Psychology Final Exam Study Guide

aristotle
student of plato who raised many questions about behavior still discussed today

hippocrates
ancient philosopher who suggested that psychological problems stem from abnormalities in the brain

BF Skinner
harvard professor who added to watson’s behavioralism with the concept of reinforcement; known for the skinner box

John Watson
man who agreed with functionalism but disagreed with its take on consciousness; believed consciousness is a private event only known to the individual; founder of behavioralism

Socrates
teacher of plato; “know thyself”

Freud
viennese physician who is the founder of psychoanalysis

Wilhelm Wundt
founder of structuralism

William James
founder of functionalism; harvard professor who asserted that conscious experience could not be broken down as structuralists believe; believed that experience is a continuous stream of consciousness; questioned the value of consciousness because there is no scientific way to observe it

psychoanalysis
psychological approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflict in understanding behavior

structuralism
a concept concerned with discovering the basic elements of consciousness

functionalism
a concept that is concerned with how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment

reinforcement
process by which a stimulus increases chances that preceding behavior will occur again

associationism
the concept that experiences often remind us of similar experiences in the past

single blind study
a study in which the participants are unaware of whether they are in the experimental group of the control group

double blind study
study in which both the participants and the researchers are unaware of who is in the experimental or control group

positive correlation
as one variable goes up, so does the other ex. achievement and salary

negative correlation
condition in which as one variable goes up, the other goes down

control group
the group in a controlled experiment that does not receive the treatment

placebo
substance or treatment that has no effect apart from a person’s belief in its effect

correlation
measure of how closely one thing is related to another

variable
factors that can vary or change in an experiment

standard deviation
measure of the distance of every score to the mean

experimental group
the group in a controlled experiment that receives the treatment/changing factor

naturalistic observation
method by which one observes someone as they act and interact naturally; field study

longitudinal method
research method in which researchers select a group of participants and then observe those participants over a period of time

latitudinal studies
study in which researcher will use same location, same organisms, same time frame to study their topic

case study
in depth investigation of an individual or small group

IQ test
an intelligence test that provides a number that reflects a person’s relation between their mental age and their chronological age

cross sectional method
instead of following a set of individuals over a number of years, researchers select a sample that includes different ages

alcohol
most widely used drug in the US; a depressant

cocaine
drug derived from the leaves of the cocoa plant; induces feelings of pleasure, reduces hunger, deadens pain, and boosts confidence; used as a painkiller

hallucination
perception of an object or sound that seems to be real but is not

hallucinogen
a psychoactive drug that induces hallucinations or altered sensory experiences

LSD
a hallucinogen that produces intense hallucinations; aka acid

delusions
false ideas that seem real

co-dependency
a behavior pattern in which a family member or friend of a substance abuser attempts to control the behavior of the dependant person

addiction
a state in which the body craves a drug just to feel normal

PQ4R
one approach to active learning, based on the work of francis robinson; Preview, Questioning, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review

token economics
a system in which people are “paid” to act correctly by earning rewards such as points, plastic chips, etc.

latent learning
learning that remains hidden until it is needed

massed learning
trying to learn something all at once

observational learning
learning in which we acquire knowledge and skills by observing and imitating others

EC Tolman
scientist who showed that rats learn about the environment without food or reward; example of latent learning

Alex Bandura
introduced the idea of observational learning

fluid intelligence
mental capacity that allows us to respond quickly to a novel situation or problem

crystal intelligence
the sum of our knowledge about the world

validity
the quality of measuring what is supposed to be measured

reliability
the consistency of a test

100
average IQ score

retardation
having an IQ score below 70

giftedness
having an IQ score of 130 or above

amnesia
severe memory loss

echoic memory
type of memory in which mental traces of sounds are held in a mental sensory

eidetic memory
the rare ability to remember visual stimuli over long periods of time

chunking
organizing items into familiar or manageable units

schema
mental representation we form of the world by organizing info into knowledge

recognition
identifying objects or events that have been encountered before; first step in basic memory tasks

recall
bringing memory back into mind; second step in basic memory tasks

franz mesmer
german phsysician who held belief that magnetism could heal the body

mantra
a commonly repeated word or phrase often used for relaxation

hypnosis
altered state of consciousness during which people respond to suggestions and behave as though they are in a trance

altered states of consciousness
a person’s sense of self or sense of the world changes

psychology
the study of human behavior and mental processes

clinical
largest field of psychology; helps people with psych problems such as depression, anxiety, or severe disorders; help people overcome problems and adjust

counseling
field of psychology in which psychologists use interviews and tests to identify patient’s problems; typically treat adjustment problems and help clarify goals and meet challenges

school
a field of psychology in which a psychologist works in a school district to identify and help students who have problems that interfere with learning

educational
field of psychology in which a psychologist’s concern is with helping students learn; focus on course planning and instructional methods for entire school system vs. individuals

developmental
field of psychology in which a psychologist studies the changes that occur throughout a person’s life span

industrial (organizational)
field of psychology in which psychologist focuses on people and workplace; improve working conditions and increase output

community
field of psychology in which psychologist studies and helps create social systems that promote and foster individual well being

health
field of psychology in which psychologist examines ways in which behavior and mental processes are related to physical health