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Quiz 3: Comm 101 Essay

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Abstract language is specific, tangible, and definite.
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False
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Listeners have multiple opportunities to understand a spoken message.
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False
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The connotative meaning is the literal, or dictionary, definition of a word.
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False
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Using personal pronouns such as we, us, I, and you draws the audience into the message.
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True
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A speaker’s use or misuse of language has a significant effect on the level of credibility he or she establishes with the audience.
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True
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In Mariam’s presentation on her graduate school experiences she said, “Graduate school is an uphill battle.” Mariam used which figure of speech?
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metaphor
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Simplicity in word choice can be achieved by
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avoiding jargon.
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You should try to use fewer rather than more words to express your thoughts.
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True
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The literal, dictionary definition of a word is its
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denotative meaning.
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Listeners prefer complex language over simple language in a speech.
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False
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When evaluating evidence, the listener should determine if the sources of the evidence are credible.
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True
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Public speakers are in a position to influence others but are not responsible for the effects their words have on listeners.
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False
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Listeners tend to pay attention to
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all of the above. information that they deem important. information that is associated with their experiences.information that relates to their backgrounds
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When you daydream as you listen, this can be considered an internal distraction.
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True
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Active listening is focused and purposeful.
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True
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Audience members usually listen carefully to a speaker even if they believe the message is of no consequence to them.
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False
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If something is common knowledge to many people, it does not need to be cited.
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True
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Acknowledging sources is an essential aspect of ethical speechmaking.
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True
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Any source that requires credit in written form should be acknowledged in oral form.
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True
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If a particular type of speech is legal, it is also ethical.
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False
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Daydreaming and fatigue are examples of
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internal distractions.
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Which of the following is a Greek word meaning character?
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ethos
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Identifying a speaker’s organizational pattern will help listeners understand the main points of a message
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True
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In any given communication situation, all listeners will process information in exactly the same way.
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False
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Our values represent our enduring judgments or standards of what is good and bad in life
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True
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Special occasion speeches may function to celebrate a person or event.
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True
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A person who delivers a speech of introduction should not mention the speaker’s awards, accomplishments, and achievements.
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False
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The goals of a speech of presentation are to communicate the meaning of the award and to explain why the recipient is receiving it.
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True
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Examples of ordinary people who triumph over adversity and achieve extraordinary dreams are often used in a
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speech of inspiration
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When delivering a eulogy, the speaker should focus on the life of the person, rather than the circumstances of death
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True
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In a speech of presentation, the speaker should
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do all of the above. Answers: convey the meaning of the award. identify the sponsors of the award. explain why the recipient is being honored.
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An effective speech of inspiration appeals to reason, not emotion.
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False
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Inspirational speeches should be concluded with a dramatic ending.
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True
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One of the most successful strategies a speaker can use in inspirational speaking is
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employing a dynamic speaking style.
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Anniversaries of important events and memorial dedications are examples of special occasion speeches that strive to
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commemorate
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Effective delivery
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is the controlled use of voice and body to express the qualities of naturalness, enthusiasm, confidence, and directness.
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Strive for naturalness.
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Rather than behaving theatri¬ cally, act naturally. Think of your speech as a particularly important conversation.
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Show enthusiasm.
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Speak about what interests and excites you. Inspire your listeners by showing enthusiasm for your topic and for the occasion.
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Project a sense of confidence.
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Focus on the ideas you want to convey rather than on yourself. Inspire the audience’s confidence in you by appearing confident to them.
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Engage directly with audience members.
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Demonstrate your interest and concern for listeners by establishing eye contact, using a friendly tone of voice, and smiling whenever it is appropriate.
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speaking from manuscript,
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you read a speech verbatim—that is, from prepared written text that contains the entire speech, word for word.
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speaking from memory is oratory.
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you put the entire speech, word for word, into writing and then commit it to memory.
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Speaking impromptu,
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a type of delivery that is unpracticed, spontaneous, or improvised, involves speaking on relatively short notice with little time to prepare.
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Speaking extemporaneously
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falls somewhere between impromptu and written or memorized deliveries. In an extemporaneous speech, you prepare well and practice in advance, giving full attention to all facets of the speech—
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Volume,
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the relative loudness of a speaker’s voice while delivering a speech, is usually the most obvious vocal element we notice about a speaker, and with good reason.
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Pitch
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is the range of sounds from high to low (or vice versa). Vocal pitch is important in speechmaking because it powerfully affects the meaning associated with spoken words.
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intonation,
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conveys two very distinct meanings.
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Speaking rate
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is the pace at which you convey speech. The nor¬ mal rate of speech for native English speaking adults is roughly between 120 and 150 words per minute, but there is no stanPausesdard, ideal, or most effective rate.
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Pauses
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enhance meaning by providing a type of punctuation, emphasizing a point, drawing attention to a thought, or just allowing listeners a moment to contemplate what is being said.
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Pronunciation
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is the correct formation of word sounds—examples of mis¬ pronunciation include, “aks” for “asked” (askt), and “jen yu wine” for “genuine” (jen yu in).
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Articulation
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is the clarity or forcefulness with which the sounds are made, regardless of whether they are pronounced correctly.
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mumbling—
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slurring words together at a low level of volume and pitch so that they are barely audible.
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lazy speech
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Common examples are saying “fer” instead of “for” and “wanna” instead of “want to.”
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dialect
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is a distinctive way of speaking associated with a particular region or social group.
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body language
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Audiences do not so much listen to a speaker’s words as “read” the speaker who delivers them.1
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nonverbal communication:
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38 percent from the speaker’s voice, and 55 percent from the speaker’s body language and appearance.2
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scanning.
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But in most speaking situations you are likely to experience, you should be able to make the audience feel recognized by using a technique
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nonverbal immediacy,
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In most Western cultures, listeners learn more from and respond most positively to speakers who create a perception of physical and psychological closeness,
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talking head
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Audience members soon tire of listening to a that remains steadily positioned in one place behind a microphone or a podium.
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ethos,
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meaning “char¬ acter.” As Aristotle first noted so long ago, audiences listen to and trust speakers if they demonstrate positive ethos, or good character.
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speaker credibility
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Today, surprisingly little has changed. Modern research on speaker credibility reveals that people place their greatest trust in speakers who:
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First Amendment,
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which guarantees freedom of speech, assures protection both to speakers who treat the truth with respect and to those whose words are inflammatory and offensive.
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defamatory,
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Speech that can be proved to be, or that potentially harms an individual’s reputation at work or in the community
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reckless disregard for the truth—
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is, if you knew that what you were saying was false but said it anyway. If your comments refer to private persons, it will be easier for them to assert a claim for defamation.
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public discourse—
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speech involving issues of importance to the larger community, such as the need to increase safety on campus or take action to slow climate change.
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invective,
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or verbal attacks designed to unfairly discredit, demean, and belittle those with whom you disagree.
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Trustworthiness
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is a combination of honesty and depend¬ ability. Trustworthy speakers support their points truthfully and don’t offer misleading or false information.
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respect
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by addressing audience members as unique human beings and refraining from any form of per¬ sonal attack.
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Responsibility
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means being accountable for what you say. For example, will learning about your topic in some way benefit listeners? Do you use sound evidence and reasoning?
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Fairness
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refers to making a genuine effort to see all sides of an issue and acknowledging the information listeners need in order to make informed decisions.9
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common knowledge—
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information that is likely to be known by many people (though such information must truly be widely disseminated).
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Direct quotations
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are verbatim—or word for word— presentations of statements made by someone else. Direct quotes should always be acknowledged in a speech.
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A paraphrase
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is a restatement of someone else’s ideas, opinions, or theories in the speaker’s own words.12
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A summary
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is a brief overview of someone else’s ideas, opinions, or theories. While a paraphrase contains approximately the same number of words as the original source material stated in the speaker’s own words, a summary condenses the same material, distilling only its essence.
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public domain,
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After that, unless the copyright is extended, the work falls into the, which means anyone may reproduce it. Not subject to copyright are federal
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fair use
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An exception to the prohibitions of copyright is the doctrine of, which permits the limited use of copyrighted works without permission for the purposes of scholarship, criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, or research.15
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Creative Commons
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is an organization that allows creators of works to decide how they want other people to use their copyrighted works.
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listening
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is the conscious act of receiving, comprehending, interpreting, evaluating, and responding to messages.1
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selective perception—
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people pay attention selectively to certain messages while ignoring others. Several factors influence what we listen to and what we ignore:
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dialogic communication
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In contrast to monologue, in which we try merely to impose what we think on another person or group of people, is the open sharing of ideas in an atmosphere of respect.7
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feedback loop
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This continual adjustment between speaker and listener is called the
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Active listening
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listening that is focused and purposeful— isn’t possible under conditions that distract us.9 As you listen to speeches, try to identify and overcome some common obstacles.
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listening distraction
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is anything that competes for the attention we are trying to give to something else. Distractions can originate outside of us, in the environment
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defensive listening
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Similarly, people who engage in decide either that they won’t like what the speaker is going to say or that they know better.
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idioms,
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or colloquial expressions such as “apple of his eye,” that non-native speakers might not know. Either eliminate or define them.
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special occasion speech
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is one that is prepared for a spe¬ cific occasion and for a purpose dictated by that occasion.
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entertain,
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listeners expect a lighthearted, amusing speech; they may also expect the speaker to offer a certain degree of insight into the topic at hand.
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celebrate
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(a person, a place, or an event), listeners look to the speaker to praise the subject of the celebration; they also anticipate a degree of ceremony in accordance with the norms of the occasion.
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commemorate
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an event or a person (at dedications of memorials or at gatherings held in someone’s honor), listeners expect the speaker to offer remembrance and tribute.
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inspire
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(including inaugural addresses, keynote speeches, and commencement speeches), listen¬ ers expect to be motivated by examples of achievement and heroism.
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set social agendas
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(such as occur at gatherings of cause-oriented organizations, fund-raisers, campaign banquets, conferences, and conventions), lis¬ teners expect the articulation and reinforcement of the goals and values of the group.
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speech of introduction
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is to prepare or “warm up” the audience for the main speaker—to heighten audience interest and build the speaker’s credibility.
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Describe the speaker’s background and qualifications.
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Relate the speaker’s achievements, offices held, and other facts to demonstrate why the speaker is relevant to the occasion. Mention the speaker’s accomplishments, but not so many that the audience glazes over.
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Briefly preview the speaker’s topic.
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Give the audience a sense of why the subject is of interest, bearing in mind that it is not the introducer’s job to evaluate the speech.
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Invite the audience to welcome the speaker.
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This can be done simply by saying something like “Please welcome Cesar Cruz.”
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Be brief
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Speak just long enough to accomplish the goals of preparation and motivation. One well-known speaker recommends a two-minute maximum.
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speech of acceptance
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is made in response to receiving an award. Its purpose is to express gratitude for the honor bestowed on the speaker.
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Prepare in advance.
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If you know or even suspect that you are to receive an award, decide before the event what you will say.
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Express what the award means to you.
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Convey to the audience the value you place on the award. Express yourself genuinely and with humility.
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Express gratitude
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Thank by name each of the relevant persons or organizations involved in giving you the award. Acknowledge any team players or others who helped you attain the achievement for which you are being honored.
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speech of presentation
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is twofold: the meaning of the award and to explain why the recipient is receiving it.
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Convey the meaning of the award.
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Describe what the award is for and what it represents. Mention the sponsors and describe the link between the sponsors’ goals and values and the award.
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Explain why the recipient is receiving the award.
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Describe the recipient’s achievements and special attributes that qualify him or her as deserving of the award.
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roast
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is a humorous tribute to a person, one in which a series of speakers jokingly poke fun at him or her.
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A toast
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is a brief tribute to a person or an event being celebrated. Both roasts and toasts call for short speeches whose goal is to celebrate an individual and his or her achievements.
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Prepare
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Impromptu though they might appear, the best roasts and toasts reflect time spent drafting and rehearsing. As you practice, time the speech.
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Highlight remarkable traits of the person being honored.
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Restrict your remarks to one or two of the person’s most unusual or recognizable attributes. Convey the qualities that have made him or her worthy of celebrating.
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Be positive and be brief.
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Even if the speech is poking fun at someone, as in a roast, keep the tone positive. Remem¬ her, your overall purpose is to pay tribute to the honoree.
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eulogy derives
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from the Greek word meaning “to praise.” Those delivering eulogies, usually close friends or family members of the deceased, are charged with celebrating and commemorating the life of someone while consoling those who have been left behind.
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after-dinner speech
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is just as likely to occur before, during, or after a lunch seminar or other type of business, professional, or civic meeting as it is to follow a formal dinner.
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Recognize the occasion.
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Connect the speech with the occasion. Delivering a speech that is unrelated to the event may leave the impression that the speech is
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canned
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one that the speaker uses again and again in different settings.
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speech of inspiration
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seeks to uplift members of the audience and to help them see things in a positive light. Sermons, commencement addresses, “pep talks,” and nomination speeches are all inspirational in nature.
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Style
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is the specific word choices
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rhetorical devices
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(techniques of language) speakers use to express their ideas. A speaker’s style can make a speech colorful and convincing or bland and boring.
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Translate jargon
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the specialized, “insider” language of a given profession—into commonly understood terms. As speechwriter Peggy Noonan notes in her book Simply Speaking :
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Concrete language
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is specific, tangible, and definite. Words such as “mountain,” “spoon,” “dark,” and “heavy” describe things we can physi¬ cally sense (see, hear, taste, smell, and touch).
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Imagery
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is concrete language that brings into play the senses of smell, taste, sight, hearing, and touch to paint mental pic¬ tures. Speeches containing ample imagery elicit more posi¬ tive responses than those that do not.5
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Figures of speech,
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including similes, metaphors, and analogies, make striking comparisons between the unfamiliar and the known, allowing listeners to more quickly grasp meaning.
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simile
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explicitly compares one thing to another, using like or as: “He works like a dog,” and “The old woman’s hands were as soft as a baby’s.”
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metaphor
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also compares two things, but does so by describing one thing as actually being the other: “Time is a thief.”
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analogy
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is simply an extended metaphor or simile that compares an unfamiliar concept or process to a more familiar one. Analogies help emphasize or explain key ideas or processes to an audience.
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A weak or faulty analogy
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is an inaccurate or misleading comparison suggesting that because two things are similar in some ways, they are necessarily similar in others.
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code-switching,
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Done carefully, the selective use of dialect, sometimes called, can imbue your speech with friendliness, humor, earthiness, honesty, and nostalgia.9
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malapropisms
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the inadvertent, incorrect uses of a word or phrase in place of one that sounds like it (“It’s a strange receptacle” for “It’s a strange spectacle”).
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Voice
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is the feature of verbs that indicates the subject’s relationship to the action. A verb is in the active voice when the subject performs the action, and in the passive voice when the subject is acted upon or is the receiver of the action:
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colloquial expressions or idioms
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Sayings specific to a certain region or group of people such as “back the wrong horse” and “ballpark figure” can add color and richness to a speech, but only if listeners understand them.
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denotative meaning
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of a word is its literal, or dictionary, definition.
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connotative meaning
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of a word is the special (often emotional) association that different people bring to bear on it. For example, you may agree that you are “angry,” but not “irate,” and “thrifty” but not “cheap.”
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anaphora
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In a form of repetition the speaker repeats a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences.
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epiphora (epistrophe)
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Rather than at the beginning of successive statements, in the repetition of a word or phrase appears at the end of them.
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Alliteration
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is the repetition of the same sounds, usually initial consonants, in two or more neighboring words or syllables. Alliteration lends speech a poetic, musical rhythm.
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parallelism.
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The arrangement of words, phrases, or sentences in a similar form is known as
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antithesis
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Parallelism in speeches often makes use of—setting off two ideas in balanced (parallel) opposition to each other to create a powerful effect: