Psychology: The Study of Behavior and Mental Processes

Clinical Psychologists
A psychologist who diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances
Developmental Psychologists
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Experimental Psychologists
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
Counseling Psychologists
A psychologist who usually helps people deal with problems of living
Personality Psychologists
the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting
Consumer Psychologists
Study why people buy certain products and not others
School Psychologists
help and support students and their ability to learn
Social Psychologists
Study how the presence of others can effect one individuals behavioral thoughts
Forensic Psychologists
* focuses on the relationship between the laws and psychology
* applies psychological concepts to legal issues
Educational Psychologists
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Behavior
observable and measurable actions of people and animals
Introspection
an examination of one’s own thoughts and feelings
Behaviorism
the school of psychology, founded by John Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior
Structuralism
the school of psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains the conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings
Reinforcement
a stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the frequency of that response
Functionalism
the school of psychology, founded by William James, that emphasizes the purposes of behavior and mental processes
Psychoanalysis
the school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives, and conflicts as determinants of human behavior
Cognitive Activity
private, unobservable mental processes such as sensation, perception, thought, and problem solving
Survey
a research technique for acquiring data about the attitudes or behaviors of a group of people, usually by asking questions of a representative, random sample
Biological Perspective
the psychological perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior
Psychoanalytic Perspective
the perspective that stresses the influence of unconscious forces on human behavior
Evolutionary Perspective
the theory focusing on the evolution of behavior and mental processes
Learning Perspective
the psychological point of view that emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior
Cognitive Perspective
the viewpoint that emphasizes the role of thought processes in determining behavior
Socio-cultural Perspective
in psychology, the perspective that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation, behavior, and mental processes
Humanistic Perspective
the psychological view that assumes the existence of the self and emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and the freedom to make choices
Theory
a set of assumptions about why something is the way it is and happens the way it does