Public Administration Theorists

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Woodrow Wilson
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-1887 – Wrote essay on Public Admin (launches PA) -Wanted a bureaucracy that would govern independently from elected branches of government. -Advocates a trained bureaucracy that has expertise and will to oppose popular opinion. (expertise is a title to rule). -Politics – Administration Dichotomy -\”It is the object of admin study to discover, first, what gov can properly and successfully do and secondly, how it can do these proper things with the utmost efficiency and least possible cost of money or energy\”.
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Herbert Simon
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-Attacked \”principles\” approach to management as inconsistent and inapplicable -Advocates systems approach to admin and study of decision-making (looked for theory of decision-making instead of theory of org.) -Article picked apart Gulick’s POSDCORB -Develeoped theory of Bounded Rationality to counter criticisms of the rational model and to illustrate the strong role that incentives and inducements play in org. decision making. -Argues that span of control should be small which results in tall hierarchical orgs and should be as few hierarchical levels as possible.
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Chester Barnard
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Wrote his views about management after retiring. He believed that the organization had to encourage cooperation. Since he was less concerned with formal organizational procedures and policies, his approach became known for its emphasis on the informal organization
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Dwight Waldo
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Was an American political scientist (1913-2000) and is perhaps the defining figure in modern public administration. Waldo’s career was often directed against a scientific/technical portrayal of bureaucracy and government that now suggests the term public management as opposed to public administration. Believed that true democracy and true efficiency to be synonyms.
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Luther Gulick
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-Fact – value dichotomy -Advocated a seamless web of discretion and interaction -Developed theory of organization to emphasize scientific management, efficiency, professionalism, structural reform and executive control -POSDCORB (theory of admin management) -Figured he understood how bureaucracies functioned (Weber) and more interested in helping administrators function more efficiently.
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Mary Parker Follett
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-1920’s \”mother of scientific management.\” Her many contributions to modern management include the ideas of negotiation, conflict resolution, and power sharing. -Group process: core of social process and ind. achieves fulfillment in group. If treated unjustly, fulfillment is in jeopardy. When emotions take over, prod. decline.
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Frederick Taylor
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-Father of Scientific Management (1900) An early supporter of the theory, explained that scientific management was based on the idea that every kind of could be broken down into a series of smaller tasks. Trained observers conducted \”time and motion\” studies to identify these tasks. They then set rates of production that workers and machines had to meet. Soon \”efficiency experts\” were applying these methods to many types of business. -Human beings were adjuncts to the machine and objective was to make them as efficient as the machines they operated.

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