many people deny there is racism in this land. This is partially due to the deficiency of understanding about what racism is, but besides their opposition to accepting duty for lending to it. In 2003, a survey was conducted and lead by geography lector Kevin Dunn on racialist attitudes. Of those interviewed for the University of NSW survey ; one in eight admitted they were prejudiced, peculiarly towards Muslim Australians. The survey besides found that Australians were populating in denial of such bias attitudes, nevertheless 80 per centum of those interviewed recognised racism was a job.

A recent dirt in the NRL is a perfect illustration of the racialist comments that can happen in an mundane state of affairs in the macro universe. Andrew Johns, manager of the NSW Blues rugby conference squad, was reported by the Nine Network as utilizing a racial slur against QLD Maroons Aboriginal star Greg Inglis whilst speaking tactics centre Beau Scott in the cabinet room. The media and general populace greeted this remark with indignation ; Andrew Johns stepped down every bit adjunct manager in disgust as has been branded as a racialist by many intelligence publishing houses and members of society. Andrew Johns holds such a high place in many people ‘s heads across the Australian state as a “ good chap ” , rising the overall badness of his remarks.

What ‘s different in this instance, nevertheless, is the fact it was another Autochthonal NSW Blue ‘s participant, Timana Tahu, who walked out on the NSW Blues, declining to play Origin upon hearing John ‘s petroleum racial remark. This was a powerful move as it shows that what is accepted and what is non in society is altering, reflecting societal alteration of values and mores. Whilst name dropping a racial slur in the cabinet room was one time accepted and nil out of the ordinary, with Tahu ‘s actions and a host of other bases against racism in athleticss in the last two decennaries, it shows that this coevals is educated to the extent that we know what can and can non be said sing race ; this coevals is far more culturally literate and is willing to take a base and garbage blazing racism.

Tahu, whilst disgusted with John ‘s slur, has n’t held a score, and instead than name for Andrew Johns to be “ despoiled ” like many other NRL participants and members of the populace, has instead spoken about compulsory punishments for racism and more instruction, Indigenous Council president William “ Smilie ” Johnstone tells the Daily Telegraph. The NRL has late given support to an approaching cultural festival called Body Pacifica, in which former and current NRL participants from the likes of Jarryd Hayne, Fuifui Moimoi, Paul Aiton, Jared Waerea- Hargreaves and Nigel Vagana have posed in traditional Polynesian frock as a mark of regard to their cultural heritage, with all net incomes for the calendar traveling towards plans that will back up Pacific Islander and Maori communities. I feel this is a great manner for the NRL to equalize this recent contention, bridging the spread between different civilizations.

Australia ‘s political heritage includes racism – sabotaging the self image of a tolerant, easy traveling, fun loving state committed to the ideal of a “ just travel ” and cultural diverseness. Federation in 1901 meant autochthonal people were officially excluded from the constitutional and ceremonial landscape of Australia. At that clip, province and district authoritiess were committed to eliminating autochthonal individuality. Such policies operated for 70 old ages and have conditioned modern-day thought ; the bequest of colonialism has been identified as the chief beginning of racism in modern-day Australia, peculiarly its affect on Autochthonal people.

Despite this, there are many Australian Torahs which make racism a condemnable offense. Harmonizing to assorted signifiers of statute law including the Commonwealth Torahs of the Racial Discrimination Act ( 1975 ) and its 1995 amendment the Racial Hatred Act ;

“ It is improper to know apart on the footing of race, coloring material, nationality, descent, cultural or ethno-religious background. Discrimination against a individual on the evidences that the individual has a comparative or associate who is of a peculiar race is besides improper under Australian statute law. ”

Is n’t it dry so, that a big portion of racism in Australia comes from politicians and other people of high power, the really 1s who originally ratified this statute law? Pauline Hanson, the former controversial One State leader, late informed the populace of her programs to travel to the United Kingdom, but made it clear that non all would be welcome to purchase her Queensland belongings.

“ [ I will non sell ] to an Asiatic who lives in another state or to Muslims because I do n’t believe they are compatible with our manner of life [ and ] our civilization ; I think we ‘re traveling to hold jobs in this state with them further down the path. ”

Ms Hanson entered political relations in 1995 and shortly after formed the far right and conservative “ One Nation Party ” , presenting her ill-famed inaugural address to the House of Representatives on the 10th of September 1996 which included extracts such as

“ I and many other Australians [ want ] multiculturalism abolished ” , “ I believe we are in danger of being swamped by Asians ” and “ A genuinely multicultural state can ne’er be strong or united. ”

These are evidently xenophobic remarks from a adult female who one time had political power here in Australia. What is interesting nevertheless is the fact that Islam is a faith, non a race ; merely 15 per centum of Islamists are of Arabic descent. This is another trap that many people worldwide, particularly Australians, autumn into. One assumes that merely due to outward visual aspect another individual must follow a peculiar civilization or belief system that differs from their ain. Not merely is this wholly incorrect, but besides a signifier of cultural racism. Categorizing people of perceived cultural backgrounds is ethnocentric and creates tenseness between differing civilizations, taking to racial force like the Cronulla Riots of 2005.

Despite many racialist leaders, the Australian authorities has, in my sentiment, done an equal occupation of educating coevals Y ‘s young person through instruction plans and policies. As General Peter Cosgrove said in his Australia Day reference in Sydney on the 19th of January, 2010,

“ If a younger Australian was transported to the yearss of my childhood [ in the 1940s ] and could listen to the insouciant linguistic communication used by ordinary people about recent migrators, they would conk in daze! By the criterions of today, it merely would n’t make. ”

Obviously, times have changed in Australia and people have become more cognizant and accepting of other civilizations ; the current Generation has no alibi to state otherwise.

My cross cultural content with the United States juxtaposed with Australia surprised me with some startling consequences which showed that, despite what many think, Australia ‘s implicit in racialist attitudes is nil in comparing to our colonial cousin of the United States. In 2006, 52 per cent of partnered autochthonal Australian work forces and 55 per cent of partnered autochthonal Australian adult females were married to or populating with non-indigenous spouses. Whilst to some this could be considered negative as it may affect the disintegration of the Autochthonal civilization and traditions of our Native people over clip, these statistics are far more positive in contrast with the United States. Bob Birrell, a co-director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research and Reader in Sociology at Monash University has said: –

“ [ this research ] indicates that unlike the United States, where about 90 per cent of inkinesss marry inkinesss, the societal divide that was there 20 or 30 old ages ago has about disappeared in Australia. ”

I found comparing these two states was a definite manner of working towards replying my hypothesis. They are really similar in footings of gender equality, occupation security, household life and political stableness, and the fact they ‘re both Colonial states makes it clear to separate equality and difference between the two civilizations and their stance on cultural bias.

On a smaller graduated table, I found that racism was to an extent, a common job Generation Y faces across a assortment of different tableland in my micro universe, from school to featuring groups. Through observation over a series of hebdomads during school hours within my group during deferral, I personally observed and recorded a figure of times where I was confronted with racist positions and remarks by many of my equals. What was interesting nevertheless is that these remarks were normally rebutted by more rational responses from certain persons, making an interesting beginning of statements which were priceless to my research procedure.

From what I collected, my observations over a month has led me to believe that the beginning of struggle within my ain equal group in my micro environment reveals that most persons of Generation Y are cognizant of cultural issues and understand that there are certain factors which requires they be tolerant of different races, whether historical disadvantage or issues within their place state, taking them to absorb here in Australia. This degree of understanding can merely come through beginnings of instruction whether school or media, two agents of socialization which influence us from a immature age, covering both our micro and macro universes.

In footings of the hereafter, I believe that the issue of racism as a whole will ne’er discontinue to be every bit long as Australia continues to be hybrid in societal construction. Using historical analysis as a technique of future anticipation, I have come to the decision that racism will everlastingly be an issue in society that humans face. Based off historical grounds, I suggest that it will divide and split us for old ages to come, taking to the terrorist act, wars and overall hatred on both the individualist and national degree that we see today.

However, I believe the hereafter will demo betterments on Australia ‘s tolerance and apprehension of different races and civilizations. I predict the hereafter Generation Z, the coevals following Generation Y, conversationally known as “ Generation Media ” will go on to be educated at a consistent rate seen by our current criterions, and with that become even more understanding and accepting than any of their preceding coevalss, presuming Australia becomes more politically right and employs a greater usage of instruction within schools and the media.

Decision

Through my societal probe and primary research, I discovered some startling discoveries which greatly juxtaposed with my original hypothesis and ideas prior to get downing this heroic journey. I went into this Personal Interest Undertaking with the preset thought in my head that Australia ‘s ‘Generation Y ‘ has been literally ‘raised to detest ‘ ; nurtured from birth to demo bias and favoritism to those of different cultural and cultural backgrounds. In all honestness, I could n’t hold been farther from the truth.

My primary and secondary research has led me to believe that Australia ‘s ‘Generation Y ‘ is the first of Australia ‘s coevals of people to understand what is socially accepted and morally right in relation to prejudice towards cultural minorities. Despite the stigma involved with Australia being labelled the “ racist state ” , my research has led me to believe that my equals and I have been brought up with a different position towards other civilizations, in comparing to our parents and grandparents. We have been taught to be accepting and to understand the societal affects of racism on its victims, all through agencies of instruction through the very agents of socialization which I believed to be of exclusive incrimination for cultural bias in our coevals. Whilst these factors still influence us from a immature age, I believe the altering societal values and mores in our society have let us come on from the virtually homogeneous state from fifty old ages ago to a intercrossed classless society, contrasting with my cross cultural comparing of the United States who really much still has terrible racial jobs.

Whilst I am pleased with the concluding merchandise of my Personal Interest Undertaking, if I were given the chance to set about this research once more, I would seek to include the add-on of an interview to the list of my primary methodological analysiss. By questioning a individual of an older coevals, it would hold farther emphasised my continuity and alteration facet with qualitative information that can be matched through mere secondary research.

I feel through this journey of research and authorship over these past 10 months, I have developed to go a more socially and culturally literate person with a greater apprehension of altering societal values over clip. The accomplishments I have applied to working towards something of personal involvement to me has given me a deeper apprehension of the Society and Culture class content and the cardinal constructs within it. I have learnt that it is easy to falsely measure a peculiar societal issue such as racism without the true facts and research to back up it, and for that I am delighted to take portion in something that will non merely assist me with the remainder of my instruction but has besides given me skills that will help me throughout my life.

Annotated Resource List

Articles

Halloran, J & A ; Harvey, C, 2010. “ Undertaking racism is a new ball game ” ,

The Sunday Telegraph, 20th June, pp. 48-49. Date accessed 24/06/2010.

Recent intelligence article which tells the original narrative of Andrew John ‘s racialist remarks in the NSW cabinet room towards an Indigenous participant and the public response to this, every bit good as past shows of racism within athleticss across Australia. Highlighted are the constructs of public disapproval towards racism and that even those such as Andrew Johns who hold power in society are still capable to strict societal mores on the issue of cultural bias. Useful to my Personal Interest Undertaking as it shows the media ‘s disapprobation of racism in the macro universe, delivered with the vector of The Sunday Telegraph, a widely read newspaper.

Nicolussi, C & A ; Webster, A, 2010. “ Bridging NRL ‘s Cultural Divide ” ,

The Daily Telegraph, 25th June, pp. 120-121. Date accessed 28/06/2010.

Another article on Andrew Johns ‘ racialist remark, but this clip instead than concentrating on Johns, it gives the Autochthonal position, including quotation marks from NRL star Timana Tahu amongst other yesteryear and present Indigenous participants. It besides explains how the NRL is funding the Body Pacifica cultural festival and its Indigenous calendar which yesteryear and nowadays participants are taking portion in presenting for. This article was highly utile to me as it shows how a big corporation like the NRL rejects blazing racism and uses authorization and influence to fund independent undertakings like Body Pacifica as a manner to cut down the differentiation of the NRL ‘s cultural divide.

Books

Healey, J, 2003. “ Issues in Society, Volume 180 – Racism in Australia ” , The Spinney Press. Borrowed from library 28/03/2010.

This “ Issues in Society ” book is apart of a aggregation which discusses assorted societal issues that plague Australia and the universe. This peculiar issue, “ Racism in Australia ” , contains a aggregation of different beginnings and articles on the issue of cultural bias. It was utile to me as it consists of assorted instances of racism in society, every bit good as articles written by independent writers. The broad usage of beginnings compiled in this book makes it a more dependable and valid piece of information for me to analyze when working towards replying my hypothesis.

Clark, G, 19th February 2001. “ Why racism is apart of the Australian manner ” , The Age. p.15. Date accessed 13/04/2010 & A ; 21/04/2010.

An article found in the above mentioned book, it describes how Australia ‘s social and political heritage is that of racism. Valuable to my research procedure as it explains Australia ‘s Autochthonal disadvantage since the clip of European colony, in comparing to other ethnicities. Valid as its written by the first elected Chairman of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, although this may be capable to bias which I have taken into history with my research.

Cornish, S, & A ; Cortotti, M, July 2002. “ A Fair Go – A Community Kit for Action Against Racism ” , Social Justice. p. 2. Date accessed 16/04/2010.

Another article within the “ Issues in Society ” book, this book explains in the writers ‘ sentiment Australia ‘s false impression of a ‘fair spell ‘ . It besides discusses institutional racism, xenophobia and Australia ‘s aforethought history of racism, including assorted ( now defunct ) beginnings of statute law which were racialist, take downing other cultural backgrounds. This timeline was highly valuable to my research as it gave me a personal context of Australia ‘s yesteryear and ongoing issues with racism, leting me to see what the authorities has done to battle former Acts of the Apostless of statute law which disadvantaged cultural minorities.

Niewyk, D, 2000. “ The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust ” , Columbia University Press, p. 45. Date accessed 21/04/2010.

Multimedia

Author Unknown. “ Racism is unconditioned. ” YouTube. Date accessed 05/04/2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=Eq1PDYB1G1U ( uploaded 14th September 2009 )

Boushell, N, & A ; O’Neal, S. “ Homeland Insecurity ” , American Dad, Season 1 Episode 6. Date accessed 04/07/2010 on FOX8. Produced by Fuzzy Door Productions & A ; twentieth Century Fox Television. First aired 12th June 2005.

Meighan, P, & A ; MacFarlane S. “ Quagmire ‘s Baby ” , Family Guy, Season 8 Episode 6. Date accessed 03/07/2010 on FOX8. Produced by Fuzzy Door Productions & A ; twentieth Century Fox Television. First aired 15th November, 2009.

Questionnaire

Created May 5th, 2010.

Observation

Conducted 31/05/2010 – 28/06/2010, each deferral for four hebdomads.

Personal contemplation

Obtained: 03/06/2010

Web sites

Author Unknown. “ Erik Hansen quotes. ” Think Exist.

Date accessed 07/03/2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //thinkexist.com/quotation/the-biggest-problem-though-out-the-history-of-man/348399.html ( publication day of the month terra incognita )

Author Unknown. “ Who are Generation Z? ” Generation Z.A A Date accessed 31/07/2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.generationz.com.au/about_who.html ( day of the month published unknown )

Author Unknown. “ General Comment No. 18: Non-discrimination. ” United Nations Human Rights Website. Date accessed 13/03/2010 from

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/3888b0541f8501c9c12563ed004b8d0e? Opendocument ( published 10th of November 1989 )

Author Unknown. “ When did Australia ‘s earliest dwellers arrive? ” University of Wollongong. Date accessed 24/03/2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //media.uow.edu.au/news/2004/0917a/index.html ( published 17th September 2004 )

Author Unknown. “ Huda ‘s Islam Blog. ” About.com. Date accessed 08/06/2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //islam.about.com/b/2005/06/28/myth-3-most-muslims-are-arabs.htm

( published 28th June 2005 )

Author Unknown. “ Understanding racism. ” Racism. No Way.

Date accessed 07/03/2010 & A ; 25/04/2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.racismnoway.com.au/library/understanding/index-What.html

( published 15th November 2005 )

Author Unknown. “ Mob force envelops Cronulla. ” Sydney Morning Herald.

Date accessed 12/06/2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.smh.com.au/news/national/mob-violence-envelops-cronulla/2005/12/11/1134235936223.html

( published 11th December 2005 )

Author Unknown. “ More Natives Enter Mixed Marriages. ” Christian Today.

Date accessed 04/07/2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //au.christiantoday.com/article/more-aborigines-enter-mixed-marriages/6122.htm ( published 29th April 2009 )

Cosgrove, P. “ Peter Cosgrove ‘s Australia Day reference. ” The Age. Date accessed 30/06/2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.theage.com.au/national/peter-cosgroves-australia-day-address-20100119-mj0x.html ( published 20th January 2010 )

Dow, S. “ Racism caught in the Net. ” Sydney Morning Herald. Date accessed 08/04/2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/03/24/1048354541423.html

( published 25th March 2003 )

Hanson, M. “ Pauline Hanson ‘s inaugural address in federal parliament. ” Australian News Commentary. Date accessed 02/06/2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.australian-news.com.au/maiden_speech.htm ( published 10th September 1996 )

Hassan, G. “ The Rise of Islamophobia in ‘White Australia ‘ . ” Global Research.

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