Test Answers on Psychology Chapter 5

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Learning
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Any relatively permanent change on behavior brought about by experience or practice. Relatively permanent = because part of the brain is physically changed to record what you’ve learned.
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Maturation
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change in brain due to biology; not experience. Once maturation has been reached, then practice and experience play their important part, but practice alone does not allow a baby to walk.
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Reflex
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an involuntary response, one that is not under personal control or choice. Un-learned.
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Stimulus
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an object, event, or experience that causes a response.
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Classical Conditioning
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learning to make an involuntary response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the response.
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UCS
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Unconditioned Stimulus: in classical conditioning, a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary and unlearned response.
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UCR
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Unconditioned Response: in classical conditioning, an involuntary and unlearned response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
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CS
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Conditioned Stimulus: in classical conditioning, a previously neutral that becomes able to produce a conditioned response, after pairing with an unconditioned response. (Pavlov: almost any kind of stimulus could become associated with the unconditioned stimulus, if paired often enough.)
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NS
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Neutral Stimulus: in classical conditioning, a stimulus that has no effect on the desired response prior to conditioning.
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CR
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Conditioned Response: in classical conditioning, a learned response to a conditioned stimulus. (Usually not quite as strong as the original UCR, but essentially the same response.)
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Stimulus Generalization
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the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response.
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Stimulus Discrimination
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the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
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Extinction
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the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning).
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Spontaneous Recovery
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the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred.
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Higher-Order Conditioning
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occurs when a strong CS is paired with a NS, causing the NS to become a second CS.
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CER
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Conditioned Emotional Response: emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person.
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Vicarious Conditioning
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classical conditioning of an involuntary response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.
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Conditioned Taste Aversions
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development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association.
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Stimulus Substitution
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the conditioned stimulus, through its association close in time with the unconditioned stimulus, came to activate the same place in the animal’s brain that was originally activated by the unconditioned stimulus.
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Expectancy
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a particular expectancy created by pairing the tone or absence of tone with the shock that determined the particular response of rats.
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Operant Conditioning
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the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses.
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Law of Effect
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law stating that if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence it will tend not to be repeated. The basic principle behind learning voluntary behavior.
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Reinforcement
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any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again.”What’s in it for me?” Strengthens responses.
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Primary Reinforcer
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any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch.
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Secondary Reinforcer
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any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars.
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Positive Reinforcement
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the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus.
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Negative Reinforcement
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the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus.
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Partial Reinforcement
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the tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction.
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Continuous Reinforcement
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the reinforcement of each and every response.
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Fixed Interval Schedule of Reinforcement
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schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible always stays the same.
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Variable Interval Schedule of Reinforcement
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schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event.
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Punishment
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any event or object that, when following a response less likely to happen again. Weakens responses.
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Punishment by Application
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the punishment of response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus.
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Punishment by Removal
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the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus.
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Discriminative Stimulus
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any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement.
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Shaping
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the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior through successive approximations that lead to a desired, more complex behavior.
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Token Economy
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the use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges.
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ABA
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Applied Behavior Analysis: modern terms for a form of functional analysis and behavior modification that uses a variety of behavioral techniques to mold desired behavior or response.
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Biofeedback
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using feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary response, such as blood pressure and relaxation, under voluntary control.
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Neurofeedback
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form of biofeedback using brain-scanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior.
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Latent Learning
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learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful.
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Insight
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the sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly.
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Positive Psychology
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a new way of looking at the entire concept of mental health and therapy that focuses on the adaptive, creative, and psychologically more fulfilling aspects of human experience rather than on mental disorders.
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Learned Helplessness
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the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past.
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vmPFC
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ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex: is able to determine what is controllable.
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Observational Learning
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learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.
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Learning/Performance Distinction
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referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior.
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Ivan Pavlov
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Classical Conditioning (concept)— a Russian physiologist who pioneered the empirical study of the basic principles of a particular kind of learning. Accidentally discovered the phenomenon of classical conditioning. Kind of learning that occurs with automatic, involuntary behavior.
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Edward L. Thorndike
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Operant Conditioning—- Edward L. Thorndike, one of the first researchers to explore the laws of learning voluntary responses.
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B.F. Skinner
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the behaviorist who assumed leadership of the field after John Watson. He determined that psychologists should study only measurable, observable behavior. Found work of Thorndike a way to explain all behavior as a product of learning.
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4 Elements of Observational Learning
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Attention, memory, imitation, desire.

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