Psychology – Exam 1 – Study Guide

psychology
the study of the mind, brain, and behavior

4
there are ___ levels of analysis

biological
the level of analysis dealing with cells, connections between cells, neurochemicals, hormones, the genome, and the epigenome

individual
the level of analysis dealing with thoughts, feelings, beliefs, ideas, desires, and personality

social
the leve l of analysis that deals with relationships between people, influence groups of people, and culture

environment
the level of analysis dealing with nature, buildings without windows, lighting, noises, weather, and seasons

43%
____ (percentage) of subjects in the moffitt & caspi study who had the “short” serotonin transporter gene and who had experienced 4+ stressfull events were clinically depressed

17%
____ (percentage) of the subjects in the moffitt & caspi study who had the “long” serotonin transporter gene and had experienced 4+ stressful events were clinically depressed

17%
the average rate of depression

17%
___ (percentage) of people in the moffitt & caspi study with the “short” serotonin transporter gene and no stressful experiences

operational definition
specifying what you will measure

descriptive
aka naturalistic observation: see patterns in real world through simple observation as they are.

there isn’t any researcher influence on the participant’s behavior
strengths of descriptive studies

you can’t determine causality
weaknesses of descriptive studies

correlational
studies where relationships between two or more variables are measured but not manipulated

can study variables that can’t or don’t need to be manipulated
strengths of correlational studies

you can’t determine causality
weaknesses of correlational studies

experimental
studies that involve the random assignment of both experimental and control groups

ability to determine causality
strengths of experimental studies

you can’t always manipulate a variable (ethically, realistically, etc.)
weaknesses of experimental studies

confound
a third, unaccounted for variable that could also explain the link between two other studied variables

correlation
an apparent link between two variables being studied; not cause and effect necessarily

+1
the numerical value for a strong/positive correlation

-1
the numerical value for a strong/negative correlation

independent variable
the variable that is intentionally changed while another variable is measured. This is the treatment or the condition

dependent variable
the variable that is measured while another variable is changed. This is the outcome

drug x
“Drug x impairs short-term memory in a word-recall task.” Which is the independent variable?

short-term memory
“Drug x impairs short-term memory in a word-recall task.” Which is the dependent variable?

visualization
“athletic performance is improved by visualization.” Which is the independent variable?

athletic performance
“athletic performance is improved by visualization.” Which is the dependent variable?

reliability
if we can replicate the results of a study, it has ______

validity
if we are measuring what we set out to measure, the study has _____

response bias
the tendency of participants to respond in a particular way, generally aiming to please

sampling bias
what happens when participants aren’t chosen at random

cohort effects
a bias that comes as a result of different generations and their respective experiences

experimenter expectancy effect
a term that’s used for a researcher unknowingly cueing the participant in a study to respond a certain way

double blind design
the “cure” for the experimenter expectancy effect; researches don’t know which participant is control and which is experimental

true
socioeconomic status and education level are examples of biases, too

neuron
a cell in the nervous system specialized to receive, process, and/or transmit information to other cells

dendrite
the part of the neuron that receives incoming messages

resting potential
the stage of neuron firing that involves a negative charge inside the neuron, relative to the outside

stimulation
___________ causes neurons to move away from their resting potential

action potential
when neurons move away from their resting potential, they move into their ______

positive
during the action potential, particles with a ______ charge enter the neuron

depolarized
during action potential, after the new particles enter the neuron, the neuron becomes __________

some positively charged particles leave
how does a neuron return to its resting potential?

3
how many different classes of neurons are there?

sensory
a class of neurons that receives information from the world and sends it to the brain via the spinal cord

afferent
another name for the sensory neuron

motor
the class of neurons that carries signals from the spinal cord to the muscles and glands

efferent
another name for the motor neuron

interneurons
the class of neurons that connect all three types of neurons, and account for most of the neurons in the brain

acetylcholine
the neurotransmitter that enables muscle contraction and memory

alzheimer’s
the result of a malfunction in acetylcholine in the body

delusions
the result of a shortage of acetylcholine in the body

tremors
the result of an excess of acetylcholine in the body

dopamine
the neurotransmitter that deals with motivation, reward, movement, thought, and learning

parkinson’s
the result of a malfunction of dopamine in the body

ADHD
the result of a shortage of dopamine in the body

schizophrenia
the result of an excess of dopamine in the body

glutamate
the neurotransmitter that enhances action potentials, learning, and memory

learning disorders
the result of a malfunction of glutamate in the body

lethargy
the result of a shortage of glutamate in the body

serotonin
the neurotransmitter that regulates mood and sleep

OCD
the result of a malfunction of serotonin in the body

depression
the result of a shortage of serotonin in the body

lack of motivation
the result of an excess of serotonin in the body

GABA
the neurotransmitter that inhibits the sending neuron; basically, it ensures that there won’t be over-firing.

anxiety
the result of a malfunction of GABA in the body

epilepsy
the result of a shortage of GABA in the body

lack of motivation
the result of an excess of GABA in the body

myelin sheath
the part of the neuron that insulates the axon and allors for the rapid movement of electrical impulses along the axon

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
prozac, soloft, and paxil

block the reuptake of serotonin
how do SSRIs work?

AMPA receptor modulators
drugs that act on glutamate

enhance glutamate transmission between neurons
how do AMPA receptor modulators work?

increases the sensitivity of the neurons so they communicate more rapidly
how do calcium channel receptor modulators work?

blocks the reuptake of dopamine
how cocaine works

binds to GABA receptors and allows more negatively charged ions to go through
how alcohol works

increase the flow of dopamine
how opiates work

epilepsy
penfield’s surgeries were on patients suffering from this disorder

electric current
what penfield used to deactivate a certain area of brain tissue

reactivated
more distant brain regions were _____ as a result of penfield’s surgery

specific memory recollection
the effect penfield’s surgeries had on patients

central nervous system & peripheral nervous system
the two main divisions of the nervous system

sensory-somatic nervous system & autonomic nervous system
the two subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system

sympathetic & parasympathetic
the two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system

brain & spinal cord
what is included in the central nervous system?

brain
the center of control for the body

spinal cord
the information pipeline for the body

false
true/false: the spinal cord always acts dependently on the brain

interneuron
if the brain is going to interfere with a “knee jerk reaction,” where will the interference take place?

sensory-somatic
the nervous system that deals with the skin, eyes, ears, skeletal muscles; it accounts for things like hunger and pain, and it pays attention to both the internal and external environments

voluntary
the sensory-somatic nervous system deals with ______ (voluntary/involuntary) movements mostly

autonomic
the nervous system that includes the heart, lungs, etc.

involuntary
the autonomic nervous system mostly deals with _____ (voluntary/involuntary) movements

sympathetic
the part of the autonomic system that occurs during stressful situations

symptoms of an active sympathetic nervous system
dilated pupils, relaxed lungs, accelerated heartbeat, inhibited activity in the stomach, and contracted blood vessels are all:

parasympathetic
the part of the autonomic system that occurs during non-stressful situations

symptoms of an active parasympathetic nervous system
contracted pupils, constricted lungs, slow heartbeat, stimulated stomach activity, and dilated blood vessels are all:

4
there are ___ lobes in the cerebral cortex

frontal
the lobe located behind the eyes/forehead

parietal
the lobe located in the top/back of the head

occipital
the lobe located in the lower/back of the skull

temporal
the lobe located right above and to the sides of the ear

vision
the occipital lobe is primarily devoted to _____

occipital
the secondary functions of the _____ lobe are the processing of spacial information, color, some motion, and form

sound, language, & the storage of new information in the memory
the three primary functions of the temporal lobe

temporal
the secondary function of the _______ lobe is the storage of visual memory

sense of touch
the parietal lobe is largely responsible for our _____

parietal
other functions of the ______ lobe are attention and the representation of spacial relationships of ourselves and the world

frontal
functions of the _____ lobe include speech, planning, searching memory, motor processing, reasoning, and the control of emotions

key
the frontal lobe is known as the ____ part of the brain

primary somatosensory cortex
the “strip” in the cerebral cortex located in front of the parietal lobe

controls & sends messages
the main function of the somatosensory cortex

primary motor cortex
the “strip” in the cerebral cortex located just behind the frontal lobe

controls & initiates movement
the main function of the primary motor cortex

phineas gage
the name of the guy who got a pole rammed through his frontal lobe