Psychology: The Study of Behavior and Mental Processes

Clinical Psychologists
A psychologist who diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances

Developmental Psychologists
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

Experimental Psychologists
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

Counseling Psychologists
A psychologist who usually helps people deal with problems of living

Personality Psychologists
the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting

Consumer Psychologists
Study why people buy certain products and not others

School Psychologists
help and support students and their ability to learn

Social Psychologists
Study how the presence of others can effect one individuals behavioral thoughts

Forensic Psychologists
* focuses on the relationship between the laws and psychology
* applies psychological concepts to legal issues

Educational Psychologists
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning

Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

Behavior
observable and measurable actions of people and animals

Introspection
an examination of one’s own thoughts and feelings

Behaviorism
the school of psychology, founded by John Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior

Structuralism
the school of psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains the conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings

Reinforcement
a stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the frequency of that response

Functionalism
the school of psychology, founded by William James, that emphasizes the purposes of behavior and mental processes

Psychoanalysis
the school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives, and conflicts as determinants of human behavior

Cognitive Activity
private, unobservable mental processes such as sensation, perception, thought, and problem solving

Survey
a research technique for acquiring data about the attitudes or behaviors of a group of people, usually by asking questions of a representative, random sample

Biological Perspective
the psychological perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior

Psychoanalytic Perspective
the perspective that stresses the influence of unconscious forces on human behavior

Evolutionary Perspective
the theory focusing on the evolution of behavior and mental processes

Learning Perspective
the psychological point of view that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior

Cognitive Perspective
the viewpoint that emphasizes the role of thought processes in determining behavior

Socio-cultural Perspective
in psychology, the perspective that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation, behavior, and mental processes

Humanistic Perspective
the psychological view that assumes the existence of the self and emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and the freedom to make choices

Theory
a set of assumptions about why something is the way it is and happens the way it does