Psych final 2013

buddhism
Which of the following religions believes in reincarnation?
brain death
A flat EEG recording for a specified period of time is one criterion of___
9
In a recent review of research on childrens conceptions of death, it was condluded that children probably do not view death as universal and irreversible until about what age?
advance directive
An ___ states such preferences as whether life-sustained procedures should or should not be used to prolong the life of an individual when death is imminent
in the patient’s home
Currently in the United States, 90 percent of hospice care is provided:
the child is loved and will not be abandoned
When explaining death to younger children(around preschool age) , the most imprtant point for parents to stress is that:
make death more peaceful and less frightening for the patient and family
The main purpose of a hospice is to:
denial and isolation
According to Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, which of the following is the first stage of dying?
Injecting a lethal dose of a drug
Which of the following is an example of active euthanasia?
the care of a dying older person has shifted away from the family
Which of the following statement about the care of a dying older person in the U.S. today is true?
24 percent
In one survey reported by Kalish & Reynolds only ___ of individuals 60 and over had made any funeral arrangements
66
In the united states, in 2007, ___ percent of corpses were disposed of by burial
higher; lower
The ___ portions of the brain often die sooner the the ____ portions
Americans are generally death avoiders and death deniers
Which of tghe following isw true of the American attitude toward death
13; 41
According to 2008 date, in the United States, ___ percent of men and ___ percent of women 65 years of age and older were widowed
honesty
Most psychologists emphasize that ___ is the best strategy in discussing death with children
passive
Turning off a respirator or a heart-lung machine is an example of ___ euthanasia
hospice
___ is a program committed to making the end of life as free from pain, anxiety, and depression as possible
palliative care
The type of carfe that is designed to reduce pain and suffering and help individuals die with dignity is known as:
they develop more abstract conceptions of death
Compared to young children, which of the following is likely to be a differentiating aspect of adolescents’ view of death?
The end of certain biological functions
Which of the following were considered to be clear signs of deathe twenty-five years ago?
Euthanasia
___ is the act of painlessly ending the lives of individuals who are suffering from an incurable disease or severe disability
Washington
In which of the following states is active euthanasia not considered a crime?
7
According to Onwuteaka-Philipsen & others, a Dutch study of almost 7,000 dying persons revealed that only___ percent requested passive or active euthanasia, and of those who requested it, approximately one-third of the requests were granted
Women have better social networks
Why do women have an easier time with the loss of their spouse than do men?
Hospice care emphasizes palliative care
Which of the following statement about hospice care is true?
Anger
According to Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, which of the following is the second stage of dying?
fear death more
According to Kalish & Reynolds, middle-aged adults actually ___ than do yound adults or older adults
Oregon
Active euthanasia is legal in the state of:
control pain for almost any dying individual
Hospice advocates underscore that it is possible to:
living will
___ refers to a legal document that reflects the patient’s advance care planning
the patient must be deemed by a physician to have six months or fewer to live
For hospice services to be covered by Medicare:
pain
Van Alphen, Donker, & Marquet reproted that in the Netherlands, ___ was found to be main reason for requests for active euthanasia
type 1 diabetes
Exercise can reduce the risk of all of the following conditions EXCEPT:
frontal and parietal lobes
Recent research indicates that the greater distractibility of older adults is associated with less effective functioning in neural networks running through the ___ of the brain, which are involved in cognitive control.
despair
Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation is earlier adulthood are more likely to experience___ in later adulthood
Wisdom
According to Erik Erikson, which of the following is the resolutoin of the last stage of human development?
Telomeres
____ are DNA sequences that cap chromosomes
75 to 80 times
According to the cellular clock theory of aging, cells can divide a maximum of:
projecting future life experiences
All of the following are part of the life review process EXCEPT:
Integrity vs. despair
Which of the following is Erikson’s eigth stage of development?
Basic trust vs. mistrust
According to Erikson, the positive resolution of which develpmental stage culminates in appreciation of interdependence and relatedness in old age?
United States
Which of the following countries has the highest number of centenarians?
caring for others, and empathy and concern
According to Erikson, the positive resolution of the conflict of generativity vs stagnation culminates in ___ in old age.
reminiscence
When working with older clients, some clinicians use ___ therapy, which involves discussing past activities and experiences with another individual or group
correlational
Critics point out that studies on the effectiveness of antioxidants in slowing the aging process, thus far have been so-called population studies that are ___ in nature
a sense of complexity of life
According to Erikson, in old age, the positive resolution of the conflict of identity vs. confusion culminates in:
falls
___ are the leading cause of injury deaths among adults who are 65 years and older
reduced responsiveness to regrets
One study revealed that an important factor among older adults who showed a higher level of emotion regulation and successful aging was:
a sense of complexity of relationships
According to Erikson, in old age the positive resolution of the conflict of intimacy vs isolation culminates in:
cognitive mechanics
The term Baltes uses to describe the “hardware” of the mind, meaning the neurophysiological architecture of the brain through evolution, is:
reverse neurogenesis theory
Which of the following is NOT a biological theory explaining aging?
semantic
A person’s knowledge about the world is called ___ memory
monaco
In 2011, which of the following countries had the highest life expectancy?
care
Which of the following is the positive resolution of the psychological conflict of generativity vs stagnation?
doing aerobic exercise
One study found that after 6 months of ___, older adults showed improvement on reaction time tasks
selective attention
The term ___ refers to the ability to focus on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant to the task at hand while ignoring others that are relevant
South Africa
Which of the following countries had the lowest estimated life expectancy in 2011?
female
The oldest-old today are mostly:
episodic
The retention of information about the when and where of life’s happenings is called ___ memory
Alzheimer disease
___ refers to a progressive, irreversible brain disorder that is characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoinig, language, and eventually, physical function
life reviews avoid reflecting on regrets
Which of the following statements about life review is NOT true?
65 to 84 years of age
The young-old are people who are between:
Deep brain stimulation
Which of the following is a treatment of advanced Parkinsons disease?
L-dopa
Which of the following is a drug that is used in the treatment of Parkinson disease
ApoE
Which of the following is the gene which appears to play a role in as many as one-third of cases of alzheimer disease?
almost half
One study found that ___ of the individuals 65 to 69 years of age considered themselves middle aged
78 years
Today the average life expectancy in the United States is:
sociocultural
Compared with earlier and later periods, middle age is influenced most by ___ factors
loses; gains
The average adult in middle adulthood ___ height and __ weight
one-third
At 60 years of age, the retina receives only ___ as much light as it did at 20 years of age
high-pitched; men
Sensitivity to ___ sounds usually declines first among ___
High levels of LDL cause atherosclerosis
Why is LDL referred to as “bad” cholesterol?
metabolic syndrome
A condition in middle and late adulthood characteried by hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance is referred to as
nonfatal chronic
Compared to men, women have a higher incidence of ___ disorders during middle adulthood
chronic diseases
Nowadays, the main causes of death in middle adulthood in the United States are:
Climacteric
___ is a term that is used to describe the midlife transition in which fertility declines
estrogen
In menopause, production of ___ by the overies declines dramatically
sexual drive
The gradual decline in men’s testosterone levels in middle age can reduce their ___
Early ejaculation
According to studies, which of the following is one of the most common sexual problems of older men?
lack of sexual interest
According to studies, which of the following is one of the most common sexual problems of older women?
reason abstractly
Fluid intelligence is the ability to:
an individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills
Crystallized intellegence is:
verbal comprehension
___ refers to ability to understand ideas expressed in words
reaction-time task
Which of the following is a common way to assess speed of information processing?
no evidence for significant changes in everyday cognition from 20-75 years of age
According to Salthouse, a recent analysis of research found:
generativity vs. stagnation
Erikson proposed that middle-aged adults face a significant issue which he termed ___
Generativity
___ encompasses adults’ desire to leave legacies of themselves to the next generation
immortality
In Erik Erikson’s theory, adults strive for generativity to achieve a sense of ____
Stagnation
___ develops when individuals sense that they have done nothing for the next generation
Generative
___ adults commit themselves to the continuation and improvement of society as a whole through their connection with their children and grandchildren
Developing a stable life structure
Identify the major task that must be mastered in early adulthood, according to Levinson
crisis
Daniel Levinson’s studies suggest that most adults feel that middle age is a time of:
Levinson reported that his stages, transitions, and the crisis of middle age hold for women as well as men
What did Levinson’s research conclude about women in midlife transition?
Forties
George Vaillant concludes that the ___ are a decade of reassessing and recording the truth about the adolescent and adulthood
engage in mutual activities
Middle-age partners are more likely to view their marriage as positive if they:
verbal, physical, or emotional abuse
In a survey conducted by AARP, the primary reason middle-aged and older women cited for wanting a divorce was:
it is rare for sibling closeness to develop for the first time in adulthood
Which of the following statements about sibling relationships is true?
in politics
According to research on intergenerational relationships, in which of the following ways is an adult child most likely to be similar
self-disclosure
Female friendships involve more ____ than male friendships
42
A recent analysis predicted that __ percent of U.S. adults will be obese in 2030
holding a permananent, full time job
In the United States, the most widely recognied marker of entry into adulthood is:
Education
According to the U.S. government’s Occupational Outlook Handbook, which of the following areas of work are expected to account for the most new job in the next decade?
many would have reduced
According to a lonitudinal study by Jerald Bachman and his colleagues, by the time individuals reach their mid-twenties, ___ their use of alcohol and drugs
fiber intake
One study explored links between health behavior and life satisfaction in more than 17,000 individuals 17 to 30 years of age in 21 countries. Which of the following has NOT been found to be positively related to young adults’ life satisfaction?
Identity development in adolescence
According to Erik Erikson, which of the following is a precursor to intimacy in romantic relationships during emerging adulthood?
most
By the end of emerging adulthood(age 25), ___ individuals have had sexual intercourse
flow
According to Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, ___ refers to a heightened state of pleasure experienced when we are engaged in mental and physical challenges that absorb us.
Affectionate
___ love is also called companionate love
aerobic exercises
Sustained exercises such as jogging, swimming, or cycling that stimulate the heart and lung activity are known as:
marriage; monogamy
Results from the “Sex in America” survey suggest that adult sexual behavior is ruled by ___ and ___ for most Americans
more stress
According to a national study of more than 200,000 freshmen at more than 400 colleges and universities, today’s college students experience ___ than students in previous generations
more than twice
The mortality rate of emerging adults is ___ the mortality rate of adolescents
lessened
Research indicates that links between early attachment styles and later attachment styles were ___ by stressful and disruptive experiences
stimulant
Nicotine is a ___
identity vs identity confusion
According to Erik Erikson, which of the following stages is the most important issue to be negotiated in adolescence
formal operational stage
According to Piaget, which of the following is the final stage of cognitive development?
When measured at the age of 20 and then again at the age of 30
If researchers measure an individual’s self-esteem at ages 10, 20, 30, and 40 years, where are they likely to find the most stability?
18 to 25
The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been referred to as emerging adulthood, which occurs from approximately ____
before the age or 30, often between the ages of 19 and 26
Most of us reach our peak physical performance:
unclear sexual boundaries
Which of the following is a problem that can plague cross-gender friendships?
exercise can be as effective in reducing depression as psychotherapy
Which of the following statements about the benefits of exercise is true?
anti-obesity hormone
Leptin acts as an
stability
All of the following are key features identified by Jeffrey Arnett as characterizing emerging adulthood EXCEPT:
increased
A longitudinal study revealed that most bad health habits engaged in during adolescence ___ in emerging adulthood
more conservative
In 1994, Robert Michael and his colleagues conducted a comprehensive survey of American sexual patterns. Results from this “Sex in America” survey suggested that Americans’ sexual lives are ____ than previously believed
demanded closeness in relationships and are more emotional
Individuals with an anxious attachment style:
are less likely than others to have one-night stands
Securely attached adults:
Intimacy vs isolation
According to Erik Erikson, which of the following is the sixth developmental stage?
intimacy
Erikson describes ___ as finding oneself while losing oneself in another person, and it requires a commitment to another person
securely attached
___ infants are defined as those who use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment
intimacy and commitment on the one hand with independence and freedom on the other
Development in early adulthood involves a balance of:
G.Stanley Hall
Which theorist proposed the “storm-and-stress” view that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings?
rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs primarily during early adolescence
Puberty refers to a period of:
menarche
A girl’s first menstruation is called __
9
The mean age at the beginning of the growth spurt in girls is ___
11 1/2; 13 1/2
The peak rate of pubertal change occurs at ___ years for girls and __ years for boys
estradiol
The hormone that is associated with breast, uterine, and skeletal development in girls is”
Testosterone
___ is a hormone associated in boys with genital development, increased height, and deepening of the vocie
corpus callosum
The ___, where fibers connect the brains left and right hemispheres, thickens in adolescence, and this improves adolescents’ ability to process information.
62; 32
In a U.S. national survey conducted in 2009, ___ percent of 12th graders reported that they had experienced sexual intercouse, compared with ___ percent of 9th graders
55;54
In a national survey, __ percent orf U.S. 15 to 19 year old boys and ___ percent of girls said they had engaged in oral sex
1
In a single act of unprotected sex with an infected partner, a teenage girl has a ___ percent risk of getting HIV
30
In a single act of unprotected sex with an infected partner, a teenage girl has a __ percent risk of acquiring genital herpes
31
A recent national study revealed that ___ percent of U.S. 15 year olds met the federal governement’s exercise recommendations on weekdays
a lower incidence of type 1 diabetes
Exercise is related to all of the following positive outcomes in adolescence, EXCEPT:
unintentional injuries
Almost half of all deaths from 15-24 years of age are due to:
50
In about __ percent of motor vehicle fatalities involving adolescents, the driver was found to be intoxicated
marijuana
___ is the illicit drug most widely used in the United States, and its use by adolescents increased from 2008 to 2011
authoritative
Recent research revealed that ___ parenting was linked to lower adolescent alcohol consumption
narcissism
___ refers to a self-centered and self-concerned approach toward others
gets done in bits and pieces
Identity development:
Identity vs identity confusion
Which of the following is Erikson’s fifth developmental stage?
psychosocial moratorium
Which of the following is the term Erik Erikson uses to describe the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy?
identity confusion
Adolescents who do not successfully resolve their identity crisis suffer from what Erikson calls ___
four statuses
Eriksonian researcher James Marcia reasons that Erikson’s theory of identity development contains ___ of identity, or ways of resolving the identity crisis
the existence or extent of their crisis or commitment
According to James Marcia, what determines an individual’s identity status?
Crisis
___ is defined as a period of identity development during which the individual is exploring alternatives
Exploration
Which of the following is the term that most researchers use to describe crisis?
commitment
___ reflects an individual’s personal investment in identity
identity diffusion
Identify the status of individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments
moratorium
Identity ___ is James Marcia’s term for the status of adolescents who are in the midst of a crisis, and whose commitment levels are either absent or only vaguely defined
foreclosure
Identity ___ is the status of individuals who have made a commitment but not experienced a crisis
achievement
Identity ___ is the status of individuals who have undergone a crisis and made a commitment
60
Adolescents in the U.S. spend about ___ percent as much time on schoolwork as their East Asian counterparts do