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Psychopathology Chapter 6

question

c
answer

A typical episode of major depression last __________, with very severe cases lasting as long as several years. a. 3 months b. 6 months c. 9 months d. 1 year
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d
answer

Which of the following is usually a component of a major depressive episode? a. Cognitive disturbance b. Somatic/vegetative symptoms c. Loss of interest/motivation d. All of the above.
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b
answer

Which of the following is NOT usually a component of a major depressive episode? a. Feelings of worthlessness b. Flight of ideas c. Altered sleep patterns d. Change in appetite
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d
answer

Which of the following is a symptom of a manic episode? a. Slowed speech b. Hypoactive behavior c. Hypersomnia d. Grandiosity
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d
answer

One symptom of a mood disorder is anhedonia, which means a. a feeling of worthlessness. b. an altered pattern of sleep. c. indecisiveness. d. an inability to experience pleasure.
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b
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When used in connection with mood disorders, “flight of ideas” means a. anxiety about airplane travel. b. rapid speech expressing many exciting ideas at once. c. limited imagination reflected in a slow way of speaking. d. An increase in creative ideas.
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a
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In comparing the length of untreated depressive episodes and untreated manic episodes, which of the following is an accurate statement? a. Depressive episodes generally last longer. b. Manic episodes generally last longer. c. Both types of episodes typically last about the same amount of time. d. This comparison cannot be made because only depressive episodes can be treated.
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d
answer

A hypomanic episode refers to a. A prolonged but less severe form of a manic episode that is easily treated b. A manic episode without hallucinations or delusions c. A manic episode that occurs without any depressive episodes d. A shorter and less severe form of a manic episode with less impairment in functioning
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a
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The physical or somatic symptoms of a major depressive disorder include a. changes in appetite or weight. b. decreased ability to concentrate. c. increased energy. d. orgasmic feelings.
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b
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Which of the following symptoms characterize a manic episode? a. Feelings of guilt b. Irritability c. Anhedonia d. Loss of energy
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c
answer

A 35-year-old individual named Manny has recently formulated an elaborate plan to cure AIDS with vitamin therapy. To provide funding for this cause, he has withdrawn all the money from his bank account and purchased thousands of jars of vitamins and small boxes in which to put them. When he appeared at a hospital emergency room loudly demanding names of patients with AIDS, he himself was hospitalized for psychiatric observation. What of the following is Manny experiencing? a. Major depressive episode b. Hypomanic episode c. Manic episode d. Postpartum psychosis
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a
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Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding mood disorders? a. An individual experiencing manic symptoms can also be depressed or anxious. b. Unipolar mania is more common than unipolar depression. c. An individual who has experienced only manic episodes in the past is unlikely to ever become depressed. d. Neither manic nor depressive symptoms remit on their own without treatment.
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c
answer

Dysphoric mania refers to a type of mood disorder in which manic episodes are a. extremely severe. b. very mild. c. accompanied by depression or anxiety. d. related to a medical condition.
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a
answer

Debbie has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder, recurrent. She wants to know what to expect in the future regarding her condition. You tell her that according to recent research, the median lifetime number of major depressive episodes is a. 4-7. b. 8-10. c. 12-15. d. 16-18.
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b
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According to recent research, the median duration of recurrent (subsequent to the first episode) major depressive episodes is a. 1 to 2 months. b. 4 to 5 months. c. 7 to 9 months. d. 11 to 12 months.
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b
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Persistent depressive disorder differs (PDD) from major depressive disorder (MDD) because people diagnosed with PDD have symptoms of depression that are a. more severe. b. longer-lasting. c. episodic. d. temporary.
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a
answer

Jack has experienced recurrent episodes of major depressive episodes. In the intervals between the episodes, he does not seem to return to “normal.” In fact, during those periods, he has been diagnosed as have low-grade depression. Jack’s condition is referred to as a. double depression. b. bipolar disorder. c. atypical depression. d. dysfunctional dysthymia.
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b
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Research studies reported in your textbook indicate that during the 20th century, the age of onset for depression a. increased. b. decreased. c. stayed about the same. d. increased for males, decreased for females.
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c
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According to recent research, the percentage of people age 18 to 23 who have already experienced major depression is _____ percent. a. 10 b. 18 c. 24 d. 40
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a
answer

The probability that a person will recover from a major depressive episode within five years approaches 90 percent in a. all cases. b. mild cases only. c. severe cases only. d. double depression only.
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c
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Regarding severe cases of major depressive disorder, those in which the depressive episode has lasted five years or more, all of the following statements are accurate EXCEPT a. the episode may not entirely clear up, leaving some residual symptoms. b. the likelihood of a subsequent episode is high. c. the next episode is likely to be manic, rather than depressive. d. subsequent episodes may be associated with incomplete inter-episode recovery.
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d
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In comparison to a later age of onset, early onset of persistent depressive disorder (before age 21) is associated with all of the following characteristics EXCEPT a. greater chronicity. b. poorer response to treatment. c. genetic influence. d. better prognosis.
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c
answer

Not only is there a high prevalence of persistent depressive disorder in children, but it has also been found that three-fourths of these children will eventually be diagnosed with a. bipolar disorder. b. mania c. major depressive disorder. d. cyclothymia.
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a
answer

Symptoms of severe depression are generally NOT considered a psychological disorder when they are associated with a. a grief reaction. b. a manic episode. c. anxiety. d. thoughts of suicide.
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c
answer

Although grieving is considered a normal process, it does sometimes become a psychological disorder. Which of the following cases would NOT be diagnosed as complicated grief? a. Mr. A’s sister suddenly passed away from illness about a year ago. Mr. A is still suffering from severe depression and persistent thoughts of joining his sister in heaven. b. Miss B has experienced the death of a close friend. She is so depressed that she has no appetite or energy, and believes that she will never be truly happy again without her friend. c. Mrs. C’s dog recently died. Three weeks later, her friends suggest that she get another dog “to help her get over the loss.” Mrs. C refuses, saying she just isn’t ready to get another dog and still has trouble accepting that “Duchess” is gone. d. Dr. D’s cate died 6months ago. In addition to his depressive symptoms, he cannot stop replaying the scene of her death in his mind, which is interfering with his social life.
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a
answer

Considering the terms used to differentiate mood disorders, cyclothymic is to dysthymic as a. bipolar is to major depressive. b. manic is to hypomanic. c. major depressive is to bipolar. d. Bipolar I is to Bipolar II.
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b
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Jane is diagnosed with Bipolar II disorder. You can expect that she will experience a. full manic episodes. b. hypomanic episodes. c. both manic and hypomanic episodes. d. neither manic nor hypomanic episodes.
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c
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Which of the following is NOT true about a hypomanic manic episode? a. It is not necessarily impairing for an individual. b. It involves cognitive and physical changes. c. It causes marked impairment in social or occupational functioning. d. It need only last four days.
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d
answer

Some psychologists were reluctant to make premenstrual dysphoric disorder a formal diagnosis because a. It had too much overlap with other mood disorders’ diagnostic criteria b. It is so rare that a formal diagnostic category is unjustified c. It is strictly a consequence of hormonal imbalances and is therefore not a psychological disorder d. It has the potential to be stigmatizing for women.
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b
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Children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder are most at risk for later developing a. Bipolar disorder b. Depressive and anxiety disorders c. Psychotic disorders d. Psychopathic personality traits
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d
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Which of the following 8-year-old children should most likely receive a diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder? a. Hakim, who cannot sit still in class or at the dinner table b. Bella, who stayed up all night for 3 nights in a row making what she believes is the world’s prettiest dress c. Bobby, who always gets into fights and is extremely rebellious with authority figures d. Mary Ann, who can’t help snapping at her parents and feelings an overwhelming irritability that she feels uncontrollable
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d
answer

At various times, Cynthia, a 20-year-old college student, has always been considered by her family and/or friends to be moody, high-strung, explosive, or hyperactive. Knowing the criteria for mood disorders, you would diagnose Cynthia with a. major depressive disorder. b. panic disorder. c. Disrupted mood dysregulation disorder. d. cyclothymia.
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a
answer

In about _____________ percent of patients, cyclothymic mood swings develop into full-blown bipolar disorder. a. 25 – 33 b. 33 – 50 c. 50 – 66 d. 10 – 20
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c
answer

Since traditional antidepressant medication such as tricyclics and SSRIs may actually provoke rapid cycling in patients with bipolar disorder, mood stabilizers and ________ are often prescribed instead. a. antipsychotics b. tranquilizers c. anticonvulsants d. opiates
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a
answer

In studies of bipolar patients who experience rapid cycling, it has been found that as many as 90 percent are a. female. b. male. c. elderly d. adolescents.
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c
answer

Milton has been mildly depressed for many years. Just recently, however, his depression deepened, and he was severely depressed for about three months. His deep depression then lifted and he was once again mildly depressed. Milton a. will be easier to treat now that the severe depression is resolved. b. will quickly respond to treatment and will recover completely from his depression. c. will require a longer and more intense course of treatment to maintain a normal mood state. d. will require treatment for the rest of his life.
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b
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Experiencing depression ________ the risk of death in elderly patients who have had a stroke or heart attack. a. has no effect on b. doubles c. triples d. reduces
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d
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The presence of medical illnesses or symptoms of dementia can make the diagnosis of depression difficult in a. middle-aged men. b. menopausal women. c. highly creative individuals. d. the elderly.
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d
answer

Cross-cultural research indicates that, due at least in part to appalling social and economic conditions, the prevalence of major depression is extremely high among a. African Americans. b. African Americans. c. Asian Americans. d. Native Americans
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a
answer

Which of the following statements is accurate regarding the relationship between anxiety and depression? a. Almost all depressed patients are anxious, but not every anxious patient is depressed. b. Cognitive content (thinking) is more negative in anxious patients than in those with depression. c. A core symptom of anxiety is the inability to experience pleasure. d. Anxiety is often preceded by an episode of major depression.
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d
answer

In research looking at the biological causes of mood disorders, studies have shown that if one of a set of twins is unipolar, the probability that the other twin is unipolar is ___________ percent. a. 20 b. 40 c. 60 d. 80
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a
answer

In terms of the etiology of mood disorders, research has shown that a. environmental stress plays a larger role in causing depression in men than in women. b. genetic factors are more important in the development of depression in men in comparison to the development of depression in women. c. genetic and environmental factors are equally contributory to mood disorders. d. there are no sex differences in vulnerability to depression.
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c
answer

Current research into neurotransmitter systems has produced the “permissive” hypothesis, which means that a. low levels of serotonin are sufficient to explain the etiology of mood disorders. b. the norepinephrine system regulates serotonin levels; if norepinephrine is low, depression will occur. c. when serotonin levels are low, other neurotransmitter systems become dysregulated and contribute to mood irregularities. d. the absolute levels of neurotransmitters are more significant in mood regulation than the overall balance of the various neurotransmitters.
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a
answer

Which type of brain wave activity indicates calm, positive feelings? a. Alpha waves b. REM waves c. Delta waves d. Gamma waves
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d
answer

Recent research suggests that a. the suppression of neurogenesis in the hippocampus is due to the connection between high stress hormones and depression. b. low hippocampal volume may precede and contribute to the onset of depression. c. electroconvulsive therapy seems to produce neurogenesis in the hippocampus. d. all of the above
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a
answer

One symptom of depression is an increase in sleeping. What other symptom related to sleep occurs in depression? a. Decreased slow wave sleep, the deepest stage of sleep b. Less intense REM activity c. Stages of deepest sleep occurring earlier in the sleep cycle d. Slower onset of REM sleep
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d
answer

With regard to the relationship between stress and depression, all of the following statements are true EXCEPT that a. the context of the life event, as well as its meaning to the individual, is more important than the nature of the event itself. b. an individual’s current mood state might distort earlier memories of flife events that precipitated the depression c. stressful life events are strongly related to the onset of mood disorders. d. recurrent episodes of depression, but not initial episodes, are strongly predicted by major life stress.
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c
answer

The idea that individuals who are biologically vulnerable to depression place themselves in high-risk, stressful environments reflects the a. Self-fulfilling prophecy theory. b. cognitive-behavioral model. c. reciprocal gene-environment model. d. stress-depression linkage effect.
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c
answer

An individual who usually says “It’s all my fault” when anything goes wrong is reflecting the ________ characteristic of the depressive attributional style. a. specific b. stable c. internal d. external
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a
answer

. Martin Seligman’s theory that people become anxious and depressed because they believe that they have no control over the stress in their lives is informed by a. the learned helplessness model. b. cognitive-behavioral theory. c. humanistic/existential theory. d. the Seligman Model of depression.
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b
answer

In 1989, Abramson and his colleagues revised Seligman’s theory of learned helplessness, changing the focus from specific attributions to ________ as the crucial factor in depression. a. lack of control b. a sense of hopelessness c. repressed anger d. a feeling of failure
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b
answer

A student who has been doing very well in her psychology class receives a minor critical comment on an essay that she wrote as part of an exam. The student thinks, “This is terrible. I’m probably going to fail the course.” This type of cognitive error in thinking is called a. arbitrary inference. b. overgeneralization. c. pessimism d. dissociating.
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c
answer

In Aaron Beck’s depressive cognitive triad, individuals think negatively about all of the following EXCEPT a. themselves. b. their immediate world c. Moral principles d. their future.
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b
answer

According to recent research on the development of depression, dysfunctional attitudes (a negative outlook) and hopelessness attributes (explaining things negatively) constitute a ________ vulnerability to depression. a. biological b. cognitive c. behavioral d. sociological
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a
answer

For individuals who had not been previously depressed, research studies indicate that a marital separation or divorce resulted in a. a higher rate of depression in men. b. a higher rate of depression in women. c. approximately equal rates of depression for males and females. d. no symptoms of depression in either males or females.
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c
answer

Some possible reasons for the higher rates of depression found in women relate to the disadvantages experienced by women in the United States, such as a. discrimination and poverty. b. abuse and sexual harassment. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b
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d
answer

Which of the following factors contribute to the integrative theory of depression? a. Stressful life events b. Stress hormones c. Neurotransmitters d. All of the above
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b
answer

With regard to social support, a. having one close friend did not affect recovery from depression. b. having social support helped speed recovery from depressive episodes. c. having social support had no effect in China. d. having too much social support actually overwhelmed patients and worsened their depression in some cases.
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c
answer

The therapeutic effects of tricyclic antidepressants begin a. immediately. b. within 24 hours. c. 2 to 8 weeks after starting the medication. d. 3 months after starting the medication.
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b
answer

Which of the following statements is accurate regarding the treatment of mood disorders? a. Patients do not recover from episodes of major depression without treatment. b. Delaying or preventing future episodes of major depression is often an important treatment goal, instead of merely recovering from current depression. c. After a patient has experienced a major depressive episode and recovered, treatment can be discontinued. d. Close to 100 percent of patients with major depressive disorder respond to drug treatment.
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b
answer

Clinical studies have shown that the favorable response rate for patients taking antidepressant medications is ______ percent. a. 25 b. 50 c. 75 d. 100
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c
answer

Lithium is a _______and is prescribed as the gold standard for treatment of _______. a. Antipsychotic; very severe depression b. Anticonvulsant; bipolar disorder c. Mood stabilizer; bipolar disorder d. SSRI; bipolar disorder
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c
answer

All of the following statements about lithium therapy are true EXCEPT a. for those patients who respond to lithium, approximately 70 percent will relapse. b. for anyone with recurrent manic episodes, maintenance on lithium is recommended to prevent relapse. c. once a person is symptom-free for six months, he/she may stop taking lithium. d. people stop taking lithium to regain the euphoric feeling that mania produces.
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d
answer

All of the following statements are accurate about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) EXCEPT a. relief of symptoms can occur within a week or two with ECT. b. ECT treatment should be followed up with medication or psychotherapy. c. short-term memory loss is a side effect of treatment with medication. d. depressed patients with psychotic symptoms should be treated with medication, not ECT.
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d
answer

Transcranial magnetic stimulation is currently not a widely used form of treatment for depression; it is a. More intrusive than ECT b. Less effective than ECT c. The last resort treatment for depression because it causes memory loss d. Has only been tested in a relatively small number of individuals
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a
answer

Interpersonal psychotherapy deals with all of the following interpersonal problems EXCEPT a. environmental interactions. b. acquisition of new relationships. c. identification and correction of deficits in social skills. d. interpersonal role disputes.
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c
answer

The antidepressant medication lithium is also referred to as a mood stabilizer because it a. increases the availability of both dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. b. is less toxic than the SSRI medications. c. helps to prevent manic episodes. d. increases thyroid functioning, which results in improved mood stabilization.
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b
answer

Although the mood-stabilizing drug lithium is the preferred treatment for bipolar disorder, patient compliance has been a problem. Patients often stop taking their lithium, even though it is effective in stabilizing their moods, because they a. become anxious that the drug is too toxic. b. miss the euphoric feelings that mania produces. c. start to have panic attacks. d. cannot afford the high cost of the medication.
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b
answer

Although ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) has been a controversial issue for decades, it is an effective treatment for depression, especially when a. patients cannot afford antidepressant medication. b. patient response to antidepressant medication is poor. c. symptoms of depression are mild. d. a manic-depressive patient is currently experiencing a manic episode.
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b
answer

In comparing ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) to antidepressant medication, all of the following statements are accurate EXCEPT that a. some patients have long-term memory problems after ECT. b. continued treatment with medication or psychotherapy is not needed after ECT. c. short-term memory loss is a side effect of treatment with ECT. d. 50 percent of psychotically depressed patients who do not improve using medication benefit from ECT.
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b
answer

Seligman and his colleagues conducted a course in which university students at risk for depression were taught cognitive and social problem-solving skills. Students in the study were determined to be at risk for depression based on a a. low score on a test of learned helplessness. b. pessimistic cognitive style. c. family history of depression. d. poor response to antidepressant medication.
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c
answer

Which of the following statements about suicide is correct? a. The suicide rate is high among African Americans but low among Native Americans. b. The suicide rate among adolescents in the U.S. is decreasing. c. For college students, suicide is the second leading cause of death. d. Females are more likely than males to die from suicide.
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c
answer

Research has found that low serotonin levels may be implicated in suicidal behavior because they affect all of the following EXCEPT a. impulsivity. b. instability. c. inertia. d. overreactivity.
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b
answer

Although the glorification and romanticizing of suicide in the media contributes to the incidence of copycats, it is more likely that the person copying the suicide is a. just doing it for attention. b. vulnerable due to an existing psychological disorder. c. not really serious about the suicide attempt. d. Feeling validated about an already planned suicide.
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b
answer

Impulsive suicidal behavior is often a symptom of ________ personality disorder. a. schizoid b. borderline c. obsessive-compulsive d. paranoid
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c
answer

Evidence for an inherited tendency toward suicidal behavior comes from research involving a. the human genome project. b. callers to suicide hotlines. c. adoption and twin studies. d. “psychological autopsies.”
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a
answer

Which of the following statements reflects the current thinking on the issue of the relationship between mood disorders and suicide? a. Suicide is often associated with psychological disorders, especially depression. b. All people who attempt suicide have mood disorders. c. A small percentage of adolescent suicides are an expression of severe depression. d. Suicide is generally a response to some disappointment in people who are otherwise psychologically healthy.
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d
answer

Suheil comes into your clinical psychology practice reporting that he’s been feeling so down he’s had suicide on his mind. To determine his level of risk for suicide, you should make sure to assess Suheil’s a. Desire to actually carry out a suicide b. Access to weapons and other means of suicide c. Specific plans, if any, for committing suicide d. All of the above.
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a
answer

Statistics on suicide indicate that approximately one-quarter to one-half of all suicides are associated with a. alcohol use. b. guns. c. aggression. d. work stress.
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d
answer

All of the following are risk factors for suicide EXCEPT a. a sense of hopelessness. b. a shameful or humiliating experience. c. previous suicide attempt(s). d. a vague suicidal fantasy without detailed plans.