psychology midterm 1-6

habituation
You toss a newly purchased felt mouse across the floor; your cat chases it excitedly. Clutches it in her paws and rolls around with it. Several tosses later, your cat yawns pointedly and settles herself for a nap. The change in your cat’s behavior illustrates:

Adaptation
Habituation
Conditioning
Maturation

Pavlov
_________ is credited with laying the foundation for the study of classical conditioning in psychology.

Thorndike
Skinner
Pavlov
Watson

neutral
____________ stimulus is a stimulus that does not naturally bring about the response of interest.

Reflexive
Unconditioned
Neutral
Normative

the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus
In classical conditioning, how are the neutral stimulus and the conditioned response related?

They are not related; they are completely different stimuli
They are the same thing; the terms are interchangeable
The neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus
The conditioned stimulus becomes the neutral stimulus

just before the unconditioned stimulus begins
Classical conditioning is most successful when the neutral stimulus begins:

Just before the unconditioned stimulus begins
At exactly the same time that the unconditioned stimulus begins
Long before the unconditioned stimulus begins
Immediately after the unconditioned stimulus begins

extinction
____________ occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears.

Extinction
Habituation
Adaptation
Deconditioning

stimulus generalization
_________ is a process in which, after a stimulus has been conditioned to produce a particular response, stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus produce the same response

Stimulus location
Stimulus generalization
Stimulus reflexive
Stimulus discrimination

stimulus generalization
Rosa becomes anxious when she enters the examination room at the clinic before a blood test. She also squirms when she views injections on television. This illustrates:

Observational learning
Stimulus generalization
Spontaneous recovery
Stimulus discrimination

they are opposites
Which of the following terms best expresses the relationship between stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination?

They are unrelated
They are opposites
They are the same thing
Stimulus discrimination is a type of stimulus generalization

discrimination
Stimulus _______ provides the ability to differentiate between stimuli.

Control
Discrimination
Generalization
Diffusion

operant conditioning
________________ is learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences

Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Observational conditioning
Instrumental conditioning

effect
“Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated.” This is the law of:

Consequences
Reward
Effect
Reinforcement

reinforcement
The process by which stimulus increases the likelihood that a preceding behavior will be repeated is called:

Habituation
Reinforcement
Learning
Spontaneous recovery

primary
Reinforcers that satisfy a biological need are called _________ reinforcers.

Primary
Positive
Unconditioned
Reflexive

money
Which of the following is an example of a secondary reinforcer?

Food
Sex
Money
Relief

positive reinforcement only
The term reward is synonymous with:

Positive reinforcement only
Reinforcement generally
Negative reinforcement only
Primary reinforcement only

generalization
Janine completed several tours of duty in Afghanistan. She suffers from PTSD. Now, back home in Texas, she is frightened by firecrackers and cars backfiring. The fact that these sounds scare her reflects a process of stimulus:

diffusion
discrimination
generalization
control

semantic
Cory knows that the capital of Vermont is Montpelier. This is an example of a(n) _______ memory.

semantic
explicit
procedural
nondeclarative

procedural
Knowing how to serve a badminton birdie is an example of a (n) ________ memory.

episodic
declarative
procedural
semantic

working memory
On your computer desktop, you can see all sorts of different files, each immediately accessible. Because you are actively working on them, and because you can open them whenever you want, these files are analogous to the information held in:

long-term memory
working memory
sensory memory
procedural memory

there is so much information being stored in long-term memory
Why is it so difficult to retrieve information from long-term memory?

the capacity of long-term memory is limited
the duration of long-term memories is limited
there is so much information being stored in long-term memory
the material that makes its way to long-term memory is temporary

retrieval cue
A stimulus that facilitates the recall of information from long-term memory is called a __________.

retrieval cue
flashbulb memory
conservation
chunking

short-term
The concept of working memory represents a contemporary conceptualization of ___________ memory.

sensory
short-term
long-term
declarative

is supported by the effects of certain kinds of brain damage.
the distinction between long- and short-term memory

is somewhat artificial.
has failed to gain empirical support in memory research.
is supported by the effects of certain kinds of brain damage.
is supported by the distinction between declarative memory and procedural memory

items presented early in a list are remembered better than items in the middle of the list
the primary effect refers to the fact that
the most important items in a list are remembered better than the less important items
items presented early in a list are remembered better than items in the middle of the list
items presented later in a list are remembered better than items presented earlier
those items in a list which have the greatest emotional impact are those with the greatest

items presented late in a list are remembered better than items presented in the middle of a list
the recency effect refers to the fact that:

items presented late in a list are remembered better than items presented in the middle of a list
the first several items on a list are remembered better than the items in the middle of the list
rehearsed items are more likely to be remembered than unrehearsed items
the most personally relevant items on a list are most likely to be remembered

working memory
_______ memory is defined as a set of active, temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information

declarative
semantic
long-term
working

stress can reduce the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity
which of the following best describes the effect of stress on working memory

stress has no effect on the capacity of working memory
stress increases the capacity of working memory only marginally
stress increases the capacity of working memory dramatically
stress can reduce the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity

memory for names
which of the following refers to declarative memory

memory for habits
memory for skills
memory for how to do things
memory for names

retrieval
almost everybody has had the feeling of knowing the answer to a question, but nor being quite able to say it. This is called the tip-of-the-tongue” phenomenon, and is a failure of

retention
storage
retrieval
trace consolidation

tip-of-the-tongue
“I know it? It’s um…um…It starts with ‘G’,” begins a trivia game contestant excitedly. The contestant is falling prey to the _____ effect

tip-of-the-tongue
flashbulb memory
motivated forgetting
retrograde interference

primacy
You examine the schedule for your favorite football team. The team plays sixteen games each season. Later you try recalling that schedule for a friend who likes the same team you do. Chances are you will recall opponents at the beginning of the schedule particularly well. This is an example of the _____ effect

list
consolidation
primacy
depth-of-processing

retrieval cue
An “oldie” playing on the radio may remind you of events that occurred when the song was current. The song is acting as a(n):

retrieval cue
mnemonic
flashbulb
schema

retrieval cues
Chad is puzzling over a difficult question on a multiple-choice sociology test. He rereads the questions, scans the options beneath the questions, and glances at other questions on the test. Most likely, Chad is looking for

mnemonics
flashbulb memories
retrieval cues
a miracle

recognition
Three year-old Jane had learned the names of fruits from a picture book. She was taken to a grocery store and asked to identify apples and melons kept in the store. Which of the following memory tasks would be used by Jane to identify the fruits?

rehearsal
recognition
consolidation
recall

memory
the process by which we encode, store, and retrive information is known as

perception
memory
rehearsal
cognition

retrieval
when answering such questions as “Who was your date to the junior prom?” or “which costume did you wear last halloween?” you are relying most explicitly on the memory process of

encoding
potentiation
retrieval
storage

retrieval
material in memory storage has to be located and brought into awareness to be useful. this process is known as

potentiation
retrieval
encoding
storage

sensory
_________ memory refers th the initial momentary storage of information lasting only an instant

working
long-term
sensory
short-term

george sperling
The study of sensory memory is associated with

elizaneth loftus
george miller
george sperling
hermann ebbinghaus

sensory memory
in the late 1950s and ealry 1960s, psychologist george sperling conducted key studies of

sensory memory
short-term memory
semantic memory
long-term memory

chunking
grouping pieces of information together to expand the effective capacity of short-term memory is termed

chunking
clumping
consolidation
compacting

information lasts only 15-25 seconds in short-term memory
We look up a number in the phone book, push the book away, and then begin to dial the number. Why do we discourage an interruption during this process?

information lasts only 15-25 seconds in short-term memory
information lasts only 5-6 seconds in short-term memory
information can only last a minute or so in short-term memory
short-term memory can only hold one or two chucks of information

repetition of information that has entered short-term memory
rehearsal refers to the

inability to recall information that one realizes one knows
grouping of information that can be stored in short-term memory
repetition of information that has entered short-term memory
memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past

transfer information to long-term memory
rehearsal serves to

refresh sensory memory
keep information in sensory
transfer information to long-term memory
retrieve specific information exclusively

elaborative
the conscious repetition of information to ensure its survival in short-term memory is termed _________ rehearsal

primary
elaborative
rote
maintenance

serial position
our ability to recall an item frm a list depends on where in the list the item occurs. This is the __________ effect

serial position
list memory
cereal position
item order

recency effect
When you try to list all the classes you’ve ever taken in college, chances are you will recall your last few classes particularly well. What is this phenomenon called?

chucking
primary effect
recency effect
memory consolidation

procedural memory
Which of the following forms of memory refers to memory for skills and habits

declarative memory
semantic memory
episodic memory
procedural memory

semantic
_________ memory is memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts

episodic
semantic
nondeclarative
procedural

temporal
The hippocampus is located in the _____________ lobe

frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital

tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Mickey us about to take his psychology final. Just before the exam, the person sitting next to Mickey asks him to name of the physiologist who worked on classical conditioning. Mickey suddenly realizes that he cannot quite remember the name, but he knows that it starts with a P and is two syllables. Mickey is experiencing

repression
simple decay
retrograde amnesia
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

recall
Ralph is preparing a report on his academic field trip to a manufactoring plant. He is trying to remember each event of the trip in the order in which it occurred to prepare an accurate report in a presentable form. Which of the following memory tasks is Ralph using?

rehearsal
recognition
consolidation
recall

consciousness
_______ is an awareness of one’s surroundings and of what is in one’s mind at a given moment

perception
intelligence
speculation
consciousness

james
Which of the following early psychologists viewed the study of consciousness as central to psychology

skinner
watson
james
freud

90 minutes
How long is a typical sleep cycle, in which a sleeper progresses through some or all of the sleep stages?

1 hr
90 mins
120 mins
5 hrs

stage 1 sleep
_____ is the state of transition between wakefulness and sleep, characterized by relatively radip, low-amplitude brain waves

Stage 1 sleep
stage 2 sleeo
stage 3 sleep
stage 4 sleep

stage 1 sleep
During _______ images sometimes appear, as if we were viewing still photos

Stage 1 sleep
stage 2 sleeo
stage 3 sleep
stage 4 sleep

stage 2 sleep
____ is characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern than the previous stage, along with momentary interruptions of “sleep spindles”

REM
stage 2 sleep
stage 3 sleep
stage 4 sleep

stage 2
Brief periods of “spiky” brain wave patterns called sleep spindles are characteristis of ______ sleep

REM
stage 2
stage 3
stage 4

stage 4 sleep
____ is the deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation

Stage 1 sleep
stage 2 sleeo
stage 3 sleep
stage 4 sleep

the brain waves become slower
In general terms, how do brain waves change as a sleeper progresses from stage 1 sleep to stage 4 sleep…

their amplitude decreases
their frequency increases
the brain waves become slower
the brain waves become faster

the brain is active, but the major skeletal muscles appear to be paralyzed
REM sleep is paradoxical because

the brain is active, but the major skeletal muscles appear to be paralyzed
the skeletal muscles remain active, but the brain is inactive
the brain is less active than it is during other sleep stages
both the brain and the body are inactive

nightmares
_____ are usually frightening dreams, that occur fairly often

lucid dreams
nightmares
precognitive dreams
breakdown dreams

latent
According to Freud, the ____ content of dreams is the disguised meaning of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects

evident
manifest
latent
apparent

manifest
According to Freud, the ____ content of dreams refers the the apparent story line of dreams

dormant
manifest
latent
vestigial

freud–unconscious wish-fulfillment theory
Which of the following psychologists is correctly matched with a theory of the function of dreams?

freud–unconscious wish-fulfillment theory
hobson–dreams-for-survival theory
hobson–expectation fulfillment theory of dreaming
freud–activation -synthesis theory

dreams-for-survival theory
According to the _____ dreams permit us to reconsider and reprocess during sleep information that is critical for our daily survival…

unconscious wish fulfillment theory
expectation fulfillment theory of dreaming
dreams-for-survival theory
activation-synthesis theory

dreams-for-survival theory
In the ______, dreams represent concerns about our daily lives, illustrating our uncertainties, indecision, ideas, and desires…

unconscious wish fulfillment theory
expectation fulfillment theory of dreaming
dreams-for-survival theory
activation-synthesis theory

activation-synthesis theory
The _____ focuses on the random electrical energy that the brain produces during REM sleep, possibly as a result of changes in the production of particular neurotransmitters…

unconscious wish fulfillment theory
expectation fulfillment theory of dreaming
dreams-for-survival theory
activation-synthesis theory

sleep apnea
_____ is a condition in which a person has difficulty breathing while sleeping

bruxism
narcolepsy
night terror
sleep apnea

night terrors
_____ is/are sudden awakenings from non-REM sleep that is accompanied by extreme fear, panic, and strong physiological arousal

bruxism
narcolepsy
night terror
sleep apnea

stage 4
Night terrors occur during _____ sleep

stage 4
REM
stage 2
stage 1

episodic
Having done “21 for 21” shots the night before, Deanna barely remembers her 21st birthday. That is, her _________ memory is sketchy.

procedural
semantic
episodic
working

working
“She did WHAT??” your roommate exclaims as you relate a story about a mutual friend. Your roommate is processing your story in _________ memory.

working
sensory
semantic
long-term

working
_______ memory is defined as a set of active, temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information

declarative
semantic
long-term
working

perception
Anna is reading her psychology test. The activation of receptors in her retina by a source of physical energy is called?

Perception
Sensation
Integration
Interpretation

sensation
The activation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy is known as

Perception
Sensation
Integration
Interpretation

perception
The sorting out, interpretation, analysis and integration of stimuli by the sense organs and brain is known as?

Perception
Sensation
Activation
Stimulation

psychophysics
The study of the relationship between the physical aspects of stimuli and our psychological experience of them is known as

Developmental psychology
Thermodynamics
Psychophysics
Experimental psychology

absolute threshold
A (n) ___________ is the smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for the stimulus to be detected

Difference threshold
Absolute threshold
Adaptation threshold
Intensity threshold

absolute threshold
One can detect a single drop of perfume diffused in an area the size of a one-bedroom apartment. This is due to?

Absolute threshold
Difference threshold
Adaptation threshold
Psychophysical threshold

absolute
A (n) __________ threshold is the stimulus intensity that is detected 50% of the time

Difference
Absolute
Adaptation
Frequency

difference threshold
The smallest level of added or reduced stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred is known as the?

Difference threshold
Absolute threshold
Adaptation threshold
Intensity threshold

constant proportion of the intensity of an initial stimulus
Weber’s law states that a just noticeable difference is a?

Fixed value
Constant proportion of the intensity of an initial stimulus
Variable proportion of the intensity of an initial stimulus
Random value

weber’s law
_________ is a basic law of psychophysics stating that a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion to the intensity of an initial stimulus.

Fitt’s law
Weber’s law
Bloch’s law
Hick’s law

weber’s
The function relating the value of a stimulus along some dimension to the just noticeable difference is known as _______ law

Wernicke’s
Wundt’s
Weber’s
Wertheimer’s

weber’s law
Which of the following laws would help explain why a person in a quiet room is more startled by the ringing of a telephone than a person who is already in a noisy room?

Fitt’s law
Weber’s law
Bloch’s law
Hick’s law

adaptation
_______ is an adjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to unchanging stimuli.

Adaptation
Accommodation
Acclimation
Attenuation

adaptation
“It’s so noisy! How can you stand it?” remarks Caitlyn as the thruway traffic screams past her friend Dave’s ground floor apartment. “I don’t even notice it anymore,” Dave replies. This exchange best exemplifies the concept of:

Adaptation
Accommodation
Acclimation
Attenuation

visual spectrum
In regards to what we see in our world, the range of wavelengths that humans are sensitive to is called the?

Power spectrum
Mass spectrum
Frequency spectrum
Visual spectrum

cornea
The ______ bends light as it passes, playing a primary role in focusing the light more sharply.

Cornea
Pupil
Iris
Lens

retina
The part of the eye that converts the electromagnetic energy of light to electrical impulses for transmission to the brain is known as the?
Retina
Fovea
Iris
Pupil

are highly sensitive to light
As compared to cones, rods __________

Are more densely concentrated in the fovea
Are responsible for color perception
Are highly sensitive to light
Are less numerous

rods
Thin, cylindrical receptor cells in the retina that are highly sensitive to light are called

Lenses
Pons
Rods
Cones

cones
_______ are light-sensitive receptor cells in the retina that are responsible for sharp focus and color perception, particularly in bright light, and are concentrated on the part of the retina called the fovea

Lenses
Pons
Rods
Cones

biopsychologists
psychologists who specialize in considering the ways in which the biological structures and functions of the body affect behavior are known as:

genetic psychologists
biopsychologists
evolutionary psychologists
clinical neuropsychologists

neurons
the basic elements of the nervous system are called

axons
glial cells
neurons
neurotransmitters

glial cells
neurons are physically held in place by:

axons
glial cells
dendrites
myelin cells

dendrite
a cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons is called

axon
terminal button
glial fiber
dendrite

long, slim, tubelike structure extending from a neuron
an axon is a(n)

neuron’s cell body
cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron
support cell in the nervous system
long, slim, tubelike structure extending from a neuron

hierarchical
which of the following terms describes the organization of the nervous system today

linear
recursive
hierarchical
random

evolutionary psychology
the branch of psychology that seeks to identify behavior patterns that are a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors is
known as:

social psychology
health psychology
clinical psychology
evolutionary psychology

behavioral genetics
evolutionary psychologists have spawn a new and increasingly influential field;it studies the effects of heredity on how people conduct themselves

social psychology
health psychology
molecular genetics
behavioral genetics

cerebellum
the part of the brain that controls bodily balance is the:

hypothalamus
thalamus
reticular formation
cerebellum

reticular formation
the part of the brain extending from the medulla through the pons and made up of groups of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal is known as the:

reticular formation
thalamus
cerebellum
limbic system

limbic system
the structures of the _______________ jointly control a variety of basic functions relating to emotions and self-preservation such as eating, aggression, and reproduction

central core of the brain
endocrine system
limbic system
cerebral cortex

cerebral cortex
the _______ ______ is referred to as the “new brain”

hindbrain
limbic system
cerebral cortex
central core

motor
the ______ area is part of the cortex that is largely responsible for the body’s voluntary movement.

attribution
sensory
motor
association

sensory
the ______ area is the site in the brain of the tissue that corresponds to each of the senses, with the degree of sensitivity related to the amount of tissue

attribution
sensory
motor
association

occipital lobe
the visual area in the cortex is located in the:

frontal lobe
occipital lobe
temporal lobe
parietal lobe

central
the brain and the spinal cord constitute the _________ nervous system

central
peripheral
extraneous
parasympathetic

reflex
________________ is an automatic, involuntary response to an incoming stimulus

action potential
intuition
instinct
reflex

interneurons
_______________ are neurons that connect sensory and motor neurons, carrying messages between the two

mirror neurons
amphid neurons
interneurons
autoneurons

somatic division
____________ _______ is the part of the peripheral nervous system that specializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of information to and from the sense organs

somatic division
sympathetic division
parasympathetic division
autonomic division

sympathetic division
the part of the the autonomic division of the nervous system tha acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations, engaging all the organism’s resources to respond to a threat is known as the:

somatic division
sympathetic division
parasympathetic division
apathetic division

sympathetic
the “fight-or-flight” response is associated with the _________ division

somatic
sympathetic
parasympathetic
apathetic division

axon
which of the following structures is especially important for carrying messages received by the dendrites to other neurons?

neurotransmitter
synapse
axon
glial cell

myelin sheath
_______ _______ is a protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon

myelin sheath
glial cell
dendrite
synapse

synapse
________________ is the space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages

synapse
terminal button
axon
cell body

reuptake
the re-absorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button is termed as:

recycling
reassertion
reuptake
reuse

movement, attention, and learning
the neurotransmitter dopamine is involved in

the brain’s effort to deal with pain
Alzheimer’s disease
the regulation of sleep, eating, mood and pain
movement, attention, and learning

association areas
the brain injury suffered by 19th-century railroad workers Phineas Gage allowed psychologists to learn about the functions of the brain’s:

association areas
central core
limbic system
sensory areas

biofeedback
Mrs. Simon has learned to lessen the pain associated with her migraine headaches by voluntarily relaxing specific muscles and reducing her blood pressure. This example illustrates:

deep-brain stimulation
biofeedback
split-brain control
transcranial stimulation

behavioral neuroscientist
Alison has developed an interest in the ways in which the biological structures and functions of the body. She will most likely become a (n)

genetic psychologist
behavioral neuroscientist
evolutionary psychologist
clinical neuropsychologist

EEG
Brent is taking part in an experiment in the cognitive neuroscience lab on campus. Silently, he reads rapid sequence of words flashed on a computer screen. Simultaneously, the electrical activity of his brain is recorded through skull electrodes. The brain scanning technique used in this study is

fMRI
PET
EEG
TMS

cerebellum
Yves has been drinking. He has difficulty walking a straight line when asked to do so by a police officer. Apparently, Yves’ ______ is functioning poorly

thalamus
cerebellum
corpus callosum
corpus callosum
reticular formation

behavioral genetics
The study of the effects of heredity on how people conduct themselves is known as

behavioral genetics
classical genetics
development genetics
molecular genetics

scientific study of behavior and mental process
psychology is defined as the:

intuition-based approach to study human behavior
speculative method to find answers about human cognition
study of mental disorders and their treatment
scientific study of behavior and mental process

behavior and mental processes
Akira has declared psychology as his major. He will be studying

internal medicine
behavior and mental processes
mental disorders and their diagnosis and treatment
the disorders of the central nervous system

psychologist disagree on how broad psychology should really be
A single-sentence definition of psychology may be misleading because:

it is very difficult to study the mind and behavior scientifically
psychology is a narrower, more specific field than a general definition might suggest
psychologist disagree on how broad psychology should really be
the discipline of psychology really has no core or center

rely on the scientific method
In order to study mind and behavior, psychologists:

rely on the scientific method
use their intuition
rely on the study of internal medicine
use speculation

they ultimately share a common goal
in what way are the diverse sub-fields of psychology related

they allow psychologists to explain different types of behavior in the same way
they ultimately share a common goal
they always lead to an M.D. degree
they are not related at all, other than being considered part of psychology

cognitive psychology is part of experimental psychology
how are cognitive and experimental psychology related?

they are the same
they are two completely distinct subfields of psychology
cognitive psychology is part of experimental psychology
experimental psychology is part of cognitive psychology

cognitive
__________ psychology focuses on higher mental processes, including thinking, memory, reasoning, problem solving, judging, decision making, and language

developmental
personality
clinical
cognitive

studies how people grow and change from the moment of conception through death
developmental psychology is

focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustments problems
studies how people grow and change from the moment of conception through death
focuses on higher mental processes, including thinking, memory, reasoning, problem solving, judging, decision making, and language
deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders

focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems
personality psychology is:

focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustments problems
studies how people grow and change from the moment of conception through death
focuses on higher mental processes, including thinking, memory, reasoning, problem solving, judging, decision making, and language
deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders

colleges
counseling psychologists are more likely than clinical psychologists to practice in:

hospitals
laboratories
offices
colleges

social
Dr. Growe is reading about a research in which psychologists investigated the effect of group size on the conformity of group members. Dr. Growe is most likely reading the Journal of _______________ psychology

developmental
social
counseling
evolutionary

is the study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others
Social psychology is:

focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustments problems
deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders
investigates the similarities and differences in psychological functioning in and across various cultures and ethnic groups
is the study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others

social
____________ psychologists concentrate on diverse topics such as human aggression, liking and loving, persuasion, and conformity

counseling
social
evolutionary
clinical

the focuse on the origin of psychological disorders in biological factors
Clinical neuropsychology is:

focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustments problems
considers how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors
seeks to understand how we might inherit certain behavioral traits
focuses on the origin of psychological disorders in biological factors

300,000
approximately how many psychologists are there in the US?

50,000
100,000
300,00
600,000

three-fourth
currently, women earn _________ of new psychology doctorate degrees in the US

one-tenth
half
three-fourth
ninety percent

6%
Which figure best approximates percentage of American psychologists who belong to racial minority groups

6%
15%
25%
32%

join the work force
Kristen is a psychology major. Immediately following graduation, she will most likely

join the work force
feel that her job is unrelated to her psychology background
continue to graduate school
remain unemployed

think critically
psychology majors are highly valued by employers because they can

strategize effectively
think critically
help others work with their personal problems
communicate effectively with their co-workers

social services
the most common emolument sector for students graduating with a bachelor’s degree in psychology is:

education
business
local government
social services

Wundt
the formal beginning of psychology is associated with:

Wundt
James
Descartes
Ebbinghaus

blank slate
the phrase tabula rasa may be translated as:

red tablet
raised tablet
new tablet
blank slate

structuralism
Gestalt psychology may be seen as a reaction to

the psychodynamic perspective
humanism
funcionalism
structuralism

Gestalt psychology
which approaches to psychology might have been most likely to remind the audience that “the whole is different than the sum of the parts”

phernology
functionalism
structuralism
Gestalt psychology

perception
the Gestalt psychologists made substantial contribution to our understanding of:

memory
perception
emotion
motivation

neuroscience
the approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and the other biological functions is known as the _______________ perspective

psychodynamic
nature-nurture
cognitive
neuroscience

considers how people and nonhumans function biologically
The neuroscience perspective

suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior
focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world
considers how people and nonhumans function biologically
argues that behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have little awareness or control

Skinner
which psychologist is associated with the behavioral perspective?

Rogers
Skinner
Maslow
Hollingworth

cognitive
the computer metaphor is at the heart of the __________ perspective

cognitive
neuroscience
behavioral
humanistic

free will
the emphasis of the humanistic perspective is on

free will
envirmental determinism
natural selection
unconscious motives

determinism
free will stands in contrast to:

naturism
unconscious motives
determinism
natural selection

humanistic
Dr. Petrovic tries to help his client see how their behavior reflects choices they have made. He is most likely a _______________ therapist

psychodynamic
clinical neuroscience
humanistic
gestalt

identifying questions of interest
What is the first step in the scientific method?

formulating an explanation
identifying questions on interest
communicating the findings
carrying out research designed to support or refute the explaination

communicating the findings
what is the final step in the scientific method?

formulating an explanation
identifying questions on interest
communicating the findings
carrying out research designed to support or refute the explaination

theories
_________________ are broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest.

theories
hypotheses
operational definitions
suppositions

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