Psychology Chapter 7 Cognition Language and Intelligence

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The mental processes involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using information and that include sensation, perception, memory, imagery, concept formation, reasoning, decision making, problem solving, and language.

A form of thinking in which conclusions are drawn from a set of facts.

deductive reasoning
Reasoning from general to specific, or drawing particular conclusions from general principles.

inductive reasoning
Reasoning in which general conclusions are drawn from particular facts of individual cases.

The representation in the mind of a sensory experience – visual, auditory, gustatory, motor, olfactory, or tactile.

A mental category used to represent a class or group of objects, people, organizations, events, situations, or relations that share common characteristics or attributes.

formal concept
A concept that is clearly defined by a set of rules, a formal definition, or a classification system; also known as an artificial concept

natural concept
A concept acquired not from a definition but through everyday perceptions and experiences; also known as a fuzzy concept

An example that embodies the most common and typical features of a concept.

The individual instances, or examples, of a concept that are stored in memory from personal experience

decision making
The process of considering alternatives and choosing among them.

systematic decision making
Making a decision after carefully considering all possible alternatives

elimination by aspects
A decision-making approach in which alternatives are evaluated against criteria that have been ranked according to importance

A rule of thumb that is derived from experience and used in decision making and problem solving, even though there is no guarantee of its accuracy or usefullness

availability heuristic
A cognitive rule of thumb that says that the probability of an event or the importance assigned to it is based on its availability in memory

representativeness heuristic
A thinking strategy based on how closely a new object or situation is judged to resemble or match an existing prototype of that object or situation

recognition heuristic
A strategy in which decision making stops as soon as a factor that moves on toward a decision has been recognized

The way info is presented so as to emphasize either a potential gain or a potential loss as the outcome

Rapidly formed judgments based on “gut feelings” or “instincts”.

problem solving
Thoughts and actions required to achieve a desired goal that is not readily attainable.

analogy heuristic
A rule of thumb that applies a solution that solved a problem in the past to a current problem that shares many features with the past problem

working backward
A heuristic strategy in which a person discovers the steps needed to solve a problem defining the desired goal and working backward to the current condition; also called backward search

means-end analysis
A heuristic strategy in which the current position is compared with the desired goal and a series of steps are formulated and taken to close the gap between them.

A systematic, step-by-step procedure, such as a mathematical formula, that guarantees a solution to a problem of a certain type if applied appropriately and executed properly

functional fixedness
The failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems because of tendency to view objects only in terms of their customary functions

mental set
The tendency to apply a familiar strategy to the solution of a problem without carefully considering the special requirements of that problem

artificial intelligence
The programming of computer systems to simulate human thinking in solving problems and in making judgments & decisions

artificial neural networks
Computer systems that are intended to mimic the human brain

expert systems
Computer programs designed to carry out highly specific functions within a limited domain

A means of communicating thoughts and feelings, using a system of socially shared but arbitrary symbols (sounds, signs, or written symbols) arranged according to rules or grammar.

The study of how language is acquired, produced, and used and how the sounds and symbols of language are translated into meaning

The smallest units of sound in a spoken language.

The smallest units of meaning in a language.

The aspect of grammar that specifies the rules for arranging and combining words to form phrases and sentences.

The meaning derived from morphemes, words, and sentences.

surface structure
The literal words of a sentence that are spoken or written (or signed).

deep structure
The underlying meaning of a sentence.

The characteristics of modern language, such as intonation and gestures, that indicate the social meaning of utterances.

linguistic relativity hypothesis
The notion that the language a person speaks largely determines the nature of that person’s thoughts

Fluency in at least two language

An individual’s ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles through mental effort

g factor
Spearman’s term for a general intellectual ability that underlies all mental operations to some degree

primary mental abilities
According to Thurstone, seven relatively distinct capabilities that singly or in combination are involved in all intellectual activities

Standards based on the range of test scores of a large group of people who are selected to provide the bases of comparison for those who take the test later

intelligence quotient
An index of intelligence, originally derived by diving mental age by chronological age and then multiplying by 100, but now derived by comparing an individuals score with the scores of others of the same age

The ability of a test to yield nearly the same score when the same people are tested and then retested on the same test or an alternative form of the test

The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure.

aptitude test
A test designed to predict a person’s achievment or performance at some future time.

Establishing norms for comparing the scores of people who will take a test in the future; administering tests using a prescribed procedure

culture-fair intelligence test
An intelligence test that uses questions that will not penalize those whose culture differs from the mainstream or dominant culture.

mental retardation
Subnormal intelligence reflected by an IQ below 70 and by adaptive functioning that is severely deficient deficient for one’s age

Educating students with mental retardation in regular schools by placing them in classes with general students for part of the day or in special classrooms in regular schools; also known mainstreaming

nature-nuture debate
The debate over whether intelligence (or another trait) is primarily the result of heredity (nature) or the environment (nurture)

A measure of the degree to which a characteristic is estimated to be influenced by heredity

adoption study method
A method researchers use to assess the relative effects of heredity and environment by studying children who were adopted very early in life

emotional intelligence
The ability to apply knowledge about emotions to everyday life

The ability to produce original, appropriate, and valuable ideas and/or solutions to problems.

divergent thinking
The ability to produce multiple ideas, answers, or solutions to a problem for which there is no agreed-on solution

savant syndrome
A condition that allows an individual whose level of general intelligence is very low to perform highly creative or difficult mental feats

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