Ap Psychology Practice Test

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
who was the founder of psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud
Which theorist stressed the importance of self actualization?
Abraham Maslow
of the following theorists who is not associated with psychodynamic theory?
Carl Rogers
The five factors of personality include neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and
extraversion
Which of the following is an example of hysteria?
a man whose hand is numb despite any physical explanation
Which of the following has NOT been a criticism of Freud’s theory?
He placed too much emphasis on cultural influences on development, and not enough emphasis on biological influences.
Which personality structure did Freud believe was responsible for creating defense mechanisms?
Ego
In which stage of psychosexual development is the Oedipus complex thought to occur?
phallic
Which of the following, from earliest to latest, is the correct ordering of the psychosexual stages of development?
oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency period, genital stage
Which theorist developed the idea of the collective unconscious?
Carl Jung
Why did Mischel develop CAPS theory?
to explain the fact that some traits are more heavily influenced by the situation than others, and that this varies from person to person and situation to situation
Who was responsible for developing the tools that led to modern criminal profiling?
Henry Murray
What does reciprocal determinism mean?
Cognitive factors, personality, and the environment all interact to determine a person’s personality.
Which theorist is most closely associated with the social cognitive approach?
Albert Bandura
An item on a personality assessment is high in face validity if
it seems like it fits the trait it is supposed to measure.
Which type of assessment requires participants to tell a story about an ambiguous stimulus?
projective test
Which of the following has NOT been a criticism of the humanistic approach to personality?
The humanist perspective underestimates the effect of the situation on human behavior.
Which of the following traits would you expect a successful graduate student to be high in?
conscientiousness
Psychological and physical health is more common among people who are
high on the traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, and low on neuroticism.
Carl Rogers believed that a healthy person
unconditional positive regard.
Dan McAdams felt that, in order to understand a person’s personality, we must take into account that person’s
complete life story
According to reinforcement sensitivity theory, the BAS is related to ______ and the BIS is related to ______.
extraversion; neuroticism
Octavia enjoys being around others and is well-known for her social grace. She is warm and engaging with everyone she meets regardless of whether the setting is the classroom, her workplace, a restaurant, or her own home. Based on this information and relying on the Five Factor Model, we can say that she would be MOST likely to score high in
agreeableness
Elijah often worries about his future. He almost always lies awake the night before a test concerned that he will fail. On the rare occasion that he does receive a grade that is lower than the one for which he hoped, he becomes depressed and irritable. His friends tease him that he takes everything far too seriously, or that he’s going to have a nervous breakdown before he reaches 20. Based on this information and relying on the Five Factor Model, we can say that Elijah would be MOST likely to score high in
neuroticism
While Layne’s friends enjoy her sense of humor and warmth, they are often frustrated by her inability to get places on time. Worse, she rarely calls to say she will be late, and sometimes she doesn’t show up at all. She hates to commit to anything beforehand and seems to make decisions based on her moods, regardless of how those behaviors might affect others. Based on this information and relying on the Five Factor Model, we can say that Layne would be MOST likely to score low in
conscientiousness
Since her physician told Fabienne that she needs to lose weight to improve her health, she has been trying to eat healthily. But every time she goes out to a restaurant, she can’t resist ordering several unhealthy desserts. Her friends suggest that she try to eat the foods she craves in moderation, but she tells them that when she sees the sweets she’s not “supposed” to eat, she can focus on nothing but how badly she wants them. Freud would say that Fabienne’s _____________ is encouraging her to overeat certain foods.
ID
Elke lends a friend some money, but the friend doesn’t pay her back when he said he would. Though Elke feels angry, her mother taught her that it is rude to yell or say anything that might upset someone else, so she pretends she isn’t angry and asks the friend to pay her back in a month. Freud would say that Elke’s __________________ told her she shouldn’t show anger towards others.
superego
Cerys has read all the books on mythology in his school’s library, and he is intrigued by how the stories all seem to have similar elements and themes. In each story there is a hero and a villain, a damsel in distress, a wise old man or woman to guide the hero, and a funny sidekick. Jung would tell Cerys that the commonalities are there because the story creators were all tapping the
collective unconscious.
Cerys has read all the books on mythology in his school’s library, and he is intrigued by how the stories all seem to have similar elements and themes. In each story there is a hero and a villain, a damsel in distress, a wise old man or woman to guide the hero, and a funny sidekick. Jung would tell Cerys that the hero, the villain, the wise mentor, the love interest, and the sidekick are all patterns of interpreting experience called
archetypes
Dr. Drust asks his client Nairi to complete a test that will help him pinpoint the type of depression she has and which personality characteristics may be contributing to her problem. The test consists of 567 true and false questions and addresses attitudes and emotions, behaviors and symptoms, and life history. Dr. Drust has given Nairi the
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2).
Dr. Vartan shows his client Dallas 12 different pictures and asks him to tell a story about each one. When Dallas has looked at all the cards, the two of them review the stories together, looking for recurrent themes. Dallas has just taken the
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Your friend Steve is very excited, because he just learned that he can take the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) for free at his school. He plans to use this information to choose his career. As someone familiar with research on the MBTI, what should you tell him?
Steve should be cautious. There are concerns about the MBTI’s reliability and validity, but it is possible that the test may still yield some useful information.
Don’s dream is to be a pro golfer. His parents, however, have made it clear that they think he will not succeed at this goal, and that they will not be happy with him unless he goes into the family business. Carl Rogers would say that the parents are imposing _______ on Don.
conditions of worth
Dr. Verlitzer thinks it would be impossible to fully describe a person without knowing the person’s entire history. He feels that a complete history would entail knowing the person’s psychological, physical, and social history, and analyzing the person from multiple perspectives. Dr. Verlitzer subscribes to the _______ approach to personality.
personological
What organization publishes the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders?
American Psychiatric Association
Ken went to the emergency room because he was short of breath, had a rapid heart beat, was sweating, and feared that he was having a heart attack and would die. When the physician examined Ken, she was unable to find anything physically wrong with him. When she questioned Ken further, he told her that these physical symptoms occurred right before he was to give an important presentation. Which of the following is a possible explanation for Ken’s symptoms?
panic disorder
A soldier who survived a bloody battle finds that she has recurrent nightmares, avoids her military friends, and jumps when she hears a loud noise. Based on these symptoms, what disorder does she most likely have?
post-traumatic stress disorder
What do people with anorexia have in common with people with bulimia?
Both have an intense fear of becoming fat.
Which of the following is not an anxiety disorder?
bipolar disorder
A deficiency in which neurotransmitter has been implicated as a potential cause of generalized anxiety disorder?
GABA
A person who is hearing voices that are not there is experiencing
hallucinations
Which of the following statements is most consistent with the biopsychosocial model?
Genetic heritage causes a predisposition to mental illness, but environmental and cognitive/emotional factors must be present for mental illness to develop.
Someone who finds that he has traveled to a new town and has no memory of his old life is likely suffering from
dissociative fugue
Which of the following would be classified as a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
flat affect
A person who believes that the television news anchor is talking to him is suffering from
catatonia
The term diathesis refers to
a physical predisposition to a mental illness
Personality disorders are recorded on which DSM axis?
2
Shelia’s friends noticed that her behavior changed suddenly. She began to stay up late into the night, rarely sleeping. She impulsively decided to paint every room in her house and to buy all new furniture for her house. She also started drinking more and engaging in risky behavior, such as unprotected sex. Her friends noticed that when she spoke, she spoke very rapidly and quickly jumped from subject to subject. What may Shelia be experiencing?
a manic episode
How are generalized anxiety disorder and phobic disorder different?
Generalized anxiety disorder involves anxiety about a large variety of things, whereas phobic disorder involves anxiety about a specific thing.
In order for a person to be classified as having major depressive disorder, he or she must experience a depressive episode that lasts at least
two weeks.
Which of the following statements is most correct?Which of the following statements is most correct?
Depression is related to neurotransmitter deregulation, genetics, and cognitive processes.
Depression can be caused by people having unrealistic views of themselves and the world. This explanation of depression is consistent with which theory?
cognitive theory
People who suffer from borderline personality disorders often have all of the following symptoms except
hallucinations
The DSM has five axes because
this ensures that context is taken into account when making a diagnosis.
Which of the following is NOT a valid criticism of the DSM?
It does not allow for consistent diagnoses.
Which of the following is NOT a criterion for distinguishing “normal” from “abnormal” behavior?
legality
On which axis of the DSM is medical disorders?
3
Mireille began having brief episodes of overwhelming anxiety about a year ago. She doesn’t know what causes them, but she has had them in the grocery store, at busy restaurants, and once while driving. Her heart pounds, she has difficulty breathing, and sometimes she feels like her body no longer belongs to her. She is afraid she will go crazy and embarrass herself in front of other people. Based on this information, Mireille may have
a panic disorder.
Renee is a social worker in an urban community mental health center. She has just seen a new client who has depression, which she codes on
Axis I
Scott was tried for and convicted of murdering his wife. He showed little emotion during his trial. Though he was tearful in some interviews just after she disappeared, given his apparent lack of remorse the tears may have been an attempt to manipulate people into believing he was not involved. Scott demonstrates characteristics of someone with antisocial personality disorder, which is coded on
Axis II.
Thirty-year-old Armand feels compelled to save objects that others might throw away. He is afraid that he will discard something he later will need, so his home is filled with old newspapers, empty boxes, worn-out clothing, antiquated computer equipment, and even the seeds from the fruit and vegetables he has eaten. Armand’s neighbors have complained to the homeowner’s association because he has been forced to store some things outside his home. He is embarrassed by his need to hoard objects, but he is overcome by dread if he tries to throw things away. Based on this information, Armand may have
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
In movies that focus on war (e.g., Born on the Fourth of July, Apocalypse Now, First Blood), soldiers who have returned from the frontlines often struggle with overwhelming anxiety, hypervigilance, depression, and flashbacks. In many cases, these characters abuse alcohol, are suicidal, and have a strained or angry relationship with spouses. These characters have
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Killian lets her husband keep all the financial records for the family, and she refuses to make any decisions on her own. She is so needy that if she encounters even a minor unexpected problem during her day, she calls him at work to ask his advice. This behavior cuts across all situations, causes problems in her relationships with other people, and seems to be Killian’s only real approach to dealing with the world. Killian may have
a personality disorder.
Metal band Metallica’s song “Fade to Black” includes lyrics like “No one but me can save myself, but it’s too late/ Now I can’t think, think why I should even try/Yesterday seems as though it never existed/Death greets me warm, now I will just say goodbye.” This song was written during one of the band’s lowest periods and appears to be about
suicide
Laverne (a psychologist) is talking to her friend Shirley, whose boyfriend was just diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Shirley says, “There’s no way he’s mentally ill! After all, he’s a great guy!” How should Laverne reply?
Shirley’s boyfriend can have bipolar disorder AND still be a great guy. People with psychological disorders have strengths and weaknesses, just like everybody else.
Margie has a long-standing pattern of unstable and intense relationships and mood. She has a history of trauma and is sometimes inappropriately seductive. She abuses drugs, has threatened suicide several times, and cuts her arms with a razor blade when she feels particularly bad. She desperately tries to keep others from abandoning her, partly because she has a very unstable sense of self. If she has a personality disorder, it is MOST likely that she has
borderline personality disorder.
Lori-An has recently lost a lot of weight. She is now unhealthily skinny. She is concerned by this, and has gone to see her doctor. What diagnosis might her doctor make?
There may be a physiological cause for this weight loss, but there is nothing to indicate that she should be diagnosed with a psychological disorder.
Which of the following is a class of anti-anxiety drugs?
benzodiazepines
How does Prozac work?
It blocks the reabsorption of serotonin.
Psychodynamic therapy developed out of the work of which theorist?
Sigmund Freud
Which part of the dream is remembered by the dreamer?
manifest content
Which of the following is an example of resistance?
showing up late to therapy appointments
Which therapy would be most focused on exploring childhood relationships?
psychodynamic therapy
Which of the following techniques is most associated with humanistic therapy?
unconditional positive regard
The goal of rational-emotive behavior therapy is to
get clients to hold more realistic expectations for themselves and the world.
Which therapy would be least focused on emotions?
behavioral therapy
Classical conditioning is most associated with which type of therapy?
behavioral therapy
A person who is afraid of snakes is taken to a zoo by his therapist and made to sit in a room with dozens of snakes. This is an example of
flooding
A person who is trying to quit smoking wears a rubber band around her wrist. Every time she has a craving to smoke, she snaps the rubber band. In what type of therapeutic technique is she engaging?
aversive conditioning
Which of the following techniques would be consistent with a behavioral approach?
encouraging someone to buy himself or herself a new pair of shoes for losing 15 pounds
Modern psychodynamic therapies typically differ from traditional Freudian therapy in all of the following ways EXCEPT
meeting several times a week for a few months, rather than once a week for a period of years.
Cognitive therapy views psychological problems as resulting from
irrational thoughts
Group therapy can be helpful for clients because
clients can interact in genuine relationships, which is more like real life than individual therapy.
When the therapist lets the client know that he or she understands and accepts the client, it is known as
validation
Research has demonstrated that improvements from psychotherapy are most apparent during the first
six months of therapy
_____ is a short-term therapy that focuses on encouraging client’s strengths.
well-being therapy
A person with a phobia of horses would likely benefit most from which type of therapy?
systematic desensitization
Ciara’s therapist believes that her problems are rooted in her childhood and her unconscious, and that he can help her uncover the dynamics responsible for her problem. This awareness, also called ______________, will allow her to adjust her behavior.
insight
Ciara’s therapist asks her to lie on the couch and talk about whatever comes to mind without censoring anything. This technique, called ______________, is meant to help the client and therapist find recurring themes or issues that can provide clues to the unconscious cause or causes of the problem.
free association
Since Dr. Callum began making connections between Dylan’s current romantic problems and his childhood experiences, Dylan has been “forgetting” therapy appointments or canceling them at the last minute, and when he does show he is invariably late. Dylan’s avoidance pattern is called
resistance
Dr. Gofer is a family therapist, working with a couple (Erin and Julia) and their daughter Avi. One of Dr. Gofer’s goals is to show that he understands each person’s feelings, that those feelings are valuable, and that each person has something positive to offer. Dr. Gofer is using the technique of
validation
Though Dr. York has never experienced many of the things his clients have, he is committed to putting himself “in their shoes” and trying to understand the world from their perspective. This is called
empathy
Though some of Masato’s graduate school professors taught him that a therapist should always act as a “blank screen” onto which clients can project their unconscious conflicts, Masato prefers to maintain consistency between the way he feels and the way he behaves. He expresses his feelings honestly to clients, regardless of whether they are positive or negative. Masato’s professors were probably ________________ therapists.
psychodynamic
Takeshi is seeing Dr. Shakar to help her deal with her social phobia. Early in treatment, they built a list of 15 steps beginning with low-anxiety scenarios and ending with high-anxiety scenarios. Over time, they have conquered many of the situations on the list, and it is time for Takeshi to try staying relaxed while walking down a busy street. The approach Dr. Shakar is using with Takeshi is called
systematic desensitization
Tiegan’s sister has just been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The sister is being hospitalized while a medication regimen is established to stabilize her moods. Of the following, which medication are doctors MOST likely to use?
lithium
Dr. Henry Clerval is a proponent of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), though he believes it should only be used in the most extreme circumstances. Historically, ECT was applied to a wide range of disorders, but today it is only used
in treating severe depression, especially if there is a high risk of suicide.
Lakeshia has been suffering from depression, and wants to know which type of psychotherapy is most likely to lead to successful treatment of her symptoms. What would be the best advice to give Lakeshia?
“No one specific type of therapy will necessarily be the most effective. You need to think about your own preferences and strengths, and find a therapist with whom you feel comfortable.”

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member