Psychology: Chapter 8 Terms

the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test

a measure of memory in which the person identifies items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

the processing of information into the memory system — for example, by extracting meaning

the process of retaining encoded information over time

the process of getting information out of memory storage

parallel processing
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions

sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while calling, before the information in the memory system

long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

working memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that adds conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare” (also called declarative memory)

effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

implicit memory
retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection (also called nondeclarative memory)

iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

testing effect
enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.

semantic memory
explicit memory of facts and general knowledge; one of our two conscious memory systems (the other is episodic memory)

episodic memory
explicit memory of personally experienced events; one of our two conscious memory systems (the other is semantic memory)

a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

memory consolidation
the neural storage of a long-term memory

flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

long-term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood

serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last (recency effect) and first (primacy effect) items in a list

anterograde amnesia
an inability to form new memories

retrograde amnesia
an inability to retrieve information from one’s past

proactive interference
the forward-acting disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

retroactive interference
the backward-acting disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

a process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again

misinformation effect
when misleading information has corrupted one’s memory of an event

source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.

deja vu
that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before” Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.