Psychology Human Development
is the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death
in which one group of people is followed and asserted a different times as the group ages
Cross Sectional Design
Several different age groups are studied at one time (very quick)
Cross Sequential Design
which a combination of the two other designs (Longitudinal Cross-Sectional)
The particular impact on development that occurs when a group of people share a common time period or common life experience (Example, being born in the same time period)
Heredity/ the influence of inherited characteristics on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions
The influence of the environment on all of those same things including physical surroundings, and economic factors.
Is a field in the investigation of the origins of behavior in which researchers try to determine how much of behavior is the result of genetic inheritance and how much is due to a person experience
The science oh Heredity
DNA (deoxyrobonucli acid)
special molecule contains twp very long sugar-phosphate strands linked together b bases or amines arranged in a particular pattern. Contains genetic codes (makeup, color, muscle, and skin)
Each section of DNA contains a certain sequence ordering of these amines
Rod shaped structures that hold genes and are located in the nucleus of the cell.
Most characteristics are determined by how many chromosomes?
Genes that are more active in influencing the trait
Less active in influencing the trait. These genes tend too recede, fade into the background when paired with the dominant gene.
Certain genes tend to group themselves together. Ex) Blonde hair and blue eyes and Strawberry Blonde
Inherited recessive gene disease. Respiratory digestive tracts
Sickle Cell Anemia
Inherited recessive gene disease, blood disorder
Neurological disorder, Inherited recessive gene disorder
A birth defect that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in the body. Inherited recessive disorder
Chromosome Disorder, Extra chromosome
Chromosome Disorder, 23rd sex chromosome
Lone X chromosome, Chromsome disorder
What are eggs called in the prenatal phase?
When the egg and sperm unit
the resulting single cell with the 46 chromosomes, begins to divide
the division process because DNA molecules produce duplicates or copies of themselves before each division
Identical twins babies come from one fertilized egg
Also known as fraternal twins, when two eggs are fertilized or could possible have triplets
when the mass of cells does not completely split apart
the muscular organ that will contain and protect the development organism
2 week period of pregnancy
Organ that provides nourishment and filters away the developing babies waste products
Connects the organ to the placenta
Once the organism is firmly attached to the uterus
How long is the Embyonic Period?
lasts 2 weeks after conception to 8 weeks
times during which some environmental influences can have an impact on the developing infant
any substance such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factors that can cause a birth defect
What are some examples of teratogen?
cocaine, MMR, weed, Mercury, caffeine, high water temperature, nicotine, and alcohol
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
a sense of physical and mental defects including stunted growth, facial deformities, and brain damage
What is the Fatal Period?
period of tremendous growth lasting from about 8 weeks until birth
What is the baby known as in the Fatal period?
Most babies are born between when?
Babies born before 38 weeks
the longer the infant spends looking at a stimulus, the more the infant, prefers the stimulus than others.
is the tendency for infants (and adults) to stop paying attention to stimulus that does not change
as unused synaptic connections and nerve cells are cleared away to make way for functioning connections and cells
What are the last sensory organ to develop?
development of thinking, problem solving, and memory
What are the four stages of Piagets Theory?
1. The Sensorimotor Stage, 2. The Preoperational Stage, 3. Concrete Operations 4. Formal Operations
What are Schemes?
try to understand new things in terms of schemes they already possess
process of altering or adjusting old schemes to fit new information and experiences
The Sensorimotor stage
Stage (birth-2 years old) infants use their sensory and motor skills to understand the world around them. Ex) grasping, touching, pushing, tasting, etc.
fully developed at the end of this stage, the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight. Ex) Peek a boo
The Pre-operational Stage
Ages 2-7. When children develop language and concepts. Are able to ask questions. Symbolic meaning, make-believe play, not capable of logical thought.
they believe that everything that moves is alive
the ability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes but ones own
Focusing only on one feature of some object rather than taking in all factures into consideration
Unable to mentally reverse actions, unable to concentrate
finally become capable of conversation and reversable thinking, begin to think more logically. Can deal with abstract objects.
Kind of concepts which are understood at the concrete operation phase
Ages 12- adulthood, abstract thinking becomes possible, gets deeply involved in hypothetical thinking
the more highly skilled person gives the learner more help at the beginning of the learning process and then begins to withdraw help as the learner is skills improve
Zone of Proximal Development
difference between what a child can do alone versus what a child can do with the help of a teacher
Receptive Productive Lag
a phenomenon that infants may only seem to produce one or two words but they can understand actual sentences
What are the five stages to language?
Cooing, babbling, one word speech, telegraphic speech, whole scentences
2 month vowel sounds
6 months, add constants
One word speech
around age 1, say actual words, typically nouns
1.5 years, begin to say short simple sentences, nouns, verbs, and adjectives
Pre-school years, learn grammical terms
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Neurodevelopment disorder that encompasses a whole range of previous disorders
the behavioral and emotional characteristics that are fairly well established at birth
regular in schedules in waking, sleeping, and eating “happy babies”
irregular in their schedules and very unhappy about change, “loud, active, and crabby”
Slow to Warm up Babies
less grumpy, quieter, and more regular than difficult children, but slow to adapt to change
Emotional bond that forms between an infant and the primary caregiver
wariness of strangers
fear of being separated from caregiver
What are the attachment styles?
Secure, Avoident, Ambivalent, Disorganized-Disoreinted
Secure Attachment Style
Touched base with mother
Avoident Attachment Style
Ambivalent Attachment Style
mixed feelings about something, clinging and unwilling to explore
is the image you have if yourself, based on your interactions with the important people in your life
Trust vs Mistrust
Infancy (Birth-1 year) Learns the basic sense of trust dependent how their needs are met
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Toddler (1-3 years) They begin to understand that they can control their own actions
Initiative Vs. Guilt
Preschool Age (3-5 years) Begin to take responsibility for their own behavior, develop self-control.
Industry vs. Inferior
Elementry School Age (5-12 years) learn new skills in the academic and social world, comparing themselves to others to measure success or failure
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Adolescence (13-20 Years) must decide who they are, what they believe and what they want to be as an adult.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Early Adulthood (20’s-30’s) face the task of finding a person with who they can share their identity with in a relationship
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Middle Adulthood (40’s-50’s) Find a way to creative, productive person who is nurturing the next generation
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Late Adulthood (60’s-beyond) Coming to terms with the end of life, reaching a sense of wholeness and acceptance of life
period of life from about age 13 to early 20’s, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet independent, self-supporting adult.
physical changes in the body primarily ses characteristics and secondary characteristics
adolescents have spent so much time thinking about their own thoughts and feelings that they become convinced that they are special.
shows up as extreme self consciousness in adolescents they are convinced that “everyone is looking at them”
Very young children, based on consequences
Older children, adolescents, most adults, actions are morally right if it conforms to the rules to society
1/5 of the population, made by experiences and judgement of the individual.
the cessation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle
decline of several hormones in males (testosterone)
very few demands on their children for behavior
tends to be overly concerned with rules. Very stern and rigid and controlling. Physical punishment
parents aren’t involved with their children, letting them do whatever they want
parents seem to be too involved with their children allowing their “little angels” to behave however they want. Children tend to be selfish, immature, dependent, lacking in social skills.
involves combining firm limits on behavior with love, warmth, affection, respect and willingness to listen to the child’s point of view, non-physical punishment
wholeness results they look back and feel that their lives were full
Cellular Clock Theory
Cells are limited in the numbers of times they can reproduce to repair damage, the evidence is the existence of telomeres.
Wear and Tear Theory
the one that points to outside influences (stress, physical exertion, and bodily damage) The body’s organs and cell tissues simply wear out with repeated use
Free Radical Theory
free radicals are oxygen molecules that have an unstable election, as people get older, more and more free radicals do more and more damage
Proposes that an elderly person adjusts more positively to aging when remaining active in some way
Five Stages of Death
Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance
________, which may be used to grow new organs or tissues for transplant or to repair neurological damage, develop during the germinal period.
The ultrasound report tells Shaniqua and Charles that their developing infant is about one inch long and has eyes, a nose, lips, little arms and legs, and a beating heart. Given this information, the current period of prenatal development is the ________ period.
During critical periods:
environmental influences can have an impact on a developing infant.
Early in life, infants will demonstrate their personalities through their _________________.
Psychologist Harry Harlow found that:
contact comfort is an important factor in love and attachment.
The visual cliff experiment showed that babies have:
some depth perceptions
Erikson believed that
social interactions were important in development.
Wakefield’s study linking the MMR vaccine to autism _________________
has since been discredited
Which one of the following is an example of Vygotsky’s concept of scaffolding
Little Jenny’s mother works one-on-one with her on a new task but gradually helps less and less, and Jenny becomes more skilled and capable.
Games such as “peek-a-boo” are important for infants because they help babies develop _____________.
a sense of object permanence
At birth, infants show a preference for ________ tastes.
Pete and Evelyn are decorating the room for the baby they are expecting. To ensure that the baby’s room provides appropriate stimulation, the couple seek the advice of a developmental psychologist, who tells them that newborns prefer to look at:
Genes that actively control the expression of a trait are referred to as:
Genes that tend to fade into the background when paired with a more dominant gene are called:
The _______ believe that a person who has died is in the underworld.
Children raised with an authoritarian style of parenting are often:
insecure and resentful.
Sylvia is a middle-aged woman who volunteers as a youth coordinator at her church and as a Girl Scout leader. She is developing what Erikson referred to as:
Near the end of one’s ________, oil glands in the neck and around the eyes begin to malfunction, contributing to wrinkles in those areas.
An ovum that was released from Tonya’s ovary into her fallopian tube was fertilized four days ago, resulting in pregnancy. At this stage of her pregnancy, the developing organism that Tonya is carrying is called _____..
While talking with his Grandma on the phone, little Marcelo suddenly exclaims, “Oh, look at that pretty red bird!” When his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, Marcelo says, “Out there, out there! Right there, Grandma!” He finally gets frustrated and hangs up. This is an example of _____.
The impulsive and often risky behavior that can still be seen in adolescence is partially the result of:
incomplete development of the prefrontal cortex of the brain
about 2 years after the beginning of the growth spurt.