Psych Quiz 1

Which of the following groups is MOST likely to have been used as subjects for psychological research?

A variety of individuals
B. Lower-class males
C. Lower-class males and females
D. Middle- and upper-class white males

D. Middle- and upper-class white males
Which field of psychology studies attitude change and group behavior?

A. Psychoanalysis
B. Social psychology
C. Developmental psychology
D. Psychometrics

B. Social psychology
A psychologist whose primary goal is to help people reach their potential MOST likely follows the principles of

A. humanism.
B. structuralism.
C. behaviorism.
D. psychoanalysis.

A. humanism.
A multifactorial approach to explaining your performance in a course would MOST likely focus on

A. personal factors more than situational factors.
B. the relationship between you and your professor.
C. both personal and situational factors.
D. situational factors more than personal factors.

C. both personal and situational factors.
Dr Hawkins is a psychologist who spends her day working in an elementary school testing and counseling children who are having difficulty in school. What type of applied psychologist is Dr. Hawkins?

A. An educational psychologist
B. An industrial psychologist
C. A counseling psychologist
D. A school psychologist

D. A school psychologist
When Watson proposed that psychology should only study observable behaviors and not consciousness, he was emphasizing the unifying theme that

When Watson proposed that psychology should only study observable behaviors and not consciousness, he was emphasizing the unifying theme that

A. psychology should use theories.
B. psychology should be empirical.
C. behavior is influenced by multiple causes.
D. people’s experience of the world is highly subjective.

B. psychology should be empirical.
According to the definition of psychology that appears in your textbook, psychology is both

A. a science and a profession.
B. a cognitive process and an undergraduate major.
C. a school of thought and an occupation.
D. a theory and an academic discipline.

A. a science and a profession.
If Dr. Maple is a behaviorist, he would MOST likely believe that the cause of a child’s disruptive behavior in school is the result of

A. a combination of his genetic inheritance and his prior experiences.
B. his genetic inheritance.
C. a learning disability.
D. his prior experiences.

D. his prior experiences.
Based on Harold Kelley’s research, if you are led to believe that you are going to hear a lecture given by a warm and friendly instructor, you

A. will probably not be affected much by this expectation unless the instructor is, in fact, warm and friendly.
B. will probably not be affected unless you are allowed to compare the instructor to one who is cold.
C. will probably perceive the instructor as being warm and friendly.
D. may perceive the instructor as warm and friendly, but only if the lecture topic is interesting to you.

C. will probably perceive the instructor as being warm and friendly.
In criticizing the structuralists’ reliance on the method of introspection, William James argued that two people could view the same stimulus quite differently. James’s argument illustrates which of the textbook’s unifying themes?

A. Psychology is empirical.
B. Our experience of the world is highly subjective.
C. Heredity and environment jointly influence behavior.
D. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.

B. Our experience of the world is highly subjective.
Lynelle is crying because her brother just punched her in the arm. Lynelle’s mother asks her what she did just before she was punched. In looking for a link between her daughter’s actions and her son’s response to those actions, Lynelle’s mother is using the type of analysis that would be typical in

A. the structuralist approach to the study of psychology.
B. the behaviorist approach to the study of psychology.
C. the functionalist approach to the study of psychology.
D. the psychoanalytic approach to the study of psychology.

B. the behaviorist approach to the study of psychology.
Ramon is a graduate student whose major area of interest is cognitive psychology. You should expect that Ramon is MOST interested in

A. the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior.
B. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
C. how people relate to each other and influence each other.
D. understanding mental processes such as memory and learning.

D. understanding mental processes such as memory and learning.
Jane’s thyroid gland has become inactive and, as a result, she is becoming lethargic and has gained weight. We know that the thyroid gland can cause this reaction because of studies conducted by

A. clinical psychologists.
B. medical psychologists.
C. experimental psychologists.
D. physiological psychologists.

D. physiological psychologists.
A psychologist who works on trying to increase job satisfaction and productivity in a large company would MOST likely have received training in

A. educational and school psychology.
B. counseling psychology.
C. industrial and organizational psychology.
D. clinical psychology.

C. industrial and organizational psychology.
Dr. Escher believes that individuals may inherit a predisposition for some psychological disorders, but that the disorders will not actually develop unless there is some stressful event that acts as a trigger. Dr. Escher’s views reflect the underlying theme that

A. our cultural backgrounds exert a considerable influence over our behavior.
B. motives and expectations can color our experiences.
C. genetic factors and experience interact to shape behavior.
D. theoretical diversity is an important component in science.

C. genetic factors and experience interact to shape behavior.
That people sometimes see what they either “want to see” or “expect to see” BEST reflects the text’s unifying theme that

A. people’s experience of the world is highly subjective.
B. heredity and environment jointly influence behavior.
C. people’s experience of the world is empirical.
D. behavior is shaped by cultural heritage.

A. people’s experience of the world is highly subjective.
Dr. Smythe believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as taste, it is necessary to understand the purpose that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations. Dr. Smythe’s views are MOST consistent with

A. the functionalist approach to psychology.
B. the psychoanalytic approach to psychology.
C. the structuralist approach to psychology.
D. the behaviorist approach to psychology.

A. the functionalist approach to psychology.
The ____ believed that consciousness developed in humans because it serves a useful purpose.

A. functionalists
B. humanists
C. behaviorists
D. structuralists

A. functionalists
In the 1950s, Skinner argued that psychology should return to a strict interpretation of the principles of

A. humanism.
B. psychoanalysis.
C. functionalism.
D. behaviorism.

D. behaviorism.
With which of the following individuals is B. F. Skinner MOST in agreement on the issue of internal mental events?

A. Abraham Maslow
B. John Watson
C. Wilhelm Wundt
D. Sigmund Freud

B. John Watson
Which of the following did NOT have a significant influence on the development of Freud’s theory?

A. Knowledge gained from his examination of his own anxieties, conflicts, and desires
B. Knowledge gained as a result of working with patients
C. The results of his experimental research
D. His observation of the slips of the tongue people tend to make

C. The results of his experimental research
Which of the following explanations is MOST likely to be used by an evolutionary psychologist to explain gender differences in spatial abilities?

A. The principles of natural selection tend to operate differently in males and females.
B. When they are young, males are more likely than females to be encouraged to engage in spatially-oriented activities.
C. Through evolution, males were classically conditioned to develop certain kinds of spatial abilities.
D. Division of labor between the sexes in hunting and gathering societies created different adaptive pressures for males and females.

D. Division of labor between the sexes in hunting and gathering societies created different adaptive pressures for males and females.
Structuralism is the historical school of psychology that asserted that the purpose of psychology was to

A. examine the purposes of conscious processes.
B. discover the smaller elements that comprise consciousness.
C. explore the unconscious.
D. study behavior.

B. discover the smaller elements that comprise consciousness.
The results from a recent study suggest that the cognitive perspective surpassed the behavioral perspective in influence sometime around

A. 1920.
B. 1990.
C. 1970.
D. 1950.

C. 1970.
The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behavior is MOST consistent with the views of

A. Sigmund Freud.
B. Carl Rogers.
C. Wilhelm Wundt.
D. B. F. Skinner.

A. Sigmund Freud.
Research has shown that the skills and attitudes involved in critical thinking

A. naturally develop during adolescence.
B. naturally develop during early adulthood.
C. need to be specifically taught to individuals.
D. only develop in individuals trained in scientific disciplines.

C. need to be specifically taught to individuals.
The civil rights movement and the women’s movement raised concerns about whether basic psychological principles could be applied to groups other than white males. Consequently, psychologists began to select samples of subjects that were more diverse for research studies. This change in practice illustrates the idea that

A. motives and expectations can color our experiences.
B. behavior is determined by multiple causes.
C. theoretical diversity is an important component in science.
D. science evolves in a sociohistorical context.

D. science evolves in a sociohistorical context.
Which of the following is a medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental disorders?

A. A clinical psychologist
B. A counseling psychologist
C. A physiological psychologist
D. A psychiatrist

D. A psychiatrist
Evolutionary psychologists would MOST likely explain females’ greater emphasis on potential mates’ economic resources by suggesting that it

A. increases females’ confidence about the maternity of their children.
B. allows them to acquire a greater variety of time-saving appliances.
C. supports their innate need for a large territory.
D. increases resources available for their children.

D. increases resources available for their children.
It should be easiest to teach a child to pick up his toys by utilizing the principles and techniques developed by

A. Wilhelm Wundt.
B. William James.
C. B. F. Skinner.
D. Abraham Maslow.

C. B. F. Skinner.
Skinner would suggest that if you study “extra hard” for your first psychology midterm and earn an “A,” for your next psychology midterm, you would

A. reduce your study time by approximately 50%.
B. continue to study “extra hard.”
C. devote all of your study time to your other courses.
D. reduce your study time by approximately 25%.

B. continue to study “extra hard.”
Which of the following psychologists demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the brain could evoke emotional responses such as pleasure and rage in animals?

A. James Olds
B. B. F. Skinner
C. Roger Sperry
D. Abraham Maslow

A. James Olds
The proportion of academic and research psychologists who identify their primary area of interest as health psychology is

A. just over 25%.
B. shrinking each year.
C. less than 3%.
D. approximately 10%.

D. approximately 10%.
Which of the following BEST characterizes people’s understanding of reality?

A. Highly objective
B. Genetically determined
C. A passive process
D. Highly subjective

D. Highly subjective
If you take a sip of a soft drink and concentrate on what you are experiencing (cold, bubbly, sweet, etc.), you would be utilizing the technique of

A. empiricism.
B. functionalism.
C. introspection.
D. behaviorism.

C. introspection.
An area of specialization in applied psychology that is primarily involved in the treatment of less severe problems of everyday life (such as marriage counseling) is

A. cognitive psychology.
B. social psychology.
C. counseling psychology.
D. clinical psychology.

C. counseling psychology.
In everyday life, people usually think of a behavior as having ____, whereas psychology views behavior as having ____.

A. multiple causes; a single cause
B. a subjective cause; an objective cause
C. a single cause; multiple causes
D. an objective cause; a subjective cause

C. a single cause; multiple causes
Critical thinking includes all of the following EXCEPT

A. generating multiple solutions to problems.
B. working systematically toward a desired goal.
C. originally believing that the stated position on a topic is incorrect.
D. using principles of likelihood when dealing with probabilistic events.

C. originally believing that the stated position on a topic is incorrect.
The individual MOST closely associated with the recent development of evolutionary psychology is

A. David Buss.
B. Alfred Binet.
C. James Olds.
D. Roger Sperry.

A. David Buss.
After World War II, many psychologists began to specialize in

A. clinical psychology.
B. research psychology.
C. industrial psychology.
D. experimental psychology.

A. clinical psychology.
The basic premise of evolutionary psychology is that natural selection favors behaviors that enhance organisms’ success in

A. passing on their genes to the next generation.
B. establishing a territory.
C. locating a source of food.
D. aggressive interactions with members of other species.

A. passing on their genes to the next generation.
The idea that you should reward yourself for achieving study goals is based on the concept of

A. empiricism.
B. genetic predisposition.
C. behavior modification.
D. unconscious motivation.

C. behavior modification.
Students are said to be “testwise” if they

A. have a knack for identifying “trick” questions.
B. are skilled at using clues contained within a test to improve their scores.
C. tend to score high on standardized tests.
D. are particularly knowledgeable about the subject matter being tested.

B. are skilled at using clues contained within a test to improve their scores.
The key to the effective use of highlighting is to

A. highlight only the main ideas, key supporting details, and technical terms.
B. limit highlighting to no more than 10% of the material from any textbook chapter.
C. skim first and then go back and highlight on a second, detailed reading of the material.
D. use different highlight colors for different core concepts.

A. highlight only the main ideas, key supporting details, and technical terms.
Research findings suggest that attentive note-taking is associated with

A. increased interest in class material.
B. improved learning and performance in class.
C. problems distinguishing important from unimportant information.
D. participation in class discussions.

B. improved learning and performance in class.
Which of the following areas of specialization in psychology is involved with the development of curricula and the training of teachers?

A. School psychology
B. Industrial/organizational psychology
C. Educational psychology
D. Experimental psychology

C. Educational psychology
A psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s that reflects a renewed interest in the study of the mind or consciousness that existed in psychology when it first became a science in the late 1800s is the

A. philosophical perspective.
B. cognitive perspective.
C. biological perspective.
D. mental perspective.

B. cognitive perspective.
Historically, most of psychology’s research has been conducted in

A. the United States.
B. Mexico.
C. China.
D. Japan.

A. the United States.
Which of the following groups of psychologists would be MOST likely to focus on individual uniqueness, freedom, and potential for growth as a person?

A. Humanists
B. Gestalt psychologists
C. Psychoanalysts
D. Behaviorists

A. Humanists
Marie is a graduate student whose major area of interest is personality psychology. You should expect that Marie is MOST interested in

A. the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior.
B. the ways in which behavior and mental processes change over a lifetime.
C. how people relate to each other and influence each other.
D. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.

D. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
Brooke is a graduate student whose major area of interest is in describing and understanding the consistency in people’s behavior. Which research is Brooke MOST likely to specialize in?

A. Social psychology
B. Physiological psychology
C. Cognitive psychology
D. Personality psychology

D. Personality psychology
Which of the following is MOST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist?

A. Factors that determine group cohesiveness
B. Play behavior in preschool children
C. Strategies used by college students to solve a particular problem
D. Whether or not a job incentive program is effective

C. Strategies used by college students to solve a particular problem
The fact that Princeton students “saw” Dartmouth students engage in twice as many infractions as the Dartmouth students did in a Princeton-Dartmouth football game is MOST consistent with

A. unconscious motivation.
B. reliance on empirical evidence.
C. subjectivity of perception.
D. multifactorial causation of behavior.

C. subjectivity of perception.
Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called

A. psychoanalysis.
B. rational-emotive therapy.
C. behavior modification.
D. primal therapy.

A. psychoanalysis.
Which of the following statements about the concept of cultural heritage is LEAST accurate?

A. We generally feel a need to discuss our cultural heritage with others.
B. Much of one’s cultural heritage is invisible.
C. It can be applied to small as well as to large groups.
D. It can influence educational success and physical health.

A. We generally feel a need to discuss our cultural heritage with others.
Pablo is a graduate student whose major area of interest is the measurement of behavior and capacities and the development of psychological tests. Which research is Pablo MOST likely to specialize in?

A. Psychometrics
B. Physiological psychology
C. Cognitive psychology
D. Social psychology

A. Psychometrics
A group of psychologists is conducting research to determine whether people eat more when they are in the presence of environmental stimuli that increase anxiety, such as loud noises or flashing lights. These scientists MOST likely follow

A. the functionalist perspective.
B. the behavioral perspective.
C. the psychodynamic perspective.
D. the humanistic perspective.

B. the behavioral perspective.
Which of the following is NOT listed in the textbook as an effective study technique?

A. Study in a place where distractions are minimal.
B. Set up a schedule for studying.
C. Concentrate your study time immediately before an exam.
D. Break major assignments down into smaller component tasks.

C. Concentrate your study time immediately before an exam.
Which of the following do behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory have in common?

A. The implication that people are not masters of their own destinies
B. An emphasis on the role sexuality in behavior
C. The notion that unconscious motives have a major influence on behavior
D. A resistance to the use of animal subjects in psychological research

A. The implication that people are not masters of their own destinies
Currently, the two largest areas of specialization in research-oriented psychology are

A. social and counseling.
B. developmental and social.
C. developmental and clinical.
D. clinical and counseling.

B. developmental and social.
According to research findings, which of the following is MOST likely to be associated with poor grades?

A. Overlearning the material
B. Being absent from class
C. Changing answers on a multiple-choice test
D. Rewarding yourself for studying

B. Being absent from class
One of the key changes that has occurred in psychology over time is that

A. psychology has become increasingly less applied in its focus.
B. psychologists have gone from being specialists to being generalists.
C. the number of clinicians is decreasing.
D. fewer psychologists now work in colleges and universities.

D. fewer psychologists now work in colleges and universities.
Psychology is based on systematic observation rather than pure reasoning or common sense. We can say, therefore, that psychology is

A. speculative.
B. rational.
C. empirical.
D. behavioral.

C. empirical.
John B. Watson argued that psychologists should

A. confine their work to people who are diagnosed as mentally ill.
B. abandon the study of consciousness.
C. use the method of introspection to establish the structural aspects of consciousness.
D. be concerned with the purposiveness (function) of behavior.

B. abandon the study of consciousness.
Wilhelm Wundt believed the focus of psychology should be

A. questioning the nature of existence.
B. studying stimulus-response associations.
C. determining people’s unconscious motivation for behavior.
D. examining people’s awareness of their immediate experience.

D. examining people’s awareness of their immediate experience.
Which of the following early psychologists would be MOST likely to endorse the tenets of evolutionary psychology?

A. William James
B. Sigmund Freud
C. John Watson
D. Wilhelm Wundt

A. William James
A scientist uses ____ to explain a set of observations.

A. a theory
B. empiricism
C. introspection
D. common sense

A. a theory
Christine is a psychologist who conducts research on the effects of reward on maze learning in rats. Christine would MOST likely be considered a

A. structuralist.
B. psychoanalyst.
C. behaviorist.
D. Gestalt psychologist.

C. behaviorist.
Which of the following would be LEAST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist?

A. How people reason to solve problems
B. How we remember things
C. The development of language
D. Shaping behavior by reinforcement

D. Shaping behavior by reinforcement
While Freud might explain an individual’s depression by focusing on the person’s unconscious thoughts, a physiological psychologist might focus instead on a chemical imbalance in the brain. This difference in explanations BEST illustrates the text’s unifying theme that

A. heredity and environment jointly influence behavior.
B. psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
C. psychology is empirical.
D. psychology is theoretically diverse.

D. psychology is theoretically diverse.
Quan Lee recently lost her job at American Industries Inc. because she would often show up for important meetings 20 to 30 minutes after they had started. She was confused about why this upset her boss because her relatives are almost always late for appointments and meetings. Quan Lee’s confusion illustrates the fact that

A. behavior is determined by multiple causes.
B. motives and expectations can color our experiences.
C. our cultural backgrounds exert a considerable influence over our behavior.
D. theoretical diversity is an important component in science.

C. our cultural backgrounds exert a considerable influence over our behavior.
The major organization that represents BOTH the scientific and professional branches of psychology in the United States is the

A. American Psychological Association.
B. American Medical Society.
C. American Psychological Society.
D. American Psychiatric Society.

A. American Psychological Association.
The widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations BEST describes a person’s

A. cultural heritage.
B. sociohistorical heritage.
C. legal heritage.
D. religious heritage.

A. cultural heritage.
Kenn is a psychologist who spends the majority of his time assessing or treating elderly people who are showing signs of dementia or who have experienced strokes. Ken would MOST likely describe the focus of his practice as

A. psychometrics.
B. forensic psychology.
C. clinical neuropsychology.
D. counseling psychology.

C. clinical neuropsychology.
The theoretical orientation that insisted on verifiability of observation was

A. structuralism.
B. psychoanalysis.
C. functionalism.
D. behaviorism.

D. behaviorism.
Which of the following contributed MOST to the development of applied psychology?

A. The increase in public awareness of the symptoms of psychological disorders
B. The high demand for mental testing of military recruits
C. The increase in the number of people earning advanced degrees in psychology
D. The advent of high-speed computers

B. The high demand for mental testing of military recruits
In conducting a research study, psychologists need to define all their variables clearly and unambiguously, so that other researchers can objectively evaluate the results of the research. This aspect of psychology illustrates the underlying theme that

A. behavior is determined by multiple causes.
B. psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
C. psychology is empirical.
D. our experience of the world is highly subjective.

C. psychology is empirical.
Skinner would agree with all the following statements EXCEPT:

A. organisms tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes.
B. organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes.
C. all behavior is governed by external consequences.
D. individuals have free will.

D. individuals have free will.
Which of the following statements about Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is MOST accurate?

A. Freud’s views exert a tremendous influence on developmental and abnormal psychology, but not on other areas of mainstream psychology.
B. Freud’s views exert a tremendous influence on other disciplines, but not on psychology.
C. Freud’s views have been largely abandoned and they exert relatively little, if any, influence on current mainstream psychology.
D. Freud’s views exert a tremendous influence on developmental and abnormal psychology, but not on other areas of mainstream psychology.

A. Freud’s views exert a tremendous influence on developmental and abnormal psychology, but not on other areas of mainstream psychology.
Empiricism means that knowledge should be acquired through

A. direct observation.
B. logical reasoning.
C. common sense.
D. historical tradition.

A. direct observation.
The area of psychological research that is MOST interested in the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness is

A. health psychology.
B. physiological psychology.
C. social psychology.
D. psychiatry.

A. health psychology.
Humanists believe that people’s behavior is governed by

A. their self-concepts.
B. unconscious sexual urges.
C. the outcomes of their responses.
D. biochemical processes.

A. their self-concepts.
Which of the following would be considered the major principle of operant conditioning?

A. The majority of human behavior is based on thoughts, feelings, and wishes of which we are unaware.
B. Humans and other animals tend to repeat responses followed by positive outcomes.
C. Human beings are fundamentally different from other animals.
D. Human behavior derives in part from free will; animal behavior is determined by the environment.

B. Humans and other animals tend to repeat responses followed by positive outcomes.
Which of the following statements about the influence of culture is LEAST accurate?

A. There is not much diversity in the behavior among members of the same culture.
B. There are both differences and similarities across cultures in behavior.
C. Our cultural heritage has a pervasive impact on our thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
D. The influence of culture is everywhere.

A. There is not much diversity in the behavior among members of the same culture.
One of the first areas of applied psychology to develop was

A. sports psychology.
B. personnel psychology.
C. counseling psychology.
D. mental testing.

D. mental testing.
Psychologists refer to the use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome as

A. empiricism.
B. skepticism.
C. scientific thinking.
D. critical thinking.

D. critical thinking.
When faced with a major assignment such as a term paper it is a good idea to

A. break the assignment down into smaller components.
B. postpone beginning the assignment until shortly before the due date in order to incorporate information from the instructor’s lectures into the project.
C. set aside a large block of time (for example, an entire weekend) to devote to the assignment.
D. start the assignment with a clear idea of your conclusion in mind.

A. break the assignment down into smaller components.
Wundt and Titchener believed that psychology should

A. analyze conscious experience into its basic elements.
B. focus on unconscious determinants of behavior.
C. study the function or purpose of consciousness.
D. only study observable behavior.

A. analyze conscious experience into its basic elements.
While functionalism emphasizes the adaptive purpose of ____, evolutionary psychology emphasizes the adaptive purpose of ____.

A. consciousness; behavior
B. physical structures of the body; behavior
C. consciousness; physical structures of the body
D. behavior; consciousness

A. consciousness; behavior
A newspaper article reported a study by a psychologist in which the attitudes of men and women toward traditional sex roles were studied. MOST likely, the researcher was

A. a social psychologist.
B. a cognitive psychologist.
C. a developmental psychologist.
D. a counseling psychologist.

A. a social psychologist.
The major event that influenced the development of psychology as a profession was

A. the Cold War of the 1950s.
B. World War I.
C. the Great Depression of the 1930s.
D. World War II.

D. World War II.
Janet trained her dog to sit on command by following this behavior with a reward of a dog biscuit and praise. Janet used the principles of

A. humanism.
B. functionalism.
C. behaviorism.
D. psychoanalysis.

C. behaviorism.
Which psychological approach is often referred to as stimulus-response (S-R) psychology?

A. Behaviorism
B. Evolutionary psychology
C. Psychoanalytic theory
D. Structuralism

A. Behaviorism
Not including clinical or counseling psychologists, the two most common specialties in applied psychology are

A. school psychology and forensic psychology.
B. forensic psychology and clinical neuropsychology.
C. industrial/organizational psychology and clinical neuropsychology.
D. school psychology and industrial/organizational psychology.

D. school psychology and industrial/organizational psychology.
The major departure of Freud’s position from prevailing viewpoints around the early 1900s was that he

A. proposed the existence of free will.
B. saw abnormal behavior as resulting from biological causes.
C. emphasized environmental forces on behavior.
D. saw people as not fully aware of the forces that control their behavior.

D. saw people as not fully aware of the forces that control their behavior.
The school of psychology that takes the most positive view of human nature is

A. humanism.
B. behaviorism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. functionalism.

A. humanism.
Watson defined psychology as

A. the scientific study of behavior.
B. the scientific study of conscious experience.
C. the scientific study of the brain.
D. the scientific study of the unconscious.

A. the scientific study of behavior.
Which of the following is the BEST advice for developing sound study habits?

A. Try to avoid interrupting your study time with breaks.
B. Tackle simple, routine tasks before taking on larger tasks.
C. Make yourself comfortable in your study area by having your favorite music playing.
D. Plan your study schedule in advance.

D. Plan your study schedule in advance.
A lawyer who wanted to have an expert witness testify at a hearing to determine whether or not his client was competent to stand trial would need to contact a psychologist whose specialty was

A. psychometrics.
B. social psychology.
C. clinical neuropsychology.
D. forensic psychology.

D. forensic psychology.
Which of the following is a recent movement in psychology that has revived the old interest in mental and conscious events?

A. Cognitive psychology
B. Psychoanalysis
C. Physiological psychology
D. Behavioral psychology

A. Cognitive psychology
The cognitive perspective contends that to fully understand human behavior, psychologists need to focus attention on

A. the interrelations among the mind, body, and behavior.
B. the role of the unconscious.
C. internal mental events.
D. the adaptive value of a behavior.

C. internal mental events
Roger and Lydia met for a blind date. Roger had been told by his best friend that Lydia was charismatic and vivacious. During their date Lydia was friendly, but she was also quite shy and didn’t initiate much of the conversation. Still, Roger thinks that Lydia is one of the most exciting people that he has met, and he can’t wait to see her again. Roger’s reaction to his date with Lydia shows that

A. cultural heritage has a large impact on behavior.
B. unconscious motivation has little impact on overt behavior.
C. people’s experience of the world is highly subjective.
D. behavior is determined by multiple causes.

C. people’s experience of the world is highly subjective.
Which of the following was LEAST likely to be the focus of study for the functionalists?

A. Sensation and perception
B. Mental testing
C. Development in children
D. The effectiveness of educational practices

A. Sensation and perception
The major departure of Freud’s position from prevailing viewpoints around the early 1900s was that he

A. saw people as not fully aware of the forces that control their behavior.
B. emphasized environmental forces on behavior.
C. saw abnormal behavior as resulting from biological causes.
D. proposed the existence of free will.

A. saw people as not fully aware of the forces that control their behavior.
Students are said to be “testwise” if they

A. are particularly knowledgeable about the subject matter being tested.
B. tend to score high on standardized tests.
C. have a knack for identifying “trick” questions.
D. are skilled at using clues contained within a test to improve their scores.

D. are skilled at using clues contained within a test to improve their scores.
Which of the following groups is MOST likely to have been used as subjects for psychological research?

A. A variety of individuals
B. Lower-class males and females
C. Lower-class males
D. Middle- and upper-class white males

D. Middle- and upper-class white males
Research findings suggest that attentive note-taking is associated with

A. problems distinguishing important from unimportant information.
B. improved learning and performance in class.
C. increased interest in class material.
D. participation in class discussions.

B. improved learning and performance in class.
Quan Lee recently lost her job at American Industries Inc. because she would often show up for important meetings 20 to 30 minutes after they had started. She was confused about why this upset her boss because her relatives are almost always late for appointments and meetings. Quan Lee’s confusion illustrates the fact that

A. theoretical diversity is an important component in science.
B. our cultural backgrounds exert a considerable influence over our behavior.
C. behavior is determined by multiple causes.
D. motives and expectations can color our experiences.

B. our cultural backgrounds exert a considerable influence over our behavior.
The psychologist who took the position that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes was

A. Sigmund Freud.
B. Abraham Maslow.
C. B. F. Skinner.
D. Carl Rogers.

C. B. F. Skinner.
Wilhelm Wundt believed the focus of psychology should be

A. examining people’s awareness of their immediate experience.
B. studying stimulus-response associations.
C. determining people’s unconscious motivation for behavior.
D. questioning the nature of existence.

A. examining people’s awareness of their immediate experience.
Dr. Rice believes that it is not possible to fully understand emotions unless we understand the purpose that the conscious experiences associated with emotions play in survival and adaptation. Dr. Rice’s views are MOST consistent with those of

A. William James.
B. Carl Rogers.
C. Edward Titchener.
D. Ivan Pavlov.

A. William James.
Professor Vasquez believes that nearly all psychological disorders can ultimately be traced to abnormalities in brain chemistry. Professor Vasquez’s beliefs are MOST consistent with the

A. humanistic perspective.
B. cognitive perspective.
C. biological perspective.
D. behavioral perspective.

C. biological perspective.
The proportion of academic and research psychologists who identify their primary area of interest as health psychology is

A. shrinking each year.
B. less than 3%.
C. approximately 10%.
D. just over 25%.

C. approximately 10%.
The major event that influenced the development of psychology as a profession was

A. the Cold War of the 1950s.
B. the Great Depression of the 1930s.
C. World War I.
D. World War II.

D. World War II.
Dr. Lopez is a psychologist who evaluates, diagnoses, and treats people with everyday problems of moderate severity. What type of psychologist is Dr. Lopez?

A. An educational psychologist
B. An industrial psychologist
C. A school psychologist
D. A counseling psychologist

D. A counseling psychologist
Sunlin prepared a meal for his new girlfriend, and she enjoyed it so much that she cleaned her plate. Later, she was surprised that he had found her behavior somewhat insulting; she thought she was showing her appreciation. In this case, the couple’s miscommunication illustrates the underlying theme that

A. heredity and environment jointly determine our behavior.
B. our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage.
C. our experience of the world is highly subjective.
D. behavior is determined by multiple causes.

B. our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage.
Margaret is an industrial psychologist who advises companies on how to improve worker morale. As a psychologist who attempts to solve practical problems, Margaret would MOST likely be considered

A. an academic psychologist.
B. an applied psychologist.
C. a behavioral psychologist.
D. a humanistic psychologist.

B. an applied psychologist.
The most widely practiced professional specialty in psychology is

A. experimental psychology.
B. industrial/organizational psychology.
C. educational and school psychology.
D. clinical psychology.

D. clinical psychology.
Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by

A. studying observable behavior.
B. focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
C. analyzing conscious experience into its basic elements.
D. studying the function or purpose of consciousness.

B. focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
With which of the following statements would a behaviorist agree?

A. Psychology should be the science of behavior that can be observed by others.
B. Conscious experiences can be studied in an objective, precise way.
C. In order to understand behavior, one must understand the motives behind the behavior.
D. Behavior can only be explained in terms of phenomenology, that is, an individual’s interpretation of experience.

A. Psychology should be the science of behavior that can be observed by others.
Although functionalism faded away as a theoretical force in psychology, historians credit it with two important contributions to the discipline:

A. behaviorism and applied psychology.
B. women psychologists and applied psychology.
C. psychoanalysis and behaviorism.
D. behaviorism and introspection.

A. behaviorism and applied psychology.
Larry is a graduate student whose major area of interest is social psychology. You should expect that Larry is MOST interested in

A. the ways in which behavior and mental processes change over a lifetime.
B. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
C. the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior.
D. how people relate to each other and influence each other.

D. how people relate to each other and influence each other.
One of the key changes that has occurred in psychology over time is that

A. psychologists have gone from being specialists to being generalists.
B. psychology has become increasingly less applied in its focus.
C. the number of clinicians is decreasing.
D. fewer psychologists now work in colleges and universities.

D. fewer psychologists now work in colleges and universities.
Which of the following is NOT good advice for improving your test-taking ability?

A. Review the test if you have time left after completing the test.
B. Make sure you use your time efficiently and will have enough time to complete the test.
C. Check for hidden complexities in simple-looking questions.
D. Don’t waste too much time pondering difficult-to-answer questions.

D. Don’t waste too much time pondering difficult-to-answer questions.
If you wonder about the adaptive purpose of a common behavior (such as toddlers following their mothers around or teenagers wanting more independence from their parents), your wondering would be MOST consistent with the principles of

A. humanism.
B. evolutionary psychology.
C. biological psychology.
D. cultural psychology.

B. evolutionary psychology.
Which of the following contributed MOST to the development of applied psychology?

A. The advent of high-speed computers
B. The high demand for mental testing of military recruits
C. The increase in the number of people earning advanced degrees in psychology
D. The increase in public awareness of the symptoms of psychological disorders

B. The high demand for mental testing of military recruits
The spatial tasks on which males tend to do better than females generally involve

A. remembering locations.
B. mentally rotating objects.
C. identifying objects in a visual field.
D. processing verbal directions to a specific location.

B. mentally rotating objects.
Research findings indicate that when changing answers on a multiple-choice test, most people change

A. a right answer to a wrong answer and back again to the right answer.
B. a wrong answer to another wrong answer.
C. a wrong answer to a right answer.
D. a right answer to a wrong answer.

C. a wrong answer to a right answer.
The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behavior is MOST consistent with the views of

A. Wilhelm Wundt.
B. B. F. Skinner.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. Carl Rogers.

C. Sigmund Freud.
Isabel is listening to a piece of classical music and tape recording all her feelings and impressions as she experiences them. Isabel is using a technique similar to the research methodology of

A. functionalism.
B. behaviorism.
C. humanism.
D. structuralism.

D. structuralism.
The psychologist who proposed that the study of consciousness should be replaced by the study of behavior was

A. Abraham Maslow.
B. G. Stanley Hall.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. John B. Watson.

D. John B. Watson.
Humanists believe that people’s behavior is governed by

A. biochemical processes.
B. unconscious sexual urges.
C. their self-concepts.
D. the outcomes of their responses.

C. their self-concepts.
Elizabeth is interested in the best way to study achievement among middle-school children, and she is also interested in the factors that underlie student motivation. Elizabeth would MOST likely describe her research interests as

A. educational psychology.
B. cognitive psychology.
C. developmental psychology.
D. psychometrics.

A. educational psychology.
Marie is a graduate student whose major area of interest is personality psychology. You should expect that Marie is MOST interested in

A. how people relate to each other and influence each other.
B. the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior.
C. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
D. the ways in which behavior and mental processes change over a lifetime.

C. the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations.
When Watson claimed, “Give me a dozen healthy infants…,” he was arguing that behavior is strongly influenced by

A. cultural factors.
B. heredity factors.
C. environmental factors.
D. subjective factors.

C. environmental factors.
Elizabeth is interested in the best way to study achievement among middle-school children, and she is also interested in the factors that underlie student motivation. Elizabeth would MOST likely describe her research interests as

A. cognitive psychology.
B. psychometrics.
C. developmental psychology.
D. educational psychology.

D. educational psychology.
With which of the following statements would a behaviorist agree?

A. In order to understand behavior, one must understand the motives behind the behavior.
B. Conscious experiences can be studied in an objective, precise way.
C. Psychology should be the science of behavior that can be observed by others.
D. Behavior can only be explained in terms of phenomenology, that is, an individual’s interpretation of experience.

C. Psychology should be the science of behavior that can be observed by others.
The fact that Princeton students “saw” Dartmouth students engage in twice as many infractions as the Dartmouth students did in a Princeton-Dartmouth football game is MOST consistent with

A. multifactorial causation of behavior.
B. reliance on empirical evidence.
C. unconscious motivation.
D. subjectivity of perception.

D. subjectivity of perception.
The term used by William James to describe a continuous flow of thoughts was

A. transcendental meditation.
B. stream of consciousness.
C. existential awareness.
D. phenomenological flow.

B. stream of consciousness.
Critical thinking includes all of the following EXCEPT

A. originally believing that the stated position on a topic is incorrect.
B. working systematically toward a desired goal.
C. generating multiple solutions to problems.
D. using principles of likelihood when dealing with probabilistic events.

A. originally believing that the stated position on a topic is incorrect.
With which of the following individuals is B. F. Skinner MOST in agreement on the issue of internal mental events?

A. Sigmund Freud
B. Wilhelm Wundt
C. John Watson
D. Abraham Maslow

C. John Watson
In the 1920s, there were many fundamental disputes between competing schools of thought in psychology. These disputes illustrate which of the textbook’s unifying themes?

A. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
B. Psychology is empirical.
C. Our experience of the world is highly subjective.
D. Psychology is theoretically diverse.

D. Psychology is theoretically diverse.
The text’s suggestions for improving academic performance by improving your reading, getting more out of lectures, and improving test-taking strategies are consistent with the application of

A. objective thinking skills.
B. critical thinking skills.
C. accepted thinking skills.
D. subjective thinking skills.

B. critical thinking skills.
Which of the following is a recent movement in psychology that has revived the old interest in mental and conscious events?

A. Physiological psychology
B. Cognitive psychology
C. Psychoanalysis
D. Behavioral psychology

B. Cognitive psychology
Which of the following is NOT likely to be considered a critical thinking skill?

A. Distinguishing among facts, opinions, and reasoned judgments
B. Understanding how reasons and evidence support or refute conclusions
C. Accepting the views of an appropriate authority figure
D. Working systematically toward a desired goal

C. Accepting the views of an appropriate authority figure
Recently, Western psychologists have started to devote more attention to ____ as a determinant of behavior.

A. intelligence
B. unconscious
C. culture
D. feelings

C. culture
Darnell is working on a computer system that will have full language recognition capabilities. The type of psychologist that could probably give Darnell the MOST help in developing this computer system would be

A. a behavioral psychologist.
B. a biological psychologist.
C. a humanistic psychologist.
D. a cognitive psychologist.

D. a cognitive psychologist.
Lynelle is crying because her brother just punched her in the arm. Lynelle’s mother asks her what she did just before she was punched. In looking for a link between her daughter’s actions and her son’s response to those actions, Lynelle’s mother is using the type of analysis that would be typical in

A. the behaviorist approach to the study of psychology.
B. the functionalist approach to the study of psychology.
C. the structuralist approach to the study of psychology.
D. the psychoanalytic approach to the study of psychology.

A. the behaviorist approach to the study of psychology.
A lawyer who wanted to have an expert witness testify at a hearing to determine whether or not his client was competent to stand trial would need to contact a psychologist whose specialty was

A. social psychology.
B. forensic psychology.
C. psychometrics.
D. clinical neuropsychology.

B. forensic psychology.
Liam is reading a magazine article about a new “wonder drug” and finds himself wondering who participated in the study, and what upon what evidence the claims are based. Liam’s thinking illustrates the idea that

A. motives and expectations can color our experiences.
B. single-cause explanations are often inaccurate.
C. information needs to be viewed with a certain degree of skepticism.
D. sciences do not exist in a cultural vacuum.

C. information needs to be viewed with a certain degree of skepticism.
Which of the following psychological perspectives is MOST likely to focus on the interrelations among the mind, body, and behavior?

A. Cognitive perspective
B. Evolutionary perspective
C. Biological perspective
D. Behavioral perspective

C. Biological perspective
Skinner would suggest that if you study “extra hard” for your first psychology midterm and earn an “A,” for your next psychology midterm, you would

A. reduce your study time by approximately 25%.
B. devote all of your study time to your other courses.
C. continue to study “extra hard.”
D. reduce your study time by approximately 50%.

C. continue to study “extra hard.”
Both Rogers and Maslow believed

A. people have a basic need to fulfill their potential for personal growth.
B. human behavior is largely determined by primitive sexual urges.
C. people are not masters of their own destiny.
D. human behavior is shaped by environmental events.

A. people have a basic need to fulfill their potential for personal growth.
The school of psychology that was MOST responsible for the rise of animal research in psychology was

A. structuralism.
B. behaviorism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. Gestalt psychology.

B. behaviorism.
A psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s that reflects a renewed interest in the study of the mind or consciousness that existed in psychology when it first became a science in the late 1800s is the

A. biological perspective.
B. philosophical perspective.
C. cognitive perspective.
D. mental perspective.

C. cognitive perspective.
Which of the following areas of specialization in psychology is involved with the development of curricula and the training of teachers?

A. Industrial/organizational psychology
B. Educational psychology
C. School psychology
D. Experimental psychology

B. Educational psychology
Which of the following was NOT one of the reasons why psychoanalysis was controversial when it was first developed?

A. Its focus on the unconscious
B. Its emphasis on sexual issues
C. Its lack of experimental research
D. Its focus on humans

D. Its focus on humans
The key to the effective use of highlighting is to

A. limit highlighting to no more than 10% of the material from any textbook chapter.
B. skim first and then go back and highlight on a second, detailed reading of the material.
C. highlight only the main ideas, key supporting details, and technical terms.
D. use different highlight colors for different core concepts.

C. highlight only the main ideas, key supporting details, and technical terms.
Researchers in psychology have “to see it to believe it.” This orientation is MOST consistent with

A. empiricism.
B. structuralism.
C. humanism.
D. functionalism.

A. empiricism.
Which of the following would a physiological psychologist be MOST likely to ask?

A. How do hormones affect behavior?
B. What effect does reward have on learning?
C. Why do we like some people and not others?
D. What are the stages of problem-solving?

A. How do hormones affect behavior?
The text’s suggestions for improving academic performance by improving your reading, getting more out of lectures, and improving test-taking strategies are consistent with the application of

A. objective thinking skills.
B. critical thinking skills.
C. accepted thinking skills.
D. subjective thinking skills.

B. critical thinking skills.
According to John Watson, behavior is governed primarily by

A. unconscious desires.
B. personal motives.
C. the environment.
D. heredity.

C. the environment.
Recent research trends in psychology involve two areas largely ignored by early behaviorists. These two areas are

A. cognition (thinking) and physiological processes.
B. observable and measurable responses.
C. classical and operant conditioning.
D. the effect of environmental events and the behavior of lower animals.

A. cognition (thinking) and physiological processes.
The psychologist who proposed that the study of consciousness should be replaced by the study of behavior was

A. G. Stanley Hall.
B. Abraham Maslow.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. John B. Watson.

D. John B. Watson.
Imagine that the editor of your local newspaper writes a column supporting a reduction in government intervention with a transfer of more rights to individual citizens. The editor bases this argument on the assumption that people are rational beings who will fulfill their maximum potential as long as others do not infringe on their basic human needs. This editor’s views reflect those seen in

A. the behavioral perspective.
B. the evolutionary perspective.
C. the psychodynamic perspective.
D. the humanistic perspective.

D. the humanistic perspective.
Which of the following did NOT have a significant influence on the development of Freud’s theory?

A. Knowledge gained from his examination of his own anxieties, conflicts, and desires
B. His observation of the slips of the tongue people tend to make
C. The results of his experimental research
D. Knowledge gained as a result of working with patients

C. The results of his experimental research
The proportion of academic and research psychologists who identify their primary area of interest as health psychology is

A. less than 3%.
B. approximately 10%.
C. shrinking each year.
D. just over 25%.

B. approximately 10%.
One of the key changes that has occurred in psychology over time is that

A. psychologists have gone from being specialists to being generalists.
B. the number of clinicians is decreasing.
C. psychology has become increasingly less applied in its focus.
D. fewer psychologists now work in colleges and universities.

D. fewer psychologists now work in colleges and universities.
Which of the following was LEAST likely to be the focus of study for the functionalists?

A. Mental testing
B. Development in children
C. Sensation and perception
D. The effectiveness of educational practices

C. Sensation and perception
According to Wilhelm Wundt, the focus of psychology was on the scientific study of

A. observable behavior.
B. unconscious motivation.
C. conscious experience.
D. the functions of behavior.

C. conscious experience.
Empiricism means that knowledge should be acquired through

A. logical reasoning.
B. common sense.
C. historical tradition.
D. direct observation.

D. direct observation.
The approach that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations is

A. clinical psychology.
B. physiological psychology.
C. evolutionary psychology.
D. cognitive psychology.

C. evolutionary psychology.
Which of the following professionals receive general training in medicine and receive an M.D. (medical doctor) degree?

A. Both psychiatrists and clinical psychologists
B. Clinical psychologists only
Incorrect C. Psychiatrists only
D. Counseling psychologists only

A. Both psychiatrists and clinical psychologists
Jane’s thyroid gland has become inactive and, as a result, she is becoming lethargic and has gained weight. We know that the thyroid gland can cause this reaction because of studies conducted by

A. physiological psychologists.
B. clinical psychologists.
C. medical psychologists.
D. experimental psychologists.

A. physiological psychologists.
Watson defined psychology as

A. the scientific study of conscious experience.
B. the scientific study of behavior.
C. the scientific study of the unconscious.
D. the scientific study of the brain.

B. the scientific study of behavior.
Which field of psychology studies attitude change and group behavior?

A. Psychoanalysis
B. Developmental psychology
C. Social psychology
D. Psychometrics

C. Social psychology
A newspaper article reported a study by a psychologist in which the attitudes of men and women toward traditional sex roles were studied. MOST likely, the researcher was

A. a social psychologist.
B. a cognitive psychologist.
C. a counseling psychologist.
D. a developmental psychologist.

A. a social psychologist.
The area of research specialization in psychology that studies many of the traditional topics in psychology (such as sensation, learning, motivation) is

A. cognitive.
B. experimental.
C. psychometrics.
D. educational.

B. experimental.
Based on an evolutionary analysis of spatial skills, you should predict that Jill will be better than Jack at

A. remembering locations.
B. mentally rotating visual images.
C. reading a map.
D. learning a maze.

A. remembering locations.
The approach that contends psychology must study internal mental events in order to fully understand behavior is

A. evolutionary psychology.
B. cognitive psychology.
C. humanism.
D. behaviorism.

B. cognitive psychology.
Which of the following psychologists would be MOST likely to stress that each person has a drive to grow and fulfill his or her potential?

A. G. Stanley Hall
B. B. F. Skinner
C. Abraham Maslow
D. Sigmund Freud

C. Abraham Maslow
Janet trained her dog to sit on command by following this behavior with a reward of a dog biscuit and praise. Janet used the principles of

A. behaviorism.
B. psychoanalysis.
C. functionalism.
D. humanism.

A. behaviorism.
Lisa taught her son to buckle his seatbelt in the car by allowing him to play one of his CDs on the car stereo after he was buckled up. Lisa taught him by applying the principles of

A. biological psychology.
B. behaviorism.
C. humanism.
D. cognitive psychology.

B. behaviorism.
Dr. Kline takes an eclectic approach in treating psychological disorders. She often prescribes medications that influence neurotransmitter levels, but she also works with her clients to change their behavior and understand the role of social factors in their problems. Dr. Kline’s approach to therapy illustrates the idea that

A. our cultural backgrounds exert a considerable influence over our behavior.
B. unconscious motivation has little impact on overt behavior.
C. differing theoretical perspectives can provide a more complete understanding of behavior.
D. motives and expectations can color our experiences.

C. differing theoretical perspectives can provide a more complete understanding of behavior
Which of the following is NOT listed in the textbook as a major area of research in psychology?

A. Industrial/organizational psychology
B. Cognitive psychology
C. Physiological psychology
D. Social psychology

A. Industrial/organizational psychology
A psychologist whose major interest focuses on how behavior changes as a function of age would probably be considered a

A. developmental psychologist.
B. cognitive psychologist.
C. physiological psychologist.
D. social psychologist.

A. developmental psychologist.
One psychologist explains a phobia in terms of learning principles whereas another looks to the unconscious for an explanation. Given this scenario, which of the following conclusions is MOST accurate?

A. Insufficient data have been collected to support either explanation.
B. The two psychologists are probably using different sociohistorical contexts.
C. The two psychologists are using different theoretical perspectives.
D. Only one of the two psychologists can be correct.

C. The two psychologists are using different theoretical perspectives.
Colleges and universities are the primary work setting for approximately ____ of American psychologists.

A. 10%
B. 30%
C. 50%
D. 70%

B. 30%
It should be easiest to teach a child to pick up his toys by utilizing the principles and techniques developed by

A. Wilhelm Wundt.
B. Abraham Maslow.
C. William James.
D. B. F. Skinner.

D. B. F. Skinner.
Which of the following is NOT included in the text’s definition of psychology?

A. Psychology studies primarily the unconscious mind
B. Psychology is a science
C. Psychology is a profession that solves practical problems
D. Psychology studies behavior including physiological and cognitive processes

A. Psychology studies primarily the unconscious mind
When faced with a major assignment such as a term paper it is a good idea to

A. postpone beginning the assignment until shortly before the due date in order to incorporate information from the instructor’s lectures into the project.
B. set aside a large block of time (for example, an entire weekend) to devote to the assignment.
C. break the assignment down into smaller components.
D. start the assignment with a clear idea of your conclusion in mind.

C. break the assignment down into smaller components.
Research findings indicate that when changing answers on a multiple-choice test, most people change

A. a wrong answer to a right answer.
B. a wrong answer to another wrong answer.
C. a right answer to a wrong answer.
D. a right answer to a wrong answer and back again to the right answer.

A. a wrong answer to a right answer.
Which of the following areas is MOST likely to be classified as an applied area of specialization in psychology?

A. Psychometrics
B. Developmental psychology
C. Experimental psychology
D. Counseling psychology

D. Counseling psychology
Recent research suggests that ____________ predict college grades almost as well as admissions tests.

A. attitudes about tests
B. learning styles
C. study skills and habits
D. student interests in specific subjects

C. study skills and habits
Which of the following is NOT good advice for developing sound study habits?

A. Set up a schedule for studying
B. Find a place to study where you can concentrate
C. Avoid taking study breaks while studying
D. Reward yourself for studying

C. Avoid taking study breaks while studying
Marissa wants to study people’s emotional reactions to increases in temperature. Her classmate, Bernard, tells her that she should focus on observable behaviors, rather than internal states in her study. Bernard’s views are MOST similar to those found in

A. the evolutionary perspective.
B. the behavioral perspective.
C. the biological perspective.
D. the psychodynamic perspective.

B. the behavioral perspective.
Which of the following observations weakens the evolutionary explanation of gender differences in spatial abilities?

A. Males are encouraged to engage in activities that provide more practice with spatial tasks.
B. There frequently was a sex-based division of labor in ancient hunting and gathering societies.
C. Females perform slightly better than males on tasks involving memory for locations.
D. Males frequently perform slightly better than females on tasks involving mental rotation of images and navigation in space.

A. Males are encouraged to engage in activities that provide more practice with spatial tasks.
Which of the following is NOT good advice for developing sound study habits?

A. Find a place to study where distractions are likely to be minimal.
B. Allow time for study breaks.
C. Spread out your studying over a period of time.
D. Try to tackle simple, routine tasks first, saving larger tasks for later.

D. Try to tackle simple, routine tasks first, saving larger tasks for later.
In the 1950s, Skinner argued that psychology should return to a strict interpretation of the principles of

A. functionalism.
B. humanism.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. behaviorism.

D. behaviorism.
The psychologist who took the position that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes was

A. Abraham Maslow.
B. Carl Rogers.
C. Sigmund Freud.
D. B. F. Skinner.

D. B. F. Skinner.
Which of the following psychologists demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the brain could evoke emotional responses such as pleasure and rage in animals?

A. B. F. Skinner
B. James Olds
C. Abraham Maslow
D. Roger Sperry

B. James Olds
Empiricism means that knowledge should be acquired through

A. common sense.
B. direct observation.
C. logical reasoning.
D. historical tradition.

B. direct observation.
Strict behaviorists would be MOST sympathetic to which one of the following statements?

A. Human behavior is primarily caused by inherited factors.
B. No one really knows what the primary causes for human behavior are.
C. Human behavior is primarily caused by environmental factors.
D. Human behavior is primarily caused by equal contributions of inherited and environmental factors.

C. Human behavior is primarily caused by environmental factors.
The school of psychology that focused on identifying and examining the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings, and images, was

A. behaviorism.
B. structuralism.
C. humanism.
D. functionalism.

B. structuralism.
Which of the following psychological perspectives is MOST likely to focus on the interrelations among the mind, body, and behavior?

A. Behavioral perspective
B. Evolutionary perspective
C. Biological perspective
D. Cognitive perspective

C. Biological perspective
According to John Watson, behavior is governed primarily by

A. heredity.
B. the environment.
C. unconscious desires.
D. personal motives.

B. the environment.
A clinical psychologist would probably be MOST interested in

A. figuring out the most effective ways of treating anxiety.
B. studying facial expressions of emotion.
C. studying the nature of optical illusions.
D. determining how small groups make decisions.

A. figuring out the most effective ways of treating anxiety.
During World War II, many academic psychologists were pressed into service, mainly as

A. physicians.
B. teachers.
C. clinicians.
D. military leaders.

C. clinicians.
The viewpoint in psychology that uses theory and research to understand the adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence is known as

A. evolutionary psychology.
B. positive psychology.
C. physiological psychology.
D. applied psychology.

B. positive psychology.
The early approach in psychology that fostered the development of modern-day applied psychology was

A. pragmatism.
B. functionalism.
C. behaviorism.
D. structuralism.

B. functionalism.
Strict behaviorists would be MOST sympathetic to which one of the following statements?

A. Human behavior is primarily caused by environmental factors.
B. No one really knows what the primary causes for human behavior are.
C. Human behavior is primarily caused by inherited factors.
D. Human behavior is primarily caused by equal contributions of inherited and environmental factors.

A. Human behavior is primarily caused by environmental factors.
Which of the following theorists would tend to emphasize explanations in terms of freedom and potential for personal growth?

A. B. F. Skinner
B. Carl Rogers
C. All of the above
D. Sigmund Freud

B. Carl Rogers
Dr. Lopez is a psychologist who evaluates, diagnoses, and treats people with everyday problems of moderate severity. What type of psychologist is Dr. Lopez?

A. A counseling psychologist
B. An industrial psychologist
C. A school psychologist
D. An educational psychologist

A. A counseling psychologist
When Watson proposed that psychology should only study observable behaviors and not consciousness, he was emphasizing the unifying theme that

A. psychology should use theories.
B. behavior is influenced by multiple causes.
C. psychology should be empirical.
D. people’s experience of the world is highly subjective.

C. psychology should be empirical.
Francine asks you for advice concerning the use of highlighting when studying for exams. Based on the research into the use of highlighting, the BEST advice that you could her would be to

A. try to find the one or two sentences that best capture the purpose of each paragraph.
B. highlight no more than 10% of the material that she reads.
C. only highlight technical terms that are already in bold or italic.
D. not use highlighting because it actually reduces overall comprehension of material.

A. try to find the one or two sentences that best capture the purpose of each paragraph.
The school of psychology that was MOST responsible for the rise of animal research in psychology was

A. psychoanalysis.
B. behaviorism.
C. structuralism.
D. Gestalt psychology.

B. behaviorism.
After leaving the academic field, Watson went on to exert great influence on the field of

A. advertising.
B. sports.
C. anthropology.
D. evolutionary biology.

A. advertising.
Students are said to be “testwise” if they

A. are particularly knowledgeable about the subject matter being tested.
B. are skilled at using clues contained within a test to improve their scores.
C. have a knack for identifying “trick” questions.
D. tend to score high on standardized tests.

B. are skilled at using clues contained within a test to improve their scores.
Which of the following contributed MOST to the development of applied psychology?

A. The advent of high-speed computers
B. The increase in the number of people earning advanced degrees in psychology
C. The high demand for mental testing of military recruits
D. The increase in public awareness of the symptoms of psychological disorders

C. The high demand for mental testing of military recruits
Which of the following is NOT listed in the textbook as a major area of research in psychology?

A. Social psychology
B. Cognitive psychology
C. Physiological psychology
D. Industrial/organizational psychology

D. Industrial/organizational psychology
The text’s unifying theme that “heredity and environment jointly influence behavior” is often referred to as describing the

A. biological versus psychological issue.
B. nature versus nurture issue.
C. psychological versus biological issue.
D. nurture versus nature issue.

B. nature versus nurture issue.
Sally is a psychologist interested improving curriculum design, achievement testing, and teacher training. What type of psychologist is Sally?

A. A counseling psychologist
B. An educational psychologist
C. An industrial psychologist
D. A school psychologist

B. An educational psychologist
Dr. Lee is studying pain perception using a functionalist perspective. It is MOST likely that Dr. Lee would suggest that we can only understand the conscious experience of pain

A. if all the component parts that make up the experience of pain are understood.
B. by observing the outward expression of pain in response to different stimuli.
C. if we first understand the role of pain in human survival and adaptation.
D. if we understand the unconscious processes that initiate the sensation of pain.

C. if we first understand the role of pain in human survival and adaptation.
Watson defined psychology as

A. the scientific study of conscious experience.
B. the scientific study of behavior.
C. the scientific study of the brain.
D. the scientific study of the unconscious.

B. the scientific study of behavior.
With which of the following individuals is B. F. Skinner MOST in agreement on the issue of internal mental events?

A. Sigmund Freud
B. Wilhelm Wundt
C. John Watson
D. Abraham Maslow

C. John Watson
Recent research trends in psychology involve two areas largely ignored by early behaviorists. These two areas are

A. observable and measurable responses.
B. cognition (thinking) and physiological processes.
C. classical and operant conditioning.
D. the effect of environmental events and the behavior of lower animals.

B. cognition (thinking) and physiological processes.
Critical thinking includes

A. analysis of problems in terms of scientific principles.
B. all of the above
C. consideration of conflicting interpretations.
D. making decisions based on formal and informal logic.

B. all of the above
A scientist uses ____ to explain a set of observations.

A. introspection
B. empiricism
C. a theory
D. common sense

C. a theory
If you wonder about the adaptive purpose of a common behavior (such as toddlers following their mothers around or teenagers wanting more independence from their parents), your wondering would be MOST consistent with the principles of

A. biological psychology.
B. humanism.
C. cultural psychology.
D. evolutionary psychology.

D. evolutionary psychology.
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