Psychology Ch. 3

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consciousness
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the combination of a person’s subjective experience of the external world and the person’s mental activity; this combination results from brain activity
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subliminal perception
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the processing of information by sensory systems without a person’s conscious awareness
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global workspace model
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consciousness is a product of activity in specific brain regions. the main idea of this model is that no single area of the brain is responsible for general “awareness”
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split brain
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a condition in which the corpus callosum is surgically cut, and the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive information directly from each other.
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circadian rhythms
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the regulation of biological cycles into regular, daily patterns.
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melatonin
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a hormone released in the brain that aids the regulation of circadian rhythms, as bright light reduces production and darkness increases production
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beta waves
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type of wave that show “alert wakefulness” and REM sleep
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alpha waves
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type of wave that show you are about to just fall asleep
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theta waves
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these waves appear in stage 1 of sleep
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K-complex
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these waves appear in stage 2 of sleep
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delta waves
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these waves appear in slow-wave sleep (stage 3/4)
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Stage 1
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stage when sleepers drift off, shown on the EEG as theta waves
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stage 2
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stage where breathing becomes more regular, and sleepers become less sensitive to external stimulation. the EEG shows burst of brain activity called K-Complexes
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slow-wave sleep
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stage 3/4 of deep sleep, when EEG reveal large, regular delta waves and sleepers are hard to awaken.
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REM sleep
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EEGs show beta wave activity associated with an awake, alert mind, and sleepers experience rapid eye movements, dreaming, and paralysis of motor systems.
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5
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about how many times during the night do we cycle through the seep stages
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dream
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products of consciousness during sleep in which a person confuses images and fantasies with reality
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REM dreams
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dreams that are more likely to be bizarre, more intense emotions and hallucinations.
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Non-REM dreams
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dreams that feel normal, like everyday life
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manifest content
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way visual information is seen in the dream and remembered by the dreamer
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latent content
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the meaning behind what is being visually manifested
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activation-synthesis theory
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dreams are the result of the brain’s attempts to make sense of random brain activity by synthesizing the activity with store memories
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restorative theory
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sleep allows the body, including the brain to rest and repair itself
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cirdadian rhythm theory
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sleep is evolved to preserve animals including humans, from harm
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consolidation theory
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circuits wired together during the waking period are consolidated, or strengthened, during sleep
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sleep deprivation
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most studies find that two or three days of little sleep have little effect on strength, athletic ability, or the performance of complex tasks
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decrease cognitive performance hunger signals
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sleep deprivation can cause … (2)
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insomnia
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a disorder characterized by an inability to sleep. more common in women and older adults
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sleep apnea
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a sleep disorder in which the throat closes and breathing stops; results in frequent awakenings during the night
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narcolepsy
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a sleep disorder in which a person experiences excessive sleepiness during normal waking hours, sometimes going limp and collapsing
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REM behavior disorder
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this disorder causes people to act out their dreams while sleeping
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sleepwalking
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aka somnambulism, is relatively common and occurs during slow-wave sleep, typically within the first hour or two of sleep
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altered state of consciousness
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occurs when the external world seems much more or less clear to us than usual, and when our thoughts are much more or less organized than usual.
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hypnosis
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a social interaction during which a person, responding to suggestion, experiences changes in memory, perception, and/or voluntary action
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hypnotic analgesia
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this type of hypnosis may work by changing the client’s interpretation of pain rather than by diminishing pain
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psychoactive drugs
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mind-altering substances that change the brain’s neurochemistry by activating neurotransmitter systems
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stimulants
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psychoactive drugs that increase both mental processes and physical activity
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cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine
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type of drugs that act as stimulants
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hallucinogenics
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psychoactive drugs that affect perceptual experiences and evoke sensory images even without sensory input
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MDMA (ecstasy), marjuana
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types of hallucinogenics
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depressants
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psychoactive drugs that decrease both mental processes and physical activity. ex. alcohol
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opiates
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another type of depressants that include heroin, morphine, and codeine
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addiction
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compulsive drug craving and use, despite the negative consequences of using the drug
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tolerance
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a physical effect of addiction that occurs when a person needs to take larger doses of a drug to experience its effects
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withdrawal
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a physical and psychological effect of addiction that occurs when a person experiences anxiety, tension, and cravings after discontinuing use of an addictive drug

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