psychology final- social psychology

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social psychologists
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use scientific methods to study how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. study social forces that explain why people act differently in different situations.
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personality psychologists
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study personal traits and processes that explain why individuals may act differently in a given situation
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fundamental attribution error
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the tendency, when analyzing others’ behavior, to overestimate the influence of personal traits and underestimate the effects of the situation. most likely to occur when a stranger acts badly. has real life and social consequences. opposite of self serving bias.
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napolitan and colleagues (1979)
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students attributed behavior of others to personal traits, even when they were told that behavior was part of an experimental situation
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attitude most influences behavior when
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external influences are minimal, the attitude is stable, the attitude is specific to the behavior, the attitude is easily recalled
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attitudes follow behavior
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foot-in-the-door phenomenon. people agreeing to a small request will find it easier to later agree to a larger one. principle works for negative and positive behavior.
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cognitive dissonance: relief from tension
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we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) clash or when our beliefs and behavior clash
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brain regions become active when people experience
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cognitive dissonance
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through cognitive dissonance we often
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bring attitudes into line with our actions (Festinger)
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our attitudes often influence our
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actions (out attitudes also follow our actions and we come to believe in what we have done)
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Chartrand 1999
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demonstrated chameleon effect with college students. automatic mimicry helps people to empathize and feel what others feel. the more we mimic, the greater our empathy, and the more people tend to like us
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Milgram
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investigated the effects of punishment on learning. an authority figure demands a participant to inflict presumed life threatening shocks on an innocent person.
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Milgram’s experiments involved
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commands to shock someone using up to a 450 volt final level. more than 60% followed orders.
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Milgram: obedience was highest when
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the person giving orders was in close proximity and perceived as a legitimate authority figure. the authority figure was supported by a well known institution. the victim was depersonalized or at a distance. no models existed for defiance.
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social facilitation
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responses on individual tasks are stronger in the presence of others (Triplett). The presence of others sometimes helps and sometimes hurts.
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home team advantage
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when others observe us, we perform well learned tasks more quickly and accurately. but, on new and difficult tasks, performance is less quick and accurate.
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social loafing
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the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
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Deindividuation
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a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
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group polarization
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if a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens existing opinions.
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groupthink
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mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
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prejudice is a negative attitude
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discrimination is a negative behavior
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social inequalities
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have often developed attitudes that justify the status quo
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just-world phenomenon
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good is rewarded and evil is punished
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implicit racial associations
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negative associations linked to the denial of racial prejudice
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race-influenced perceptions
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perceptions influenced by expectations
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reflexive bodily responses
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telltale signs of selective body responses to another persons race
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ingroup bias
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a favoring of our own group
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scapegoat theory
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proposes that when things go wrong, finding someone to blame cane provide an outlet for anger
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Zimbardo: prejudice levels are high among
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economically frustrated people
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biology influences aggression at 3 levels
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genetic, biological, and neural
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frustration-aggression principle
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frustration creates anger, which can spark aggression
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People tend to marry someone who lives or works nearby. This is an example of proximity and the ________ in action
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mere exposure effect
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two factor theory of emotion
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-emotions have 2 ingredients – physical arousal and cognitive appraisal
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sexual desire + a growing attachment =
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the passion of romantic love
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companionate love
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passion feeding hormones give way to oxytocin that supports feelings of trust, calmness, and bonding
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emotions consist of
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1. physical arousal and 2. our interpretation of that arousal (arousal = passion)
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two vital components for maintaining companionate love are
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equity and self-disclosure
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altruism
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unselfish concern for the welfare of others
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bystander intervention (Darley and Latane)
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necessary conditions: notice incident, interpret event as emergency, assume responsibility for helping
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fewer people help if
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others seem available
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socializing norm
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social expectation that prescribes how we should behave
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reciprocity norm
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expectation that people will respond favorably to each other by returning benefits for benefits
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social-responsibility norm
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expectation that people should help those who depend on them
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mirror-image perceptions
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mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
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sometimes cooperative contact
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reduces prejudices and forms friendships
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superordinate goals
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shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
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Graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction (GRIT)
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a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. one side recognizes mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act that opens the door for reciprocation by the other party
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Research participants believed that the Asch conformity test involved a study of
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visual perception (which line is the same length as the other)
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Social facilitation is most likely to occur in the performance of ________ tasks.
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easy
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important in promoting conformity in individuals
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whether an individual’s behavior will be observed by others in the group
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aggression
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varies too much to be instinctive in humans
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Aggression is defined as behavior that
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is intended to hurt another person
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People with power and status may become prejudiced because
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they tend to justify the social inequalities between themselves and others.
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We are NOT likely to make the fundamental attribution error if we observe someone
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in a variety of situations
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Comedy routines that are mildly amusing to people in an uncrowded room seem funnier in a densely packed room. This is best explained in terms of
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social facilitation
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In the United States during the late 1980s, most Democrats wrongly believed inflation had risen under Republican president Ronald Reagan. In 2010, most Republicans wrongly believed that taxes had increased under Democratic president Barack Obama. These incorrect beliefs best illustrate the impact of
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ingroup bias

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