Psych Exam 4

Ted is friendly, loves to tells jokes at parties, and is perceived by others as warm and considerate. On which two of the Big Five traits would you expect Ted to obtain high scores?

a. agreeableness and extraversion
b.extraversion and conscientiousness
c. neuroticism and openness to experience
d. openness to experience and conscientiousness

a. agreeableness and extraversion
According to Sigmund Freud, when you awaken in the morning and remember a dream, you recall the dream’s ___________.

a. latent content
b. deep meaning
c.surface meaning
d. manifest content

d. manifest content
6.
Medication, electroconvulsive shock therapy, and psychosurgery are all types of ______.

a.cognitive therapy
b. behavioral therapy
c. biomedical therapy
d. psychoanalytic therapy

c. biomedical therapy
7.
Ellen has been described as creative, imaginative, curious, artistic, and nonconforming. She is likely to obtain an elevated score on a questionnaire designed to measure ______________.

a. extraversion
b. agreeableness
c. conscientiousness
d. openness

d. openness
?Each of the following is a symptom of bulimia nervosa EXCEPT ______.
a.recurrent episodes of binge eating

b.refusal to maintain body weight at or above minimal normal weight for age and height

c. recurrent inappropriate behaviors, such as self-induced vomiting, to try and prevent weight gain

d. body shape and weight excessively influencing the person’s self-image

b.refusal to maintain body weight at or above minimal normal weight for age and height
??
Jung believed that there were two levels to the unconscious mind, the personal and the ________.

a. collective
b. animus
c. anima
d. preconscious

a. collective
Carl Rogers’s person-centered approach is considered ________ because the client actually does all the real work, with the therapist merely acting as a sounding board.
a. directive
b. non-directive
c. behavioral
d. cognitive
b. non-directive
Fears of snakes, thunderstorms, darkness, and water are classified as ______ phobias.
a. specific
b. social
c. primary
d. innate
a. specific
A therapist is interested in helping her client get a clearer understanding of his motives and actions. This therapist is most likely to be a(n) ____________.

a. action therapist
b. insight therapist
c. biomedical therapist
d. relationship therapist

b. insight therapist
Skinner and Watson believed that personality is the result of:

a. operant conditioning and vicarious learning.
b. classical and operant conditioning and observational learning.
c. observational learning and classical conditioning.
d. behavioral reinforcement.

classical and operant conditioning and observational learning.
Some drugs that combat depression work by ____________.

a. increasing the amount of serotonin in the brain
b. blocking dopamine receptors in the brain
c. inhibiting the function of the medulla and the pons
d. increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the brain

increasing the amount of serotonin in the brain
In Carl Rogers’s theory, our perception of our abilities, behaviors, and characteristics is known as ________.

a. personality
b. self-regard
c. self-esteem
d. self-concept

d. self-concept
Which of the following was not a facet of Bandura’s theory of reciprocal determinism?

a.feelings of inferiority
b. environment
c. personal/cognitive factors
d. behaviors

a.feelings of inferiority
Which of the following was one of the four humors studied by Hippocrates?

a.urine
b. saliva
c. pus
d. phlegm

d. phlegm
According to Freud, the ___________ of the dream refers to the hidden, symbolic meaning of the dream, which, if correctly interpreted, reveals the unconscious conflicts that created the nervous disorder.

a. manifest content
b. free association
c. latent content
d. resistance

c. latent content
Which neurotransmitter is not implicated in the development of mood disorders?

a. serotonin
b. endorphins
c. dopamine
d. norepinephrine

b. endorphins
26.
Albert Bandura’s notion that people are affected by their environment, but can also influence that environment, is known as __________.

a. self-efficacy
b. locus of control
c. phenomenology
d. reciprocal determinism

d. reciprocal determinism
Ellie is a graduate student in psychology at the local university. She is interested in one day specializing in the study of abnormal behavior. What area of psychology should she focus on in school?

a. health psychology
b. psychopathology
c. psychobiology
d. developmental psychology

b. psychopathology
Twin studies have shown that if one identical twin has either major depression or bipolar disorder, the chances that the other twin will develop a mood disorder are about ________ percent.

a.40 to 70
b. 10 to 25
c. 25 to 50
d. 90

a.40 to 70
According to family, twin, and adoption studies, a person is at greatest risk for developing schizophrenia _________.

a. if he or she has an identical twin diagnosed with the disorder
b. if he or she has a nonidentical twin diagnosed with the disorder
c. if he or she has an adoptive parent diagnosed with the disorder
d. if he or she has a biological parent diagnosed with the disorder

a. if he or she has an identical twin diagnosed with the disorder
Which type of therapy emphasizes people’s potential for growth and the importance of an empathetic therapist?

a. psychoanalytic
b. person-centered
c. cognitive-behavior
d. cognitive

b. person-centered
Which of the following individuals would be considered a good candidate for humanistic therapy?

a. Mary, who is extremely withdrawn
b. Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder
c. Pasha, who is unable to verbally express her thoughts and feelings
d. Lou, who is seeking a career change

d. Lou, who is seeking a career change
What is Freud’s term for the primitive, biological side of personality?

a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. preconscious

a. id
Anthony is sick of writing papers and studying for tests, but he knows he needs a college degree if he wants to be successful in his chosen career. So every morning Anthony gives himself a dressing down—in essence, yelling at himself—to make himself get out of bed and go to classes, and every evening he does the same thing to get himself to do his work. According to Freud, which personality structure is in control here?

a. id
b. ego
c. unconscious
d. superego

d. superego
Which method of treating phobias involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object?

a. extinction
b. punishment
c. token economy
d. systematic desensitization

d. systematic desensitization
The basic goal of systematic desensitization is to ________.

a. relax body muscles
b. address the causes of one’s fears
c. relax individuals in the presence of a feared object or situation
d. understand what an individual is thinking when faced with a feared object or situation

c. relax individuals in the presence of a feared object or situation
Approximately ________ out of every 1,000 people worldwide will develop schizophrenia at some point during their lives.

a. 7-8
b. 12-15
c. 25-30
d. 100-110

7-8
When Freud referred to the sexual drive of babies and young children, to what was he really referring?

a.the fact that sexual orientation is established from birth

b. the fact that children focus on their bodies to give them physical pleasure

c. the fact that children need to be taught about sexual morality from a very early age

d. the fact that children have genitals that distinguish them as male or female from birth

b. the fact that children focus on their bodies to give them physical pleasure
After being passed up for a promotion and then getting into a heated argument with his son, a man disappears. He shows up two weeks later in another town with no memory of who he is or how he got there. He appears to be suffering from ______.

a.paraphilia
b. schizophrenia
c. a somatoform disorder
d. a dissociative disorder

d. a dissociative disorder
The term affect is used by psychologists to refer to ______.

a. thought
b. emotion
c. behavior
d. intuition

b. emotion
According to Albert Bandura, a person’s belief about his or her skills and ability to perform certain behaviors is known as ________.

a. self-efficacy
b. locus of control
c. phenomenology
d. reciprocal determinism

a. self-efficacy
Many have compared Freud’s idea of the mind to an iceberg. If that were the case, and you were standing on the deck of a ship in Alaska, what part of the mind would you see above the water?

a. ego
b. anima
c. id
d. preconscious

a. ego
Which term was given to psychoanalysts who broke away from strict interpretation of Freud’s theory and developed theories of their own that were based upon Freud’s work?

a. retro-Freudians
b. nouveau-Freudians
c. neo-Freudians
d. anti-Freudians

c. neo-Freudians
You are a contestant on Jeopardy! and it is your turn. You say, “I’ll take ‘History of Therapies’ for $100.” The answer is, “He began the movement for humane treatment of the mentally ill.” The smile on your face reveals the confidence you have as you say ______________.

a. “Who was Sigmund Freud?”
b. “Who was Carl Rogers?”
c. “Who was Philippe Pinel?”
d. “Who was Abraham Maslow?”

c. “Who was Philippe Pinel?”
Which behavior therapy technique is commonly used to treat anxieties or fears?

a. interpretation
b. free association
c. dream analysis
d. exposure

d. exposure
Which of the following is one of the criticisms of behavior therapy?

a. It focuses on the underlying cause of behavior and not the symptoms.
b. Therapy typically lasts for several years and is very expensive.
c. It focuses too much on the past.
d. It only relieves some symptoms of schizophrenia but does not treat the overall disorder.

d. It only relieves some symptoms of schizophrenia but does not treat the overall disorder.
Willamina is interested in helping her client get a clearer understanding of his motives and actions. She is most likely to be a(n) ____________.

a. action therapist
b. insight therapist
c. biomedical therapist
d. relationship therapist

b. insight therapist
What do behavior therapists see as the cause of abnormal or undesirable behaviors?

a. learning
b. unconscious conflicts
c. distortions in thinking
d. discrepancy between the real self and ideal self

a. learning
Carolyn took home some printer paper from the office. Later, she felt guilty for stealing it, so she brought some paper to work to replace what she took. Freud would suggest that Carolyn’s ________ was influencing her motives and behavior.

a. id
b. unconscious mind
c. ego
d. superego

d. superego
Which of the following statements is true about the DSM-5?

a. It describes symptoms and includes a checklist of specific criteria for diagnosis.
b. It lists information regarding symptoms, but does not include a checklist of criteria that must be met for diagnosis.
c. It is used to diagnose medical conditions that may have an impact on mental health.
d. It is used to diagnose all kinds of medical conditions.

a. It describes symptoms and includes a checklist of specific criteria for diagnosis.
Which psychological test asks the subject to tell a story based on a picture of one or more people in which it is unclear what is going on?

a. Rorschach test
b. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
c. California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
d. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

b. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
What is the most frequently diagnosed anxiety disorder in the United States?

a. specific phobia
b. social anxiety disorder
c. post-traumatic stress disorder
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder

a. specific phobia
Which neurotransmitters are most important in the development of mood disorders?

a. GABA, endorphins, and serotonin
b. acetylcholine, serotonin, and GABA
c. dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine
d. norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and serotonin

c. dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine
When selecting a therapist, it seems that white men and women who are of middle income _________.

a. have no preference regarding the gender of the therapist
b. prefer a female therapist
c. prefer a male therapist
d. prefer male and female co-therapists

b. prefer a female therapist
What is the name of the culture-bound syndrome that involves a period of increased agitation and violence?

a. taijin-kyofu-sho
b. ghost sickness
c. amok
d. susto

c. amok
________ is a repetitive behavior or mental act that an individual feels compelled to perform in response to an obsession.

a. Bulimia nervosa
b. An obsession
c. A compulsion
d. Rumination

c. A compulsion
Padma is extremely confident and feels that lately she needs very little sleep. In addition, she reports that her thoughts seem to be going fast—similar to watching three television shows at once. Padma most likely is experiencing ________.

a. a manic episode
b. a dysthymic episode
c. a loss of mental control
d. a psychotic break

a. a manic episode
Which of the following is a condition in which a person shows little or no emotion?

a. hallucinations
b. delusions
c. inappropriate affect
d. flat affect

d. flat affect
______________ focuses on the present and assumes that people observe the world and the people around them, make assumptions and inferences based on these observations, and then decide how to respond.

a. Person-centered therapy
b. Cognitive-behavioral therapy
c. Behavior therapy
d. Gestalt therapy

b. Cognitive-behavioral therapy
_____________ theory is called the “third force” in personality theory.

a. Psychoanalytic
b. Behaviorist
c. Cognitive
d. Humanistic

d. Humanistic
In which form of therapy does the therapist take a directive role, challenging clients when they make “my way or nothing” statements?

a. psychoanalysis
b. behavior therapy
c. person-centered therapy
d. rational emotive behavior therapy

d. rational emotive behavior therapy
Which of the following is the appropriate definition of psychosurgery?

a. information given to a patient about a surgical procedure before the surgery in order to prevent anxiety
b. surgery that is performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders
c. surgery that severs the spinal cord of the patient
d. a procedure in which a brief current of electricity is used to trigger a seizure that typically lasts one minute, causing the body to convulse

b. surgery that is performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders
In any given year, about ______ percent of adults over the age of 18 suffer from a mental disorder.

a. 26
b. 12
c. 33
d. 43

a. 26
Which of the following is an example of subjective discomfort?

a. hearing voices that no one else can hear
b. worrying about everything most of the time
c. feeling that one is better than everyone else
d. deciding that rules are for suckers and that you don’t have to obey them as long as you don’t get caught

b. worrying about everything most of the time
Iram is afraid of snakes. In an effort to help him overcome his fear, his therapist has him enter a room where there are dozens of snakes and has him hold them. Iram is not permitted to leave the room until the therapy session is completed. Iram’s therapist is using ______.

a. systematic desensitization
b. flooding
c. paradoxical intent
d. aversion therapy

b. flooding
_______________ formed a large part of Freud’s psychoanalytic method.

a. Reflection
b. Empathy
c. Dream interpretation
d. Unconditional positive regard

c. Dream interpretation
Probably the biggest problem with personality assessments by behaviorists is the _______.

a. observer effect
b. subject bias
c. experimenter bias
d. test bias

a. observer effect
When anxiety provoking memories are prevented from reaching conscious awareness, such as not remembering lying to parents, it is called ________.

a. denial
b. sublimation
c. repression
d. regression

c. repression
Julie has a fear of riding in elevators. She is seeing a therapist who asks her to construct a hierarchy of her fears related to riding in elevators. In addition, her therapist is teaching her to relax while imagining each fear in the hierarchy. Julie’s therapist is using __________.

a. person-centered therapy
b. rational emotive therapy
c. systematic desensitization
d. cognitive consistency therapy

c. systematic desensitization
An individual operating on the reality principle seeks ____________.

a. immediate gratification
b. perfect accomplishments
c. to reveal unconscious motivations
d. rational means for obtaining gratification

d. rational means for obtaining gratification
Yongmei is studying for her math test. Her boyfriend Marcus asks if she can go to the movies with him. She would love to go but she knows she has to study for the math test in order to pass the class. What part of Yongmei’s personality will tell her to stay home and study because passing the class is necessary for her to graduate?

a. her ego, because it is the moral conscience of her personality
b. her id, because studying is what she really wants to do
c. her libido, because she knows her boyfriend will love her more if she studies
d. her superego, because it is this part of the personality that is the moral conscience

d. her superego, because it is this part of the personality that is the moral conscience
The psychodynamic model of abnormal behavior is based on the work of ______.

a. Freud
b. Perls
c. Rogers
d. Skinner

a. Freud
________ refers to psychotherapy that is provided on the internet.

a. Cybertherapy
b. Participant modeling
c. Virtual reality
d. In-vivo exposure

a. Cybertherapy
The main advantage of personality inventories over projective tests and interviews is _____________.

a. inventories are standardized
b. interviews are standardized
c. interviews have higher validity
d. There are no major differences.

a. inventories are standardized
In the wake of the recent BP oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, there has been an increase in reported cases of _________. Some researchers are finding that virtual reality exposure therapy has helped with the treatment of these problems.

a. posttraumatic stress disorder
b. major depression
c. schizophrenia
d. panic disorder

a. posttraumatic stress disorder
When you accept someone—faults and all—regardless of whether or not you like the individual or approve of his or her lifestyle, Rogers suggests that you are exhibiting ________.

a. restraint
b. unconditional positive regard
c. self-editing
d. genuineness

b. unconditional positive regard
A person’s responses to a projective test are thought to reflect ____________.

a. current events
b. daydreaming themes
c. maladaptive patterns of behavior
d. unconscious thoughts and feelings

d. unconscious thoughts and feelings
Psychoanalysis was a therapy technique designed by ______.

a. Alfred Adler
b. Carl Rogers
c. Fritz Perls
d. Sigmund Freud

d. Sigmund Freud
Tony has devised a test in which people look at clouds and talk about what they see. What type of test would psychologists call this?

a. dynamic
b. projective
c. objective
d. predictive

b. projective
Which of the following statements describes the relationship between temperament and personality?

a. Temperament and personality are the exact same thing.
b. Personality, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one’s temperament is built.
c. Temperament, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one’s personality is built.
d. Temperament refers to negative personal characteristics, while personality refers to positive personal characteristics.

c. Temperament, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one’s personality is built.
According to Rogers, which of the following people is MOST likely to become a fully functioning person?

a. someone with a strongly developed superego
b. someone with an extraverted personality
c. someone brought up with conditional positive regard
d. someone brought up with unconditional positive regard

d. someone brought up with unconditional positive regard
There were three friends. Maybe you’ve heard of them! Harry was rational, logical, and cunning. Hermione was rule-oriented, moral, and always ethical. Ron was pleasure seeking, found it hard to delay gratification, and usually just did what he wanted. According to Freud, Ron was mostly ___________.

a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. libido

a. id
The police find a man who is disheveled and in a daze wandering through the downtown area. When the police ask him for his name, he seems bewildered. A search of missing persons photographs reveals that this man was reported missing three months ago in a town more than 700 miles away. The man is most likely suffering from _________.

a. schizophrenia
b. dissociative fugue
c. dissociative amnesia
d. dissociative identity disorder

c. dissociative amnesia
There were three friends. Maybe you’ve heard of them! Harry was rational, logical, and cunning. Hermione was rule-oriented, moral, and always ethical. Ron was pleasure seeking, found it hard to delay gratification, and usually just did what he wanted. According to Freud, Hermione was mostly ___________.

a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. libido

c. superego
Frank and Gina are looking at an abstract painting in a museum. Gina describes objects and people she thinks she sees in the painting. Frank says, “It’s a bunch of paint thrown on a canvas.” Gina responds, “No, there is so much here that you just don’t see.” During lunch, they agree that their experience reminds them of what concept they learned in introductory psychology?

a. social cognition
b. trait theory
c. projective testing
d. the Big Five

c. projective testing
Someone interested in an inventory that might be helpful for making a career choice should try _______.

a. the TAT
b. a Rorschach test
c. the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
d. the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

c. the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Which of the following is a legitimate hypothesis that explains why the rate of depression appears to be twice as high for women as compared to men across various cultures?

a. Women seek treatment more often than men.
b. Women appear to have excessive amounts of the neurotransmitter that plays a key role in depression.
c. The increased divorce rate has been more traumatic to how women view themselves and their purpose in life.
d. The different social roles played by women predispose them to depression.

d. The different social roles played by women predispose them to depression.
Therapy that depends on identifying and changing distorted thinking and unrealistic beliefs is ______ therapy.

a. cognitive
b. psychoanalytic
c. behavior
d. person-centered

a. cognitive
Using Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural personality, how would you describe a culture characterized by loose ties between individuals, shared activities among friends, autonomy, and equality?

a. individualistic
b. high in power distance
c. masculine
d. high in uncertainty avoidance

a. individualistic
Which of the following is a therapy based on the principles of operant conditioning?

a. systematic desensitization
b. flooding
c. aversion therapy
d. token economy

d. token economy
According to Freud, during the first 18 months of life, the dominant source of erogenous pleasure is the ______.

a. genitals
b. mouth
c. hands
d. anus

b. mouth
According to Carl Rogers, the __________ is how people think they should be.

a. ideal self
b. real self
c. ego
d. id

a. ideal self
What do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories have in common?

a. They are both testable.
b. They are both difficult to test.
c. They both rely on stages.
d. They both base much of their theory on early stressful events.

b. They are both difficult to test.
Which of the following descriptions is likely to fit the quality of self-actualization?

a. shy, silent, and humorless
b. real self close to ideal self
c. ideal self dominating real self
d. superego dominating id

b. real self close to ideal self
Which of the Freudian stages of personality development begins around puberty?

a. oral
b. anal
c. phallic
d. genital

d. genital
According to the Consumer Reports survey, which of the following is accurate?

a. Individual psychotherapy works best for every type of disorder.
b. The longer a person stays in therapy, the greater the improvement.
c. Overall psychotherapy without drugs is not as effective as psychotherapy with drugs.
d. Group therapy is more effective than individual therapy in treating a wide range of disorders.

b. The longer a person stays in therapy, the greater the improvement.
A famous psychologist argues that there are three factors that influence personality: environment, person, and behavior. This psychologist is most likely a ______ psychologist.

a. psychodynamic
b. social cognitive
c. psychoanalytic
d. trait

b. social cognitive
Therapies directed at changing the disordered behavior are referred to as __________.

a. action therapies
b. insight therapies
c. biomedical therapies
d. relationship therapies

a. action therapies
Which defense mechanism figured prominently in the theory of Alfred Adler?

a. repression
b. compensation
c. depression
d. rationalization

b. compensation
__________ is a form of therapy in which clients are directed to move their eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory.

a. Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR)
b. Systematic desensitization
c. Eye-memory therapy
d. Eye therapy

a. Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR)
Which of the following is one of the cognitive distortions proposed by Aaron Beck?

a. selective thinking
b. low frustration tolerance
c. hostility and rage
d. self-downing

a. selective thinking
Which of the following is a projective test?

a. MMPI-2
b. 16PF
c. NEO-PI-R
d. Rorschach

d. Rorschach
What is the best way to describe the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

a. clearly identifiable symptoms
b. a decrease in normal functioning
c. an excess or distortion of normal functions
d. symptoms that psychologists are certain are occurring

c. an excess or distortion of normal functions
The _____________ theory of personality has its basis in the theories of learning, and focuses on the effects of environment on one’s personal characteristics and actions.

a. psychodynamic
b. humanistic
c. trait
d. behaviorist

d. behaviorist
Fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible if something should go wrong is called ______.

a. agoraphobia
b. a social phobia
c. a specific phobia
d. trypanophobia

a. agoraphobia
What did Sigmund Freud believe could happen if our needs were delayed at a particular psychosexual stage?

a. We could become fixated at that stage.
b. We would revert to our biological predispositions.
c. We would be more capable of overcoming the obstacle in adulthood.
d. We could become overly dependent on the superego for future guidance.

a. We could become fixated at that stage.
Steve’s psychiatrist notes that Steve is experiencing a disruption of the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, and identity. Therefore, Steve most likely has a(n) ________ disorder.

a. schizophrenic
b. adjustment
c. dissociative
d. impulse-control

c. dissociative
Marty is moody, manipulative, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others. He wants to have close relationships but is unable to do so because he is untrusting of others. Marty is suffering from ______ personality disorder.

a. antisocial
b. avoidant
c. dependent
d. borderline

d. borderline
Ancient Greeks believed imbalances in ________ caused abnormality, while people living during the Middle Ages believed it was caused by ________. However, many contemporary psychologists try to understand psychological disorders in terms of the ________ model.

a. evil; water; biopsychosocial
b. behavior; evil; ecological
c. bile; exposure; psychodynamic
d. bodily fluids; the devil; biopsychosocial

d. bodily fluids; the devil; biopsychosocial
Person-centered therapy is a type of ______ therapy.

a. insight
b. behavior
c. cognitive
d. reality

a. insight
Levi’s therapist is using interpersonal therapy. What would be the goal of Levi’s therapy sessions?

a. to help Levi understand how his moods and behaviors are impacted by his relationships
b. to uncover Levi’s unconscious anxiety and motives
c. to assist Levi in the process of self-actualization
d. to address the bad thoughts that Levi is experiencing and replace them with good thoughts

a. to help Levi understand how his moods and behaviors are impacted by his relationships
Which theory of personality was a direct reaction against the psychoanalytic and behaviorist perspectives?

a. humanistic perspective
b. trait perspective
c. projective perspective
d. inventory perspective

a. humanistic perspective
The tendency of those studying psychopathology to start seeing themselves as suffering from the illnesses being discussed is known as _____________.

a. accurate self-assessment
b. unnecessary worrying
c. psychopathological transference
d. psychology student’s syndrome

d. psychology student’s syndrome
Which of the following is a symptom of acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder?

a. persistent reliving of the event
b. an obsessive need to be close to anything associated with the trauma
c. decreased arousal
d. symptoms of a manic episode

a. persistent reliving of the event
The use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behaviors is called _______.

a. behavior modification
b. empty chair technique
c. reflection
d. selective thinking

a. behavior modification
Every time Jarrad opens his cigarette case or uses his lighter, he gets a painful electric shock. Jarrad’s friends and family have been asked not to give him any cigarettes or light any cigarettes for him, so he must use his own lighter if he wants to smoke. Eventually, Jarrad loses his desire to smoke, thanks to ______.

a. negative transference
b. behavioral contracting
c. systematic desensitization
d. aversion conditioning

d. aversion conditioning
________ has been used successfully in helping children who have a fear of going to the dentist, social withdrawal, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and phobias.

a. Modeling
b. Transference
c. Voyeurism
d. Empathy

a. Modeling
Carl Rogers believed that people question themselves and experience negative effects on their self-concept when they receive ______.

a. conditional esteem
b. unconditional esteem
c. conditional positive regard
d. unconditional positive regard

c. conditional positive regard
Severe depression that comes on suddenly or seems to have no external cause is called ______.

a. dysthymia
b. bipolar disorder
c. hypomania
d. major depressive disorder

d. major depressive disorder
Your teacher organizes a debate on Freudian theory. You are assigned to be on the anti-Freud side and, therefore, must point out problems in the theory. Which of the following would be a reasonable argument for you to make?

a. Parents have little influence on their children’s motives.
b. His interpretations of what his patients told him were ambiguous.
c. Defense mechanisms actually increase anxiety.
d. Psychoanalytic therapy is effective for treating psychotics only.

b. His interpretations of what his patients told him were ambiguous.
Dinah, a therapist, works with her clients to help them change their problematic behaviors and irrational thoughts and provide new, more adaptive behaviors and beliefs to replace old, maladaptive ones. Dinah uses what type of therapy?

a. behavior therapy
b. cognitive-behavior therapy
c. psychoanalysis
d. person-centered therapy

b. cognitive-behavior therapy
From what Latin phrase is the term superego derived?

a. “without morals”
b. “above the rules”
c. “beyond me”
d. “over the self”

d. “over the self”
Expressing empathy, developing the discrepancies between a client’s present behaviors and values, rolling with resistance, and supporting a client’s self-efficacy are the four pillars of __________.

a. motivational interviewing
b. rational emotive therapy
c. person-centered therapy
d. contingency contracting

a. motivational interviewing
According to Freud, rationality, logical thinking, and reasoning are controlled by the ______.

a. pleasure principle
b. ego
c. superego
d. animus

b. ego
Darcy is sitting at her desk in her office one day when, without warning, her heart begins racing rapidly, she has a sensation of being “out of her body,” and she experiences dulled vision and hearing, rapid breathing, and sweating. She thinks she is having a heart attack. Nothing she is doing seems to have caused such an episode. Her symptoms MOST resemble ______.

a. a phobic disorder
b. a panic attack
c. post-traumatic stress
d. an affective disorder

b. a panic attack
______ are specifically trained to use biomedical therapies.

a. Family therapists
b. Psychiatrists
c. Counselors
d. Social workers

b. Psychiatrists
The biological model views psychological disorders as resulting from _____________.

a. distorted thought patterns
b. repressed memories
c. underlying behavioral issues
d. physiological causes

d. physiological causes
“If it feels good, do it” best describes the ______________.

a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. preconscious

a. id
Archaeologists have found skulls from as long ago as 3000 B.C. that bear evidence of an ancient surgical technique, in which holes were cut into the skulls of live individuals in an attempt to release demons from the possessed victim. This process is called __________.

a. trephining
b. drilling
c. humoring
d. exorcism

a. trephining
Which model of abnormality holds that physical, mental, and cultural factors are intertwined and that they must all be considered when dealing with psychology disorders?

a. the eclectic model
b. the biopsychosocial model
c. the psychophysiological model
d. the Gestalt model

b. the biopsychosocial model
According to Jung, the memories and behavior patterns inherited from past generations are part of the ______.

a. persona
b. personal unconscious
c. alter-ego
d. collective unconscious

d. collective unconscious
Azdah’s teenage son fails his mathematics exam due to lack of studying. She immediately assumes that it is her fault. Azdah is engaging in ___________.

a. arbitrary inference
b. selective thinking
c. personalization
d. minimization

c. personalization
Jessie becomes furious when her favorite hockey player is intentionally hurt by an opponent. According to Freud’s model of the mind, her id would unconsciously say:

a. “Thou shalt not kill!”
b. “I’m going to tear this program in half!”
c. “What, me angry? I never get angry!”
d. “I’m so angry I could kill that player!”

d. “I’m so angry I could kill that player!”
One of the main differences between the psychoanalytic view and the social cognitive view is that ________________.

a. the social cognitive view allows for testing, whereas the psychoanalytic view does not
b. the mind is more important to the psychoanalyst than the cognitivist
c. the psychoanalytic view requires feedback from clients and the social cognitive view does not
d. the social cognitive view is more abstract than the psychoanalytic view

a. the social cognitive view allows for testing, whereas the psychoanalytic view does not
“Oh my gosh,” Sara exclaims as she leaves her biology exam. “I just KNOW that I got number 48 wrong! I just know that I’m going to fail this class.” According to a cognitive psychologist, Sara is engaging in which of the following distorted thought processes?

a. all-or-nothing thinking
b. magnification
c. overgeneralization
d. minimization

a. all-or-nothing thinking
A disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems, lasting for more than one month, is called _________.

a. acute stress disorder
b. external locus of control
c. catastrophic stress
d. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

d. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Dr. Shedrika uses a form of therapy that emphasizes revealing his clients’ unconscious conflicts, urges, and desires, which he believes are the cause of his clients’ disordered emotions and behavior. This therapist is most likely using ________.

a. behavior therapy
b. psychoanalysis
c. Gestalt therapy
d. systematic desensitization

b. psychoanalysis
In the metaphor of the angel, the devil, and me, the angel is the ____________.

a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. unconscious

c. superego
____________ therapies have had considerable success in treating bedwetting, overeating, drug addictions, and phobic reactions.

a. Behavior
b. Psychoanalytic
c. Biomedical
d. Humanistic

a. Behavior
Which of the following statements correctly describes the rate of PTSD among combat-exposed military personnel since 2001?

a. PTSD has remained stable since 2001, since there have been no new combat experiences for soldiers since 2001.
b. Since PTSD is more fully understood, PTSD has declined in soldiers due to better medications.
c. The rate of PTSD has tripled since 2001.
d. PTSD has increased in combat-exposed women but not in combat-exposed men since 2001.

c. The rate of PTSD has tripled since 2001.
Freud’s refusal to believe his patients who said they were sexually molested as children is an example of _________.

a. the horn effect
b. unconscious motives
c. interviewer bias
d. the halo effect

c. interviewer bias
Gary takes antipsychotic drugs to control the symptoms of schizophrenia. After taking the drug for some time, he begins exhibiting repetitive, involuntary jerks and movements of his face, lips, and legs. Gary is showing signs of _________.

a. savant syndrome
b. tardive dyskinesia
c. a clozapine overdose
d. neuroleptic malignant syndrome

b. tardive dyskinesia
Kevin shows a pattern of instability in his relationships, self-image, and feelings. As such, he most likely has ________ personality disorder.

a. antisocial
b. borderline
c. dependent
d. avoidant

b. borderline
You are a psychologist who is evaluating the behavior of a new client. The client tells you that he does not like to wear clothing and that he walks around nude most of the time. In addition, he tells you that he lives in a society in which clothing is required and nudity is seen as abnormal. Which of the following is NOT a criterion by which you evaluate your client’s behavior as abnormal?

a. statistical definition
b. maladaptive
c. subjective discomfort
d. social norm deviance

c. subjective discomfort
Dr. Graham listens to Maria’s statements and then restates what he feels is Maria’s message and describes her emotions. What type of therapy is Dr. Graham practicing?

a. behavior
b. cognitive
c. psychoanalytic
d. person-centered

d. person-centered
What was the basis for Freud’s development of his theory of the Oedipus conflict?

a. He did not believe that the stories his female patients told about having been sexually abused by their fathers and other family members were real memories.

b. He felt that we were biologically pre-wired to go through this conflict at certain ages, regardless of our surroundings or experiences.

c. He felt that women, by definition, were born neurotic and the Oedipus conflict gave value to that belief.

d. He observed that all women were unconsciously angry at their own children, and developed the theory of the Oedipus conflict as a result.

a. He did not believe that the stories his female patients told about having been sexually abused by their fathers and other family members were real memories.
Delusions of ________ are false beliefs held by a person who is convinced that others are trying to hurt them in some way.

a. persecution
b. grandeur
c. reference
d. influence

a. persecution
The ego operates according to the ______.

a. guilt/pride principle
b. reality principle
c. pleasure principle
d. reflex principle

b. reality principle
In which disorder does a person seem to experience at least two or more distinct personalities existing in one body?

a. schizophrenia
b. panic disorder
c. depersonalization
d. dissociative identity disorder

d. dissociative identity disorder
What is a major goal of the Gestalt therapist?

a. to facilitate transference
b. to eliminate the client’s undesirable behaviors
c. to provide unconditional positive regard
d. to help clients become more aware of their own feelings

d. to help clients become more aware of their own feelings
John has made a career of stealing older people’s retirement money by taking advantage of their trust and selling them phony retirement investments. John explains that he has done nothing wrong– if these people were not so greedy, they would not be so eager to invest in his phony schemes. In his mind, his victims got exactly what they deserved. John’s behavior and attitude are typical of someone with ________ personality disorder.

a. schizoid
b. schizotypal
c. passive-aggressive
d. antisocial

d. antisocial
The ______ controls the satisfaction of the id’s drives in a socially acceptable manner.

a. personal unconscious
b. ego
c. superego
d. persona

b. ego
Which of the following individuals would be considered a good candidate for psychoanalysis?

a. Mary, who is extremely withdrawn
b. Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder
c. Pasha, who is unable to verbally express her thoughts and feelings
d. Lou, who suffers from anxiety

b. Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder
Beck’s cognitive therapy is particularly effective in the treatment of ______.

a. anxiety disorders
b. somatoform disorders
c. schizophrenia
d. depression

d. depression
The most important aspect of successful psychotherapy is the __________ between client and therapist.

a. therapeutic alliance
b. transference
c. mindfulness
d. authenticity

a. therapeutic alliance
____________ therapies have had considerable success in treating many types of disorders, including depression, stress disorders, anxiety disorders, and even some of the behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia.

a. Humanistic
b. Psychoanalytic
c. Biomedical
d. Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral

d. Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral
For Freud, thoughts and feelings that are well below the surface of awareness and cannot normally be recalled are in the ______ mind.

a. unconscious
b. preconscious
c. collective unconscious
d. conscious

a. unconscious
What did Raymond Cattell call the underlying traits that direct surface traits?

a. source traits
b. secondary traits
c. background traits
d. subordinate traits

a. source traits
Which neo-Freudian viewed personality disturbances as resulting from the feelings of inferiority that all people share?

a. Carl Jung
b. Alfred Adler
c. Carl Rogers
d. Karen Horney

b. Alfred Adler
Which of the following is an advantage of self-help groups?

a. They provide access to needed medications.
b. They are free.
c. They are facilitated by an experienced therapist who is familiar with the group members’ problems.
d. They are facilitated by a person who is not familiar with the members’ problems.

c. They are facilitated by an experienced therapist who is familiar with the group members’ problems.
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