Psych Exam 4

arousal
In both social facilitation and social impairment, the key factor is

control group
All of the following terms are used in social identity theory except:
a) social comparison
b) identification
c) reference group
d) control group

bystander effect
the phenomenon that occurs when people are less likely to aid a person in trouble if there are other people around is called

foot in the door
Some have suggested that the results of Milgram’s obedience study may have been due to the _________ effect

persuasion
What process describes the use of social influence to cause other people to change their attitudes and behavior?

testosterone
What is the hormone associated with aggression

oral
The age at which a baby was weaned would have most impact on the ____ stage

conditional positive regard
Carl Rogers believed people question themselves and experience negative effects on their self-concept when they receive __________

unconscious thoughts and feelings
A person’s responses to a projective test are thought to reflect

collective
Jong believed that there were two levels of the unconscious mind. The personal and __________

confirmed what twin studies have shown
Adoption studies focusing on the heritability of traits have _________

interviewer bias
Freud’s refusal to believe his patients who said they were sexually abused as a child is an example of ___________

id
What is Freud’s term for the primitive, biological side of personality?

ego
The ________ operates according to the reality principle.

maladaptive
Any behavior that does not allow a person to function within or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life is considered ___________

phobic disorder
Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?
a) hypomania
b) bipolar disorder
c) dysthymia
d) major depression

an excess of distortion of normal function
What is the best way to describe the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

paranoid
_____________ schizophrenia is characterized by delusions of persecution, grandeur, and jealousy together with hallucinations.

affect behavior cognition
3 components of an attitude

attitude
a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea or situation.

thought behavior new thought
what are the 3 ways to reduce cognitive dissonance?

cognitive dissonance
sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to that person’s attitude

situational cause
cause of behavior attributed to external factors such as delays, the action of others, or some other aspect of the situation. EX: John being late because of car problems

dispositional cause
cause of behavior attributed to internal factors such as personality or character. EX: John being late because he is lazy or careless

romantic love
-intimacy
-passion

companionate love
-intimacy
-commitment

consummate love
-intimacy
-passion
-commitment

fatuous love
-passion
-commitment

conformity
changing one’s own behavior to match that of other people

obedience
changing one’s behavior at the command of an authority figure

individualism
High levels of ____________ will decrease conformity

collectivist
____________ cultures will increase conformity

groupthink
occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned.
EX: Titanic, Challenger, 9/11

social facilitation
tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task
EX: Everyone else is working hard, I should be too

social loafing
tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task
EX: Everyone else is doing the work, I don’t have to do anything

prejudice
-negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group.
-thoughts

discrimination
-treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group they belong
-actions

Factors of attraction
-physical: beauty
-proximity: closeness, working/living together
-similarity: what’s “in common”
-reciprocity: if they like you, you like them more

bystander effect
referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on that decision to help or not help, becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases

diffusion of responsibility
occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the same responsibility.

characteristics
Someone who is stressed, dissatisfied with their life, unassertive, gullible, feels a desire to belong to a group and who is unrealistically idealistic holds the ____________ of someone who would join a cult

young people
_______________ are more likely to be influenced to join a cult

id
-part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious
-biological/primitive
-no morals
-animal instinct that drives behavior

ego
-part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational and logical
-planner for realistic outcomes

superego
-part of the personality that acts as a moral center
-morals
-does what’s right

denial
-refusal to recognize a threatening situation
-most common

identification
-trying to become like someone else to deal with one’s anxiety
-dressing like the popular girl

compensation
-trying to make up for areas in which a lack is perceived by becoming superior in some other area
-not good in sports, makes up for it with academics
-substitution

oral stage
-birth to 1 year
-feeding, making noises with mouth
-weaning

anal stage
-1 to 3 years
-potty training
-bowel and bladder control

phallic stage
-3 to 6 years
-genitals
-sexual awareness

latency stage
-6 to puberty
-social skills
-ability to get along with others

genital stage
-puberty to death
-sexual behavior
-sexual relationship

womb envy
inability to give birth (men) so they strive to be successful in other areas

karen horney
womb envy concept

personal unconscious
-personal urges, fears and memories
-Jung’s name for unconscious mind

collective unconscious
-a kind of “species” or “racial” memory, memories of ancient fears and themes that seem to occur in many folktales and cultures
-Jung’s name for the memories shared by all members of the human species

introvert
-someone who is quiet
-keeps to themself

extrovert
-someone who is outgoing
-talkative

The big five
Openness
Consciousness
Extroversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism

behaviorists
your personality is nothing but conditioned responses and habits that you’ve developed. this is believed by who?

16
Raymond Cattell originally proposed that there are ______ different source traits

projective tests
When therapists want to get to the unconscious mind, and uncover the unconscious thoughts and conflicts they use _____________

locus of control
the tendency for people to assume that they either have control or do not have control over events and consequences in their lives

internal locus
-consequences are effected from their own actions
-personalities of high achievement motivation
-attempt to succeed with any task

external locus
-consequences are effected from others’ actions, luck or fate
-give up too quickly

dissociative fugue
-when one travels away from home and afterwards cannot remember the trip or even their identity
-starts a new life with new identity

dissociative amnesia
-loss of memory for personal info, either partial or complete
-separated from one’s self
-few minutes to years breaks can feel seamless

social phobia
Is stage fright a social or a specific phobia?

delusion
-false beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness
-thoughts

hallucination
-false sensory perceptions such as hearing voices that don’t really exist
-physical feelings (sights/sounds)

OCD
-intruding, reoccurring thoughts and anxiety
-relieved by repeating steps in a ritual
-unable to function without ritual and repetitions

GAD
-free floating anxiety
-recurring anxiety
-constant worrying

ASD
-anxiety, night mares and concentration problems
-up to one month after event

PTSD
-over a month long
-6 months to be diagnosed
-more likely in women than men
-anxiety from stressor

anitsocial personality
Which personality disorder is most likely to cause problems

diagnostic and statistic manual
What is the DSM?

anorexia
-malnourished
-extreme weight loss

bulimia
-overeating then binging/purging
-normal weight
-strange behaviors

panic attack
-sudden onset of intense panic in which multiple physical symptoms of stress occur, often with feelings that one is dying

DID
-separate identities/personalities
-blackouts/memory & timeloss

serotonin
Which neurotransmitter is associated with bulimia?

SAD
-a mood disorder caused by the body’s reaction to low levels of sunlight in the winter months
-depression phase