Psychology Terms Adolescence

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Adolescence extends from
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the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood
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The development stage of adolescence is likely to be most brief in cultures where teens are
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financially self-supporting
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People experience rapid physical development and sexual maturation during
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puberty
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The body structures that enable reproduction are the
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primary sex characteristics
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Primary sex characteristics are to ________ as secondary sex characteristics are to ________.
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female ovaries; deepened male voice
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Ten-year-old Heidi is maturing early and already towers over all the girls and most of the boys in her fifth-grade class. Heidi is likely to be
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the object of some teasing.
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The selective loss of unused connections among brain cells is called
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pruning.
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As teens mature, the growth of myelin facilitates
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communication between the frontal lobes and other brain regions.
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The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development.
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formal operational
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Lawrence Kohlberg focused on the development of
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moral reasoning.
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According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents ________ morality.
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preconventional
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Regis thinks it’s wrong to drive over the speed limit simply because he might get punished for doing so. He is demonstrating Kohlberg’s ________ stage of morality.
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preconventional
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Juanita suffers from a painful back condition. Smoking marijuana would reduce her pain, but she thinks it would be wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Juanita is demonstrating Kohlberg’s ________ level of morality.
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conventional
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Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers’ reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg’s ________ stage.
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postconventional
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Haidt’s intuitionist perspective highlights the impact of automatic gut-level feelings on
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moral judgments.
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Psychologist Jonathan Haidt has described our moral intuitions as
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quick gut feelings.
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The corrupt behavior of many ordinary people who served as Nazi concentration camp guards best illustrates that immorality often results from
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social influence.
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Learning to delay gratification promotes
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moral action.
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According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the
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adolescent.
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Sixteen-year-old Brenda questions her parents’ values but does not fully accept her friends’ standards either. Her confusion about what she really wants and values in life suggests that Brenda is struggling with the problem of
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identity.
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The \”we\” aspect of our self-concept that comes from our group membership is our
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social identity.
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Which of the following best describes adolescent self-esteem?
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It falls through the early teen years and rises during the late teen years.
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Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for
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intimacy.
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Adolescence is typically a time of
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diminishing parental influence and growing peer influence.
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In teen calls to hotline counseling services, the most discussed topic is
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peer relationships.
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Persistent exclusion from peer social relationships is most likely to increase teens’ risk for
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depression.
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Adolescents are most likely to be influenced by their parents with respect to ________, and they are most likely to be influenced by their peers with respect to ________.
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career choices; clothing preferences
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A rite of passage is most similar to a(n)
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initiation ceremony.
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Which of the following is true of adolescence in contemporary industrialized societies, as compared with previous centuries?
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It begins earlier in life and ends later in life.
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A developmental stage between adolescent dependence and responsible adulthood is called
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emerging adulthood.

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