Psychology Human Development

Human Development
is the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death

Longitudinal Design
in which one group of people is followed and asserted a different times as the group ages

Cross Sectional Design
Several different age groups are studied at one time (very quick)

Cross Sequential Design
which a combination of the two other designs (Longitudinal Cross-Sectional)

Cohort Effect
The particular impact on development that occurs when a group of people share a common time period or common life experience (Example, being born in the same time period)

Nature
Heredity/ the influence of inherited characteristics on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions

Nuture
The influence of the environment on all of those same things including physical surroundings, and economic factors.

Behavorial Genetics
Is a field in the investigation of the origins of behavior in which researchers try to determine how much of behavior is the result of genetic inheritance and how much is due to a person experience

Genetics
The science oh Heredity

DNA (deoxyrobonucli acid)
special molecule contains twp very long sugar-phosphate strands linked together b bases or amines arranged in a particular pattern. Contains genetic codes (makeup, color, muscle, and skin)

Gene
Each section of DNA contains a certain sequence ordering of these amines

Chromosomes
Rod shaped structures that hold genes and are located in the nucleus of the cell.

Most characteristics are determined by how many chromosomes?
22

XX
Female

XY
Male

Dominant Gene
Genes that are more active in influencing the trait

Recessive Gene
Less active in influencing the trait. These genes tend too recede, fade into the background when paired with the dominant gene.

Polygenic Inheritance
Certain genes tend to group themselves together. Ex) Blonde hair and blue eyes and Strawberry Blonde

Cystic Fibrosis
Inherited recessive gene disease. Respiratory digestive tracts

Sickle Cell Anemia
Inherited recessive gene disease, blood disorder

Tay Sachs
Neurological disorder, Inherited recessive gene disorder

PKO
A birth defect that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in the body. Inherited recessive disorder

Down Syndrome
Chromosome Disorder, Extra chromosome

Klinefelter Syndrome
Chromosome Disorder, 23rd sex chromosome

Turners Syndrome
Lone X chromosome, Chromsome disorder

What are eggs called in the prenatal phase?
Ovum

Fertilization
When the egg and sperm unit

Zygote
the resulting single cell with the 46 chromosomes, begins to divide

Mitosis
the division process because DNA molecules produce duplicates or copies of themselves before each division

Monozygote Twims
Identical twins babies come from one fertilized egg

Dizygotic Twins
Also known as fraternal twins, when two eggs are fertilized or could possible have triplets

Conjoined Twins
when the mass of cells does not completely split apart

Uterus
the muscular organ that will contain and protect the development organism

Germinal Period
2 week period of pregnancy

Placenta
Organ that provides nourishment and filters away the developing babies waste products

Umbillical Cord
Connects the organ to the placenta

Embryo
Once the organism is firmly attached to the uterus

How long is the Embyonic Period?
lasts 2 weeks after conception to 8 weeks

Critical Periods
times during which some environmental influences can have an impact on the developing infant

Teratogen
any substance such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factors that can cause a birth defect

What are some examples of teratogen?
cocaine, MMR, weed, Mercury, caffeine, high water temperature, nicotine, and alcohol

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
a sense of physical and mental defects including stunted growth, facial deformities, and brain damage

What is the Fatal Period?
period of tremendous growth lasting from about 8 weeks until birth

What is the baby known as in the Fatal period?
Fetus

Most babies are born between when?
38-40 weeks

Preterm
Babies born before 38 weeks

Preferential Looking
the longer the infant spends looking at a stimulus, the more the infant, prefers the stimulus than others.

Hibituation
is the tendency for infants (and adults) to stop paying attention to stimulus that does not change

Synaptic Pruning
as unused synaptic connections and nerve cells are cleared away to make way for functioning connections and cells

What are the last sensory organ to develop?
Eyes, Cones

Cognitive Development
development of thinking, problem solving, and memory

What are the four stages of Piagets Theory?
1. The Sensorimotor Stage, 2. The Preoperational Stage, 3. Concrete Operations 4. Formal Operations

What are Schemes?
Mental Concepts

Assimilation
try to understand new things in terms of schemes they already possess

Accommodation
process of altering or adjusting old schemes to fit new information and experiences

The Sensorimotor stage
Stage (birth-2 years old) infants use their sensory and motor skills to understand the world around them. Ex) grasping, touching, pushing, tasting, etc.

Object permanence
fully developed at the end of this stage, the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight. Ex) Peek a boo

The Pre-operational Stage
Ages 2-7. When children develop language and concepts. Are able to ask questions. Symbolic meaning, make-believe play, not capable of logical thought.

Animism
they believe that everything that moves is alive

Egocentrism
the ability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes but ones own

Centration
Focusing only on one feature of some object rather than taking in all factures into consideration

Irreveisibility
Unable to mentally reverse actions, unable to concentrate

Concrete Operations
finally become capable of conversation and reversable thinking, begin to think more logically. Can deal with abstract objects.

Concrete Concepts
Kind of concepts which are understood at the concrete operation phase

Formal Operations
Ages 12- adulthood, abstract thinking becomes possible, gets deeply involved in hypothetical thinking

Scaffolding
the more highly skilled person gives the learner more help at the beginning of the learning process and then begins to withdraw help as the learner is skills improve

Zone of Proximal Development
difference between what a child can do alone versus what a child can do with the help of a teacher

Receptive Productive Lag
a phenomenon that infants may only seem to produce one or two words but they can understand actual sentences

What are the five stages to language?
Cooing, babbling, one word speech, telegraphic speech, whole scentences

Cooing
2 month vowel sounds

Babbling
6 months, add constants

One word speech
around age 1, say actual words, typically nouns

Telegraphic Speech
1.5 years, begin to say short simple sentences, nouns, verbs, and adjectives

Whole Scentences
Pre-school years, learn grammical terms

Autism Spectrum Disorder
Neurodevelopment disorder that encompasses a whole range of previous disorders

Temperament
the behavioral and emotional characteristics that are fairly well established at birth

Easy Babies
regular in schedules in waking, sleeping, and eating “happy babies”

Difficult Babies
irregular in their schedules and very unhappy about change, “loud, active, and crabby”

Slow to Warm up Babies
less grumpy, quieter, and more regular than difficult children, but slow to adapt to change

Attachment
Emotional bond that forms between an infant and the primary caregiver

Stranger Anxiety
wariness of strangers

Separation Anxiety
fear of being separated from caregiver

What are the attachment styles?
Secure, Avoident, Ambivalent, Disorganized-Disoreinted

Secure Attachment Style
Touched base with mother

Avoident Attachment Style
Very Independent

Ambivalent Attachment Style
mixed feelings about something, clinging and unwilling to explore

Disorganized-Disoriented
Very Fearful

Self-concept
is the image you have if yourself, based on your interactions with the important people in your life

Trust vs Mistrust
Infancy (Birth-1 year) Learns the basic sense of trust dependent how their needs are met

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Toddler (1-3 years) They begin to understand that they can control their own actions

Initiative Vs. Guilt
Preschool Age (3-5 years) Begin to take responsibility for their own behavior, develop self-control.

Industry vs. Inferior
Elementry School Age (5-12 years) learn new skills in the academic and social world, comparing themselves to others to measure success or failure

Identity vs. Role Confusion
Adolescence (13-20 Years) must decide who they are, what they believe and what they want to be as an adult.

Intimacy vs. Isolation
Early Adulthood (20’s-30’s) face the task of finding a person with who they can share their identity with in a relationship

Generativity vs. Stagnation
Middle Adulthood (40’s-50’s) Find a way to creative, productive person who is nurturing the next generation

Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Late Adulthood (60’s-beyond) Coming to terms with the end of life, reaching a sense of wholeness and acceptance of life

Adolescence
period of life from about age 13 to early 20’s, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet independent, self-supporting adult.

Puberty
physical changes in the body primarily ses characteristics and secondary characteristics

Personal Fable
adolescents have spent so much time thinking about their own thoughts and feelings that they become convinced that they are special.

Imaginary Audiences
shows up as extreme self consciousness in adolescents they are convinced that “everyone is looking at them”

Pre-concentional Morality
Very young children, based on consequences

Conventioinal Morality
Older children, adolescents, most adults, actions are morally right if it conforms to the rules to society

Post-conventional Morality
1/5 of the population, made by experiences and judgement of the individual.

Menopause
the cessation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle

Anaropause
decline of several hormones in males (testosterone)

Permissive Parenting
very few demands on their children for behavior

Authoritarian Parenting
tends to be overly concerned with rules. Very stern and rigid and controlling. Physical punishment

Permissive neglectfull
parents aren’t involved with their children, letting them do whatever they want

Permissive Indulgent
parents seem to be too involved with their children allowing their “little angels” to behave however they want. Children tend to be selfish, immature, dependent, lacking in social skills.

Authoritative Parenting
involves combining firm limits on behavior with love, warmth, affection, respect and willingness to listen to the child’s point of view, non-physical punishment

Ego Integrity
wholeness results they look back and feel that their lives were full

Cellular Clock Theory
Cells are limited in the numbers of times they can reproduce to repair damage, the evidence is the existence of telomeres.

Wear and Tear Theory
the one that points to outside influences (stress, physical exertion, and bodily damage) The body’s organs and cell tissues simply wear out with repeated use

Free Radical Theory
free radicals are oxygen molecules that have an unstable election, as people get older, more and more free radicals do more and more damage

Activity Theory
Proposes that an elderly person adjusts more positively to aging when remaining active in some way

Five Stages of Death
Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance

________, which may be used to grow new organs or tissues for transplant or to repair neurological damage, develop during the germinal period.
stem cells

The ultrasound report tells Shaniqua and Charles that their developing infant is about one inch long and has eyes, a nose, lips, little arms and legs, and a beating heart. Given this information, the current period of prenatal development is the ________ period.
embryonic

During critical periods:
environmental influences can have an impact on a developing infant.

Early in life, infants will demonstrate their personalities through their _________________.
temperaments

Psychologist Harry Harlow found that:
contact comfort is an important factor in love and attachment.

The visual cliff experiment showed that babies have:
some depth perceptions

Erikson believed that
social interactions were important in development.

Wakefield’s study linking the MMR vaccine to autism _________________
has since been discredited

Which one of the following is an example of Vygotsky’s concept of scaffolding
Little Jenny’s mother works one-on-one with her on a new task but gradually helps less and less, and Jenny becomes more skilled and capable.

Games such as “peek-a-boo” are important for infants because they help babies develop _____________.
a sense of object permanence

At birth, infants show a preference for ________ tastes.
sweet

Pete and Evelyn are decorating the room for the baby they are expecting. To ensure that the baby’s room provides appropriate stimulation, the couple seek the advice of a developmental psychologist, who tells them that newborns prefer to look at:
human faces

Genes that actively control the expression of a trait are referred to as:
dominant

Genes that tend to fade into the background when paired with a more dominant gene are called:
recessive

The _______ believe that a person who has died is in the underworld.
navajo

Children raised with an authoritarian style of parenting are often:
insecure and resentful.

Sylvia is a middle-aged woman who volunteers as a youth coordinator at her church and as a Girl Scout leader. She is developing what Erikson referred to as:
generativity

Near the end of one’s ________, oil glands in the neck and around the eyes begin to malfunction, contributing to wrinkles in those areas.
20s

An ovum that was released from Tonya’s ovary into her fallopian tube was fertilized four days ago, resulting in pregnancy. At this stage of her pregnancy, the developing organism that Tonya is carrying is called _____..
a zygote

While talking with his Grandma on the phone, little Marcelo suddenly exclaims, “Oh, look at that pretty red bird!” When his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, Marcelo says, “Out there, out there! Right there, Grandma!” He finally gets frustrated and hangs up. This is an example of _____.
egocentrism

The impulsive and often risky behavior that can still be seen in adolescence is partially the result of:
incomplete development of the prefrontal cortex of the brain

Puberty begins:
about 2 years after the beginning of the growth spurt.