Psychology Quiz 14

Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet
lost interest in sex and social activities.

People become obsessed with water when thirsty and obsessed with food when hungry. This illustrates that activated motives
dominate consciousness.

Working with Walter Cannon, A. L. Washburn used a balloon to show that feelings of hunger are accompanied by
stomach contractions.

Research on the physiological basis of hunger has indicated that
hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs have been removed.

We experience hunger when the level of
glucose in our blood is low.

Appetite-stimulating hormones and appetite-suppressing hormones are secreted by different neural centers within the
arcuate nucleus.

Destruction of an appetite-suppressing area within the hypothalamus of a rat is most likely to
cause the rat to become extremely fat.

Surgeons removed a sizable part of Tom’s stomach to prevent the spread of a cancerous tumor. Following a successful recovery, Tom’s reduced appetite for food is most likely attributable to his body’s reduced secretion of
a) ghrelin.
b) epinephrine.
c) leptin. (WRONG)
d) PYY.

In addition to secreting orexin, the ________ monitors levels of the body’s other appetite hormones.
hypothalamus

Orexin is a ________ hormone secreted by the ________.
hunger-arousing; hypothalamus

Insulin, a hormone that influences appetite, is secreted by the
pancreas.

Leptin is a hunger-dampening hormone secreted by
fat cells.

Feelings of hunger are decreased by the hormone
a) serotonin. (WRONG)
b) orexin.
c) PYY.
d) ghrelin.

The set point is
the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.

Basal metabolic rate is the body’s resting rate of
energy expenditure.

Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influenced by environmental as well as biological factors. Some researchers have therefore adopted the term
settling point.

The level of serotonin in the brain is
increased by a diet high in carbohydrates.

People’s preferences for sweet tastes are ________, and their preferences for excessively salty tastes are ________.
universal; learned

The recipes commonly used in countries with hot climates are more likely to include ________ than those in countries with colder climates.
spices

People are most likely to dislike the taste of ________ foods.
novel

People’s dislike of novel foods best illustrates
neophobia.

Situational influences on our food consumption have prompted psychologists to emphasize
a) the ecology of eating.
b) the spillover effect. (WRONG)
c) chain migration.
d) the Yerkes-Dodson law. (WRONG)

The tendency to eat more food when eating with others illustrates a phenomenon called
social facilitation.

When encouraged to eat their fill of M&M’s, people ate more when given a large rather than a small serving scoop. This most clearly reflects
unit bias.

Judy found that her party guests ate less from a very large plate of cupcakes that were cut in half rather than whole. This best illustrates
unit bias.

A body that can store fat has the advantage of possessing
stored energy.

The World Health Organization identifies obesity as a high
body mass index.

In the United States, the rate of obesity among adults has ________ over the last 40 years, and the rate of obesity among children and teens has ________.
increased; increased

New research has linked women’s obesity to their risk of late-life
cognitive decline.

Research on obesity and weight control indicates that
fat tissue is maintained by fewer calories than is lean tissue.

A dieter whose weight falls below his or her set point is likely to experience a(n)
increase in hunger and a decrease in metabolic rate.

By dramatically reducing her daily caloric intake, Marilyn plans to reduce her normal body weight by 10 to 15 percent. Research suggests that after three or four weeks of sustained dieting, Marilyn will
have a lower resting metabolic rate.

The body weights of adopted children are ________ with the weights of their adoptive parents and ________ with the weights of their biological parents.
uncorrelated; positively correlated

With sleep deprivation, the levels of leptin ________ and the levels of ghrelin ________.
fall; rise

If your close friend becomes obese, the odds of you likewise becoming obese increase. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on obesity.
social influence

Evidence that obesity is influenced by factors in addition to genetics includes the fact that
people weigh more today than did their counterparts 50 years ago.

Exercising regularly and getting enough sleep contribute to a(n) ________ in metabolism and a(n) ________ in the settling point.
increase; decrease

Which of the following suggestions would be the WORST advice for a dieter?
“Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening.”

Eating food more ________ leads to eating less food. This is especially true for ________.
slowly; men

When an organism’s weight rises above its set point, the organism is likely to experience a(n)
decrease in hunger and an increase in basal metabolic rate.

Which of the following is a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by the hypothalamus?
orexin

Caroline developed a dislike for the taste of potato chips because she became sick several times after eating them. Her experience best illustrates that taste preferences are influenced by
conditioning.

When offered as many servings of ice cream as they would like to eat, people are likely to eat more if they are
offered servings from a wide variety rather than a small variety of ice cream flavors.

Obese patients whose daily caloric intake was dramatically reduced lost very little of their weight. This limited weight loss was due, at least in part, to the fact that their dietary restriction led to a(n)
decrease in their metabolic rate.

Feelings of hunger accompany ________ levels of blood glucose and ________ levels of ghrelin.
low; high

The consumption of carbohydrates is most likely to
reduce stress and tension.

Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influenced by environmental as well as biological factors. Some researchers have therefore adopted the term
settling point.

Which of the following would be the BEST advice to offer someone who wants to lose excess weight?
“Permanent weight loss requires a lifelong change in eating and exercise habits.”

The text suggests that a neophobia for unfamiliar tastes
protected our ancestors from potentially toxic substances.

The brain area known as the arcuate nucleus is notable in the study of motivation because it
secretes hormones that affect appetite.

In their study of men on a semistarvation diet, researchers found that
the men became obsessed with food.

Research on genetic influences on obesity reveals that
the body weights of adoptees correlate with that of their biological parents.

Research on obesity indicates that
a) when weight drops below the set point, hunger increases.
b) one pound of weight is lost for every 3500-calorie reduction in diet.(WRONG)
c) given an obese parent, boys are more likely than girls to be obese.
d) pound for pound, fat tissue requires more calories to maintain than lean tissue.

The tendency to overeat when food is plentiful
emerged in our prehistoric ancestors as an adaptive response to periods when food was scarce.

Unit bias refers to the research finding that people tend to
eat more when a portion of food is supersized.

Which of the following is NOT necessarily a reason that obese people have trouble losing weight?
Obese people tend to lack willpower.

Which of the following influences on hunger motivation does NOT belong with the others?
memory of time elapsed since your last meal