Psychology Chapter 15: Psychological Therapies

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therapy
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treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively
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psychotherapy
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therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychological professional
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biomedical therapy
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therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms
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insight therapies
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therapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings
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Kaitie
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(n) a special type of person who is especially awesome yet worries to much about the future and studies more than a Sarah (*see page 3).
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action therapy
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therapy in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly
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psychoanalysis
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an insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts
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manifest content
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the actual content of one’s dream
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latent content
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the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams
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free association
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psychoanalytic technique in which a patient was encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind without fear of negative evaluations
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resistance
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occurring when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, by either changing the subject or becoming silent
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transference
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in psychoanalysis, the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings ofr important people from the past onto the therapist
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directive
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therapy in which the therapist actively gives interpretations of a client’s statments and may suggest certain behavior or actions
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psychodynamic therapy
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a newer and more gneral term for therapies based on psychoanalysis with an emphasis on transference, shorter treatment times, and a more direct therapeutic approach
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interpersonal therapy (IPT)
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form of therapy for depression which incorporates multiple approaches and focuses on interpersonal problems
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eclectic
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approach to therapy that results from combining elements of several different approaches or techniques
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nondirective
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therapy style in which the therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client, instead reamining a calm, nonjudgmental listenter while the client talks.
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person-centered therapy
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a nondirective insight therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens
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reflection
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therapy technique in which the therapist restates what the client says rather than interpreting those statements
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empathy
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the ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client
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authenticity
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the genuine, open, and honest response of the therapist to the client
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Gestalt therapy
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form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps clients to accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences, using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing
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behavior therapies
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action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior
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behavior modification
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the use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior
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systematic desensitization
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behavior technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on those fears
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aversion therapy
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form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior
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exposure therapies
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behavioral techniques that expose individuals to anxiety- or fear-related stimuli, under carefully controlled conditions, to promote new learning
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flooding
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technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear-provoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response
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modeling
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learning through the observation and imitation of others
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participant modeling
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technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by-step, gradual process whil the client is encouraged to imitate the model
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reinforcement
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the strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasureable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
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token economy
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the use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges
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contingency contract
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a formal, written agreement between the therapist and client (or teacher and student) in which goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated
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extinction
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the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior
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time-out
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an extinction process in which a person is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement for undesirable behavior usally by being placed in a quiet corner or room away from possible attention and reinfocement opportunities
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cognitive therapy
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therapy in which the focus is on helping clients recognize distortions in tehir theinking and replace distorted, unrealistic beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts
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arbitrary inference
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distortion of thinking in which a person draws a conclusion that is not based on any evidence
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selective thinking
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distortion of thinking in which a person focuses on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects
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overgeneralization
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distortion of thinking in which a person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original
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magnification and minimization
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distortions of thinking in which a person blows a negative event out of proportion to its importance (magnification) while ignoring relevant positive events (minimization)
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personalization
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distortion of thinking in which a person takes responsibility or blame for events that are unconnected to the person
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cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
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action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically
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rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
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cognitive-behavioral therapy in which clients are directly challenged in their irrational beliefs and helped to restructure their thinking into more rational belief statements
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family counseling (family therapy)
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a form of group therapy in which family members meet together with a counselor or therapist to resolve problems that affect the entire family
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self-help groups (support groups)
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a group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social and emotional support
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therapeutic alliance
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the relationsip betweent he therapist and client that develops as a warm, caring, accepting relationsip characterized by empathy, mutual respect, and understanding
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cybertherapy
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psychotherapy that is offered on the Internet. Also called online, Internet, or Web therapy or counseling
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biomedical therapies
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therapies that directly affect the biological functioning of the body and brain
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psychopharmacology
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the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders
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antipsychotic drugs
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drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior
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antianxiety drugs
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drugs used to treat and calm anxiety reactions, typically minor tranquilizers
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antidepressant drugs
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drugs used to treat depression and anxiety
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electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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form of biomedical therapy to treat severe depression in which electrodes are palced on either one or both sides of a person’s head and an electric current is passed through the electrodes that is tstrong enough to cause a seizure or convulsion
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psychosurgery
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surgery performed on brain tissue to releive or control severe psychological disorders
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prefrontal labotomy
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psychosurgery in which the connections of the prefrontal lobes of teh brain to the rear protions are severed
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bilateral anterior cingulotomy
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psychosurgical technique in which an electrode wire is inserted into the anterior cingulate gyrus with the guidance of a magnetic resonance imagin machine for the purpose of destroying that area of brain tissue with an electric current

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