Quantum Physics

Flashcard maker : Bettina Hugo
According to the Quantum Mechanics model of the atom, the electron is…
A 3-dimensional wave surrounding the nucleus of an atom. The electrons are in fixed energy states and can move about the nucleus without radiating away their energy.
Principle Quantum Number (n)
Indicates the average distance that an electron is located from the nucleus of the atom.
What is the maximum number of electrons possible in any given energy level where n=the energy level equal to?
2n^2
Orbital Quantum Number (l)
Indiactes the shape of the path in which electrons move. These paths are called sublevels.
Where are electrons placed in a given energy sublevel?
The lowest energy sublevel first.
Magnetic Quantum Number (ml)
Indicates the direction and space of the path of a pair of electrons. This direction is called an orbital.
Orbital
A three-dimensional space about the nucleus in which electrons of a given energy are likely to be found.
The maximum number of orbitals in a given energy level is equal to…
n^2
Spin Quantum Number (ms)
Indicates the spin or rotation of the electron on its axis.
Pauli’s Exculsion Principle
States that no more than two electrons can occupy the same orbital in an atom and these two electrons must have opposite spins.
Electron Pair
Two electrons in the same orbital with opposite spins.
Valence Electrons
The electrons in the outermost energy level of the atom.
What is the most important part of the electron configuration? Explain.
The valence electrons are the most important part of the electron configuration. The number and arrangement of the valence electrons determine the chemical properties of an element.
Kernel
The entire electron configuration excluding the valence electrons.
Ground State
The lowest energy state of an atom. The atom’s most stable state.
Spectroscopy
The method of studying substances that are exposed to some sort of continous exciting energy.
What causes the bright light spectrum?
If an outside force causes an electron to change orbitals, energy is either given off or absorbed by definate units called Quanta. This change produces the bright light spectrum of the substance.
What is true about spectrums of different substances?
Each is unique.
What is found through studying the spectrum?
The energy diagram for the location of the electrons.
Spectrum
A unique set of wave-lengths absorbed by a substance.
Hund’s Rule
When placing electrons in a sublevel that has more than one orbital, one electron of the same spin is placed in each orbital before doubling up.
Aufbau Principle
Electrons are placed one at a time in the lowest energy position.

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