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Psych Chapters 20 & 21

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Senescence
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The process of aging, whereby the body becomes less strong and efficient
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Prebycusis
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A significant loss of hearing associated with senescence, usually not apparent until after age 60
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Menopause
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The time around age 50 when a woman’s menstrual period cease and the productions of hormones drop
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Hormone Replacement Therapy
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Taking hormones to compensate for hormone reductions. Common in women after menopause
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Andropause
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A term coined to signify a drop in testosterone levels in older men, which normally results in reduced sexual desire, erections, and muscle mass
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mortality
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death- usually number of deaths per hundred thousand per year
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morbidity
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disease- usually rate of diseases in a given population
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DALYs (disability-adjusted life years)
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A measure of the reduced quality of life caused by disability
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Vitality
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A measure of health that refers to how healthy and energetic- physically, intellectually, and socially- an individual actually feels
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QALYs (quality-adjusted life years)
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A way of comparing mere survival without vitality to survival with good health
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general intelligence (g)
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Assumes that intelligence is one basic trait, underlying all cognitive abilities. According to this concept, people have varying levels of this general ability
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Seattle Longitudinal Study
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The first cross-sequential study of adult intelligence
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Fluid intelligence
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Those types of basic intelligence that make learning quick and thorough- abilities such as short-term memory, working-memory, abstract thought, and speed of thinking
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Crystallized intelligence
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Types of intellectual ability that reflect accumulated learning- vocabulary, general information, good judgement and mastery of social conventions
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Analytic intelligence
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A form of intelligence that involves such mental processes as abstract planning, strategy selection, focused attention, and information processing
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Creative intelligence
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A form of intelligence that involves the capacity to be intellectually flexible and innovative
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Practical intelligence
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The intellectual skills used in everyday problem solving
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Cognitive artifacts
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Intellectual tools passed down from generation to generation
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Avoidant coping
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A method of responding to a stressor by ignoring, forgetting, or hiding it
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Problem-focused coping
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A strategy to deal with stress by tackling a stressful situation directly
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Emotion-focused coping
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A strategy to deal with stress by changing feelings about the stressor rather than changing the stressor itself
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Weathering
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The gradual accumulation of stressors over a long period of time, wearing down a person’s resilience and resistance
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Religious coping
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The process of turning to faith as a method of coping with stress
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Selective optimization with compensation
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Theory that people try to maintain a balance in their lives by looking for the best way to compensate for physical and cognitive losses and to become more proficient in activities they can already do well
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Automatic processing
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Thinking that occurs without deliberate, conscious thought
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25-65
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age range for adulthood
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5-10
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most middle aged adults feel ___-____ years younger than they are
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cancer, cardiovascular disease
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two leading causes of death
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waist, upper arms
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Where does fat accumulate in women?
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upper abdomen, back
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Where does fat accumulate in men?
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bone loss
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Muscle mass decline, bone loss, wrinkles- which occurs earliest? (begins in late 30)
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Presbyopia
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Condition of declining lens ability to adjust to objects at varying distances
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Men
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Do men or women experience hearing decline first?
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similar, satisfying, modest
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Findings of the national health and social life survey of middle aged adults found that sexual partners were _____, couples in relationships have more _____ sex, and there is a _____ frequency of sex in middle age
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Climacteric, 35, 40
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____ is the mid-life transition when fertility declines (after _____ for women, after ____ for men)
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Perimenopause
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The 10-year climacteric marked by drop in estrogen, results in shorter, irregular monthly cycles
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51
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Average age of menopause
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estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
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hormones that decrease production in the female body during menopause
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hot flashes, osteoporosis
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benefits of HRT include decrease in ____ ____ and ______; also reduces vaginal dryness and improves mood
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heart disease, stroke, breast cancer
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risks of HRT include increase in rates of ___ ___, ____, and ___ ____
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decreased, heart, osteoporosis
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effects of reduced estrogen and progesterone include ____ elasticity of skin, risk of ____ disease and _____
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no
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is menopause linked to irritability, sleep disturbances, and depression?
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Estrogen Replacement therapy (ERT)
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estrogen only for women who have had hysterectomies
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uterine
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HRT lowers risk for ___ cancer
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higher
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women in US experience ____ rates of menopausal symptoms than women in Japan; likely due to western “medicalization” culture
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Women’s health initiative (WHI)
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Name of the clinical trial that found HRT increased risk of breast cancer, heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots
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early 20s
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when does fluid intelligence start to decline?
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Seattle longitudinal study
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name of study about cognitive performance throughout adulthood
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increased
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The seattle longitudinal study found that fluid and crystallized skills (increased or decreased) throughout early and middle adulthood
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perceptual speed
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The seattle longitudinal study found that ___ ___ (a fluid skill) decreased from 20s into 80s
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didn’t allow for intraindividual change, susceptible to cohort effects
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Disadvantages of cross-sectional studies about intellectual abilities with age
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cognitive reserve
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having a strong ___ ___ slows your mental decline in old age