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Psychological disorders (Chapter 6 book & online)

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Anxiety disorders affect about ____ of the population at some point in their lives. a. 3% b. 11% c. 28% d. 46%
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c.
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____ is a chronic sensation without being clearly associated with any specific stimulus. a. fear b. anxiety c. specific phobia d. astonishment
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b.
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A panic attack progresses to a peak within ____. a. 10 minutes b. 30 minutes c. 1 hour d. 6 hours
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a.
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As part of the criteria for panic disorder, at least one of the panic attacks has been followed by ____ of persistent concern about having additional attacks and a significant change in behavior related to the attacks. a. 1 month b. 3 months c. 6 months d. 12 months
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a.
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Panic disorder affects up to ____ of the population at some point in life. a. 35% b. 20% c. 15% d. 5%
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d.
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The term ____ is defined as related to internal, physiological stimuli, while the term ____ is defined as related to external, environmental stimuli. a. interoceptive, exteroceptive b. interoceptive, exteraceptive c. exteroceptive, interoceptive d. exteroceptive, interaceptive
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a.
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As treatment for panic disorder, ____ may produce dependence; and most patients experience a relapse when medications are discontinued. a. antidepressants b. benzodiazepines c. phenothiazines d. beta blockers
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b.
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____ therapies for panic disorder appear to be more effective and less subject to relapse. a. pharmacological b. psychodynamic c. psychosurgical d. cognitive-behavioral
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d.
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Fear of strangers is known as ____. a. monophobia b. acrophobia c. xenophobia d. zoophobia
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c.
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A nearby constant state of worry and concern characterizes ____. a. agoraphobia b. social anxiety disorder c. specific phobia d. generalized anxiety disorder
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d.
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Grace checks her appearance in the mirror over 40 times a day to make sure no hairs are out of place, her make-up is flawless, and her earrings have not moved. She brushes her hair for exactly 10 minutes on each side and has to count while brushing. If she loses count, she must start all over again. Grace probably suffers from ____. a. social phobia b. specific phobia c. body dysmorphic disorder d. obsessive-compulsive disorder
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d.
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The most effective intervention for obsessive-compulsive disorder appear to be ____. a. exposure and response prevention b. relaxation training c. interpersonal group therapy d. habit reversal therapy
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a.
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder, if untreated, usually follows a(n) ____ course with symptoms ____ during periods of stress. a. acute; worsening b. acute; maintaining the same degree c. chronic; worsening d. chronic; maintaining the same degree
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c.
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Excoriation disorder involves ____. a. hair pulling b. skin picking c. hoarding d. none of the above
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b.
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Habit reversal therapy involves all EXCEPT which of the following? a. systematic desensitization b. self-monitoring c. awareness of high-risk situations d. engagement in incompatible activities
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a.
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All of the following are examples of exteroceptive stimuli, EXCEPT ______. a. having an increased heart rate b. seeing a snake c. hearing tires screeching d. smelling something toxic
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a.
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According to Charles Darwin, what often precedes fear? a. knowledge b. astonishment c. anger d. surprise
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b.
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______ are not usually used to infer the existence of fear or other emotions. a. Physiological responses b. Reports of subjective experiences c. Humanistically-based cognitions d. Behavioral manifestations
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c.
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______ an example of an acute fear response that is largely parasympathetic. a. An irregular heartbeat is b. Pupil dilation is c. Sweaty palms are d. Fainting is
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d.
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All of the following are anxiety disorders, EXCEPT ____. a. panic disorder b. agoraphobia c. selective mutism d. dissociative amnesia disorder
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d.
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The occurrence of ____ is part of the basis for DSM-5 anxiety disorder classifications. a. panic attacks b. social withdrawal c. dissociation d. delusions
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a.
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All of the following are anxiety disorders recognized in the DSM-5, EXCEPT ____. a. agoraphobia b. social anxiety disorder c. body dysmorphic disorder d. selective mutism
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c.
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Which kind of panic attacks are most likely to lead to persistent fear of having another panic attack? a. panic attacks that are unexpected b. short panic attacks c. long panic attacks d. panic attacks brought on by a specific stimulus
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a.
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Which of the following is most true about the reliability of anxiety disorder diagnoses, according to DSM-5 field trials? a. anxiety disorder diagnoses have fair to good reliability b. anxiety disorder diagnoses have good to excellent reliability c. anxiety disorder diagnoses have excellent reliability d. none of the above (it was not tested)
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d.
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Someone exhibiting excessive anxiety surrounding parting from home or a caregiver likely has an anxiety disorder known as ______. a. selective mutism b. separation anxiety disorder c. agoraphobia d. generalized anxiety disorder
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b.
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______ is an anxiety disorder associated with recurring, unanticipated panic attacks and anxiety about the possibility of future attacks. a. generalized anxiety disorder b. panic disorder c. OCD d. a specific phobia
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b.
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All of the following are criteria for panic disorder, according to the DSM-5, EXCEPT ____. a. an underlying medical condition that could explain the attacks b. recurrent, unexpected panic attacks c. significant behavioral changes associated with panic attacks d. worrying about the consequences of future attacks
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a.
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Which of the following is most true of panic disorders in men? a. they occur more often in white men than black men b. they occur more often among rural men than urban men c. they occur more often among homosexuals and bisexuals than among heterosexuals d. they occur more often in rich men than poor men
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c.
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The biological model would point to ____ as a potential cause for panic disorder. a. a misinterpretation of physiological sensations b. conditioning c. the id overwhelming the ego d. low GABA activity
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d.
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Which of the following refers to something associated with external, environmental stimuli? a. helioceptive b. exteroceptive c. bioceptive d. interoceptive
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b.
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Which of the following enhance GABA (and reduce symptoms of anxiety and panic)? a. benzodiazepines b. MAO-Is c. tricyclics d. lithium salts
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a.
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Which of the following is most true about therapies for panic disorder? a. Psychodynamic therapies are more effective (and show fewer relapses) than pharmacological methods. b. Pharmacological therapies are more effective (and show fewer relapses) than CBT methods. c. Psychodynamic therapies are more effective (and show fewer relapses) than CBT methods. d. CBT methods are more effective (and show fewer relapses) than pharmacological therapies.
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d.
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Which of the following involves anxiety about being unable to escape from a location, should a panic attack occur? a. ailurophobia b. parasthesias c. agoraphobia d. PTSD
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c.
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All of the following situations are listed within the criteria for a diagnosis of agoraphobia EXCEPT ______. a. standing in line b. experiencing a panic attack c. using public transport d. being in an open space
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b.
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In which version of the DSM was agoraphobia given free-standing diagnosis status? a. the DSM-5 b. the DSM-II c. the DSM-III d. the DSM-IV-TR
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a.
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In adolescents and adults, the 12-month prevalence rate for agoraphobia is approximately ______. a. 0.052 b. 0.033 c. 0.06 d. 0.017
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d.
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Which of the following is characterized by an intense and persistent fear that is triggered by a specific object or situation? a. PTSD b. specific phobia c. agoraphobia d. panic disorder
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b.
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Specific phobia is only diagnosed when ____. a. it interferes significantly with the person’s life or causes significant distress, and has lasted for a minimum of 6 months b. anxiety occurs without the presence of the triggering stimulus c. there are also compulsions that are recurring and cause distress d. anxiety over being in a situation where escape would be difficult is also present
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a.
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“Animal type,” “blood-injection-injury type,” and “situational type” are examples of subcategories of which disorder (according to the DSM-5)? a. PTSD b. OCD c. specific phobia d. panic disorder
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c.
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What is the lifetime prevalence rate of phobias? a. 0.05 b. 0.08 c. 0.32 d. 0.12
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d.
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Which of the following theories relates to the acquisition of specific phobias through classical conditioning, and maintenance of the phobia through operant conditioning? a. two-factor theory b. US-UR theory c. reaction-formation theory d. displacement theory
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a.
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Two-factor theory suggests that specific phobias are acquired through ______. a. repeated pairings of an unconditioned stimulus with an unconditioned response b. repeated pairings of a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus c. negative reinforcement d. positive reinforcement
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b.
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______ is a form of therapy in which the individual maintains a relaxed state while the therapist slowly introduces stimuli that provoke increasing amounts of fear. a. psychoanalysis b. biomedical therapy c. CBT d. systematic desensitization
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d.
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The DSM-5 categorizes shyness and social anxiety (of enough severity to interfere with professional, academic, and personal functioning for at least 6 months) as ______. a. generalized anxiety disorder b. panic disorder c. social anxiety disorder d. ASD
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c.
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Social anxiety disorder has a 12-month prevalence rate of ______ according to the DSM-5. a. 0.17 b. 0.07 c. 0.12 d. 0.2
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b.
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The 12-month prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder is approximately ______ of the population. a. 0.03 b. 0.11 c. 0.09 d. 0.003
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a.
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Which of the following best describes a psychodynamic explanation of generalized anxiety disorder? a. Hypervigilance regarding threatening cues (both intero- and exteroceptive) can increase one’s vulnerability to this disorder. b. An inhibition of limbic and prefrontal pathways (usually mediated by GABA) is deficient in those with this disorder. c. When unconscious conflict overwhelms the ego defenses with unacceptable impulses, it can produce a widespread overt anxiety reaction resulting in this disorder. d. When intero- and exteroceptive stimuli are predictive of anxious feelings, widespread anxiety can become a conditioned response, causing this disorder.
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c.
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A child or adolescent who experiences severe fear or anxiety centered on being parted from home or a caregiver (when such fear is not age appropriate) likely has ______. a. Asperger’s b. reactive attachment disorder c. oppositional defiant disorder d. separation anxiety disorder
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d.
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Which of the following can serve as a strong predictor for future mental health problems (especially panic disorder, and major depressive disorder)? a. separation anxiety disorder b. selective mutism c. trichotillomania d. DID
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a.
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______ is a disorder in which an individual exhibits a persistent failure to speak when speaking is expected (such as socially or academically). a. disorder of verbal expression b. selective mutism c. stuttering d. language disorder
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b.
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Which of the following are actions that one feels compelled to perform, that are difficult to control or stop. a. compulsions b. obsessions c. delusions d. operants
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a.
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All of the following are included in the DSM-5 as obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, EXCEPT ______. a. OCD b. hoarding c. body dysmorphic disorder d. agoraphobia
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d.
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All of the following are obsessions often seen in OCD, EXCEPT______. a. contamination b. repeated doubts c. ritualized counting d. forbidden urges
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c.
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Which of the following is most true of gender differences in OCD? a. the disorder is more common in men than women, in cases of adult onset b. the disorder is more common in men than women in the U.S. c. the disorder is always more common in men than women d. the disorder is always more common in men than women, in cases of childhood onset
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d.
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Which of the following is most true of PET scans of the brains of those with OCD? a. They have higher levels of left orbital frontal cortex activity than those without OCD. b. They have higher levels of right temporal cortex activity than those without OCD. c. They have higher levels of right orbital frontal cortex activity than those without OCD. d. They have higher levels of left temporal cortex activity than those without OCD.
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a.
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The most common treatment for OCD is ____. a. the severance of nerve fibers (a procedure known as cingulotomy) b. antidepressant medication, especially the SSRIs c. anti-anxiety medication, especially Xanax d. therapy, especially psychodynamic dream analysis
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b.
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Which of the following is a disorder characterized by preoccupation with a perceived defect in physical appearance? a. body dysmorphic disorder b. undifferentiated somatoform disorder c. trichotillomania d. DID
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a.
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All of the following are known to co-occur with body dysmorphic disorder, EXCEPT ______. a. social anxiety disorder b. depression c. paranoid personality disorder d. OCD
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c.
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Muscle dysmorphia occurs almost exclusively among ______. a. men b. pre-adolescents c. those with narcissistic personality disorder d. women
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a.
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Which of the following is most true of hoarding? a. its severity tends to remain constant over time b. its severity can fluctuate significantly c. its severity tends to decrease over time d. its severity tends to increase over time
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d.
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Trichotillomania is most effectively treated using ____. a. clomipramine b. habit-reversal therapy c. conjoint family therapy d. SSRIs
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b.
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Which area of the body is typically the focus of excoriation disorder? a. the head and face b. body hair c. the torso d. the extremities
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a.
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True or False? Humans are born with the innate capacity to experience fear.
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True
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True or False? The fear response is a highly learnable response that can become associated with almost any situation or stimulus.
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True
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True or False? Panic attacks are relatively frequent in children as compared to adults.
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False
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True or False? Psychodynamic models of panic disorder emphasize internal conflicts as critical to the development of panic disorder.
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True
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True or False? In the DSM-IV, agoraphobia was not a separate diagnosis in the anxiety disorders.
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True
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True or False? There is an innate preparedness to become fearful of certain stimuli because of our evolutionary past.
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True
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True or False? Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by a nearly constant state of worry and apprehension about a wide variety of events or activities.
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True
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True or False? Obsessions are actions that one is compelled to perform.
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False
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True or False? People with body dysmorphic disorder are preoccupied with what they consider a defect in their appearance.
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True
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True or False? People with trichotillomania pull out their hair and show noticeable hair loss as a result.
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True
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Marked fear or anxiety about a specific object or situation.
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Specific phobia
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What are four common phobias?
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1. animals 2. heights 3. confinement 4. injury and/or blood
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What is the point prevalence of a specific phobia?
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10%
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What is the lifetime prevalence of specific phobia?
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approximately 14% (6-23%)
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Do people with specific phobias seek treatment?
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rarely
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Is there a genetic predisposition to specific phobias.
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some
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What is the estimated lifetime prevalence of animals phobias? blood/injury phobias? situational phobias?
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animals: 11% blood/injury: 3-6% situational: 12%
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There is a higher concordance of specific phobias between ____ than ____ twins.
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MZ; DZ
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What are two treatments for specific phobias?
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1. exposure 2. systematic desensitization
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Fear of social or performance situations, subject to evaluation by others, fear that you will embarrass or humiliate your.
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Social anxiety disorder (social phobia)
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What is the 12 month prevalence of social anxiety disorder? What is the ratio for female to male
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As high as 8% Female to male: 3 to 2
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Is there evidence of a genetic component in social anxiety disorder?
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No
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GABA is a(n) ____ neurotransmitter.
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inhibitory
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Social anxiety disorder is ____-____ in action- GABA functioning.
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diathesis-stress
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Discrete period of intense fear or discomfort not tied to a phobic stimuli.
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Panic attack
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Recurrent, unexpected panic attacks.
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Panic disorder
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To be considered to have panic disorder, you must have ____ month(s) or more of persistent concern about additional attacks or worries about consequences of attacks and significant maladaptive changes in behavior or functioning.
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1
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Marked, or intense, fear or anxiety triggered by the real or anticipated exposure to a wide range of situations: public transportation, being in open spaces, being in enclosed spaces, standing in line or being in a crowd, or being outside of home alone. Believe that escape might be difficult or help might be unavailable when panic-like symptoms occur.
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Agoraphobia
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Agoraphobia includes persistent symptoms typically lasting ____ month(s).
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6
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About ____% of the population has panic attacks.
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1.6
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About ____% of the population has agoraphobia.
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4
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What is the point prevalence of panic disorder? lifetime prevalence?
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Point: 0.5-2.3% Lifetime: 5%
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____% of people with panic disorder and/or agoraphobia have a comorbid depressive disorder.
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24
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____% of relative of people who have panic disorder and agoraphobia also have panic disorder. ____% of relatives of social phobics.
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9.3; 1.3
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There is higher ____ concordance with panic disorder and agoraphobia.
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MZ
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Excessive or unrealistic anxiety and worry, more worrying days than good days, worry is a central theme.
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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
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GAD: ____ month(s) more more of symptoms.
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6
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GAD had ____ diagnostic reliability.
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poor
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GAD is ____ ____ distinguished from other anxiety disorder.
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not easily
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Many depressed people also meet ____ criteria.
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GAD
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____% of GAD cases had another disorder.
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90
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NCS found that ____% of people with GAD have a comorbid disorder.
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65
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Is GAD common in the general population?
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Yes
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Do people with GAD seek treatment?
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rarely
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What is the female/male ratio of GAD? lifetime and point prevalence?
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Female to male: 2 to 1 Point: 1.6% Lifetime: 5%
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Early studies of GAD say there is ____ evidence of genetic component. Heritability now estimated at about ____%- shared with major depression.
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no; 30
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Recurrent obsessions or compulsions that cause marked distress and take more than 1 hour a day to complete.
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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
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Repetitive, recurring thoughts, ideas, images, or impulses experienced as intrusive.
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Obsessions.
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Repetitive, purposeful behaviors, performed rigidly, according to certain rules.
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Compulsions.
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What is the scale for insight in OCD?
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1: good or fair 2: poor 3: absent insight/delusional beliefs
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Although once thought very rare (about 0.5%), what is the prevalence of OCD in a year?
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2%
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What is the lifetime prevalence of OCD?
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2.5%
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____% of people with OCD have both obsessions and compulsions.
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80
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____% of people with OCD also meet the criteria for major depressive disorder.
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75
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____-____% of depressed people have obsessions.
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10-35
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Does OCD seem to have a genetic component?
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Yes
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What is a good treatment for OCD?
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Exposure and response prevention
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Is there much long-term research on trauma/stress and anxiety disorder treatment?
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No
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What are good treatments for OCD and agoraphobic patients?
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Behavioral treatments
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What is a good therapy for social phobia?
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Group therapy
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What are pharmacological treatments for OCD? Panic disorder? GAD?
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OCD: anafranil, luvox Panic disorder: SSRIs/tofranil GAD: benzodiazepines/buspar/SSRIs
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What are the most common disorders of DSM-5 diagnoses? What is their lifetime prevalence rate?
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Anxiety disorders; over 28%
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Charles Darwin: fear is often preceded by ____.
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astonishment
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How are three ways that we know when we are fearful?
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1. reports of subjective experiences of apprehensions 2. behavioral manifestations 3. measurable physiological responses (these reflect the activation of the sympathetic system) (some- e..g., diarrhea and frequent urination- are due to parasympathetic nervous system)
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Loss of consciousness, slowing of heart rate, and drop in blood pressure often associated with acute fear states (parasympathetic)
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Fainting
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A sense of dread, terror, or fright
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Fear
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A sense of worry, concern, or apprehension
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Anxiety
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Rapidly developing sense of intense fear and anxiety, peaks within 10 minutes
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Panic attack
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What is the 12-month prevalence of panic attacks in adults? Female/male ratio?
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1 in 9; 2 to 1
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In panic disorder, up to ____ of sufferers experience nocturnal panic attacks.
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1/3
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Prevalence of panic disorder is higher in ____/____ men than ____ men.
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homosexual/bisexual; heterosexual
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There is an increased risk of panic disorder for who?
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Smokers and those with respiratory disturbances (e.g., asthma)
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Relating to internal, physiological stimuli.
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Interoceptive
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Relating to external, environment stimuli.
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Exteroceptive
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A persistent pattern of drug use involving either tolerance, withdrawal, or inability to cut down dosage.
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Dependence
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Re-occurrence of symptoms after a period of improvement.
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Relapse
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What are two medications for panic disorder that causes dependence and relapse?
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1. diazepam (valium) 2. alprazolam (xanas)
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What is a medication used for panic disorder that doesn’t cause dependence, but they don’t work quick?
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SSRIs
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Is childhood onset in agoraphobia common or rare?
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Rare
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What may be associated with the onset of agoraphobia?
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Stressful events
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What are two treatments for agoraphobia?
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1. SSRI antidepressants 2. CBT
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Theory that both Pavlovian and operant influences maintain phobic behavior.
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Two-factor theory
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Biologically-based tendency to form associations between certain stimuli more readily than others.
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Preparedness
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Conditioning based on observing the responses of other people.
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Vicarious conditioning
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What are two treatments for specific phobias?
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1. exposure 2. systematic desensitization
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Exposure to the actual feared stimulus, rather than an imagined or symbolic stimulus.
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In vivo exposure
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In generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), how well do treatments do at curing symptoms?
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Treatments rarely result in total symptom remission.
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CBT is less effective for ____ than for ____ ____.
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GAD; panic disorder
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In separation anxiety disorder, disturbance must last at least ____ week(s) in children, and ____ month(s) or more in adults.
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4; 6
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What is the prevalence of separation anxiety disorder in children?
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4%
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Is separation anxiety disorder more common in males or females?
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Females
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Failure to speak in situations where speaking is expected but the individual does speak in other situations.
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Selective mutism
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When is the onset of selective mutism, usually? Are more males or females affected?
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Usually before age 5; females
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What is the incidence of selective mutism?
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Less than 1% of the population
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What are two treatments for selective mutism?
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1. antidepressants 2. behavioral interventions
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Panic attacks or anxiety, developing soon after intoxication, withdrawal, or exposure to a substance that is capable of producing the anxiety.
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Substance/medication-induced anxiety disorder.
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Intrusive thoughts that are difficult to stop or control.
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Obsessions
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Actions that one feels compelled to perform.
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Compulsions
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If untreated, OCD usually follows a ____ course with symptoms ____ during periods of stress.
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chronic; worsening
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Risk of OCD is increased in children who have been subject to ____ ____.
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traumatic events
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What are three treatments for OCD?
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1. antidepressant medications (especially SSRIs) 2. Cingulotomy 3. Exposure and response prevention (ERP)
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Psychosurgical technique that severs fibers connection the anterior cingulate cortex to the frontal lobes.
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Cingulotomy
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Prolonged exposure to fear- or anxiety- producing stimulus or situation while escape, or the compulsive act, is prevented.
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Exposure and response prevention (ERP)
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What is the point prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adults?
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2.4%
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What are three treatments for BDD?
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1. SSRIs 2. CBT 3. response prevention
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What is the prevalence of hoarding disorder?
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5.8%
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What is a treatment for hoarding disorder?
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ERP
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Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) is much more likely to be diagnosed in ____ than ____.
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females; males
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What is the 12-month prevalence in U.S. in females of trichotillomania? What is the female to male ratio?
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1-2%; 10:1
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Therapy that involves awareness training and engagement in a response that is incompatible with the compulsion.
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Habit reversal therapy (HRT)
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What are two treatments for trichotillomania?
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1. Clomipramine (a tricyclic antidepressant) 2. Habit reversal therapy
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Excoriation (skin-picking disorder) first appears in ____ and often involves areas such as the ____ and ____.
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adolescence; head; face
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What is the incidence of excoriation?
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as high as 5%
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What is the lifetime prevalence of excoriation in adults? What is the female to male ratio?
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1.4%; 3:1
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What is a treatment for excoriation?
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HRT