Psych Chapter 1

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Structuralism
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Early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener (Wundt’s student): Used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind
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Functionalism
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Early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin: Explored how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable to organism it adapt, survive and flourish
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Wilhelm Wundt
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Established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany
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William James
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-Legendary teacher-writer -Wrote an important psychology text in 1890 -Mentored Mary Whtion Calkins
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Mary Whiton Calkins
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-Pioneering memory researcher – First woman president of the American Psychologist Association’s (APA’s)in 1905
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Margaret Floy Washburn
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-First woman to received a psychology Ph.D. -Wrote influential book, The Animal Mind -APA’s second female president in 1921
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What event defined the start of scientific psychology?
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Germany in 1879 when Wilhem Wundt opened the first psychology labratory
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Why did introspection fail as a method for understanding how the mind works?
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People’s self-reports varied, depending on the experience and the person’s intelligence and verbal ability
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________ Used introspection to define the mind’s makeup; ________ focused on how mental processes enable us to adapt, survive and flourish
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Structuralism; Functionalism
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John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner
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-Working with grad student Rayner, Watson championed psychology and the science of behavior -demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby who became famous as “Little Albert”
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B.F. Skinner
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-Leading behavioralist -rejected introspection -studied how consequences shape behavior
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Sigmund Freud
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-Famous personality theorist and therapist -Controversial ideas influenced humanity’s self-understanding
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How did the Cognitive Revolution affect the field of psychology?
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Recaptured the field’s early interest in mental processes and made them legitimate topics for scientific study
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Behavioralism
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The view that psychology: 1) should be an objective science 2)that studies behavior without reference to mental process *note: most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not (2)
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Humanistic Psychology
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Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people
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Cognitive neuroscience
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The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception,thinking, memory and language)
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Psychology
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The science of behavior and mental processes
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nature-nurture issue
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longstanding controversy over relative contribution s that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors *identical twins ideal participants in studies because they have the same genes
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What is contemporary psychology’s position on the nature-nurture debate?
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Psychological events often stem from the interaction of nature and nurture, rather from either of them standing alone
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natural selection
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The principle that among the rang of inherited trait variations
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Levels of Analysis
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The different complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
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Biopsychosocial Approach
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An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological and social-structural levels of analysis
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What advantage do we gain by using the biopsychosocial approach in studying psychology?
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By incorporating different levels of analysis, the biopsychosocial approach can provide more complete view than any one perspective could offer
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Basic Research
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Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
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Applied Research
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Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
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Counseling Psychology
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branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often work, school, relationship related) and in achieving greater well-being
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Clinical Psychology
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branch of psychology that studies, assess and treats people with psychological disorders
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Psychiatry
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branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians shoe sometimes provide medical (ex: drug) treatments as well a psychological therapy
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Match the Specialty with the description: 1) Clinical psychology 2)Psychiatry 3)Counseling psychology a)Helps people cope with educational and life challenges b)Studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders but does not usually provide medical therapy c) Branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders
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(1) and (b) (2) and (c) (3) and (a)
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Hindsight bias
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The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (Also known as the I-Knew-It-All-Alone Phenomenon)
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Why, after friends start dating, do we often feel that we knew that they were meant to be together?
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We often suffer from hindsight bias. After we’ve learned a situation’s outcome, that outcome seems familiar and therefore obvious
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Critical Thinking
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Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions
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How does the scientific attitude contribute to critical thinking?`
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The scientific attitude combines (1) curiosity about the world around us, (2)skepticism toward various claims and ideas and (3) humility about one’s own understanding. Evaluating evidence, assessing conclusions and examining our own assumptions are essential parts of critical thinking
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Theory
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an explanation using an integrated set of principles thats organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
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Hypothesis
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Testable prediction, often implied by a theory
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Operation Definition
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A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as, “what an intelligence test measures.”
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Replication
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Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
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What does a good theory do?
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1. Organized the observed facts 2. It implies, hypotheses that offer testable predictions and sometimes, practical applications
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Why is replication important?
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Psychologists watch eagerly for new findings, but they also proceed with caution- by awaiting other investigators’ readapting the research, (Can the finding be confirmed, the result replicated?)
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Case Study
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An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
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Case Studies do no enable us to learn about general principles that apply to all of us. Why not?
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Case Studies involve only one individual, so we can’t know for sure whether the principles observed would apply to a larger population
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Naturalistic observation
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Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of naturalistic observation, such as Mehl and Pennebaker used in their study
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Mehl and Pennebaker were able to carefully observe and record naturally occurring behaviors outside the artificiality of the lab. However, outside the lab they were not able to control for all the factors that may have influenced the everyday interactions that they were recording
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Survey
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A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
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Population
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all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn *note except for national studies, this does not refer to a country’s whole population
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Random Sample
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A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
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What is an unrepresentative sample, and how do researchers avoid it?
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An unrepresentative sample is a survey group that does not represent the population being studied. Random sampling helps researchers form a representative sample because each member of the population had an equal chance of being included
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Correlation
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A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
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Correlation Coefficient
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A statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
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Indicate whether the following statements describe a positive or negative correlation 1. The more children and youth use various media, the less happy they are with their lives (Kaiser, 2010) 2. The more sexual content teens see on TV, the more likely they are to have sex (Collins et al., 2004) 3. The longer children were breast-fed, the greater their later academic achievement (Horwood & Ferguson, 1998) 4. The more income rose among a sample of poor families, the fewer psychiatric symptoms their children experienced (Costello et al., 2003)
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1. Negative 2. Positive 3. Positive 4. Negative
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Length of marriage correlates with hair loss in men. Does this mean that marriage causes men to lose their hair (or that balding men make better husbands)?
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In this case, as in many others, a third factor obviously explains the correlation. Golden anniversaries and baldness both accompany aging
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Experiment
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A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors
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Experimental Group
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In an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
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Control Group
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In an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
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Random Assignment
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Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the groups
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Double-Blind Procedure
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An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo. Commonly used in drug evaluation studies
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Placebo Effect
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Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any affect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
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What measure to researches use to prevent the placebo effect from confusing their results
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Research designed to prevent the placebo effect randomly assigns participants to an experimental group (which receives the real treatment) or to a control group (which receives a placebo). A comparison of the results will demonstrate whether the real treatment produces better results than belief in that treatment
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Independent Variable
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The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
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Confounding Variable
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A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
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Dependent Variable
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The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations go the independent variable
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In the apartment rental experiment, what was stye independent variable? The dependent variable?
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The independent variable, which the researchers manipulated, was the ethnicity-related names. The dependent variable, which they measured, was the positive response rate
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Match the Terms 1)Double-blind procedure 2)Random sampling 3)Random assignment a)Helps researchers generalize from a small set of survey responses to a larger population b)helps minimize preexisting differences between experimental and control groups c)controls for the placebo effect; neither researchers nor participants know who receives the actual treatment
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(1) and (c) (2) and (a) (3) and (b)
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Why, when testing a new drug to control blood pressure, would we learn more about its effectiveness from giving it to half of the participants in a group of 1000 than to all 1000 participants
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To determine the drug’s effectiveness, we must compare its effect on those randomly assigned to receive it (experimental group) with the other half of the participants (the control group), who receive a placebo. If we gave the drug to all 1000 participants, we would have no way of knowing whether the drug is serving as a placebo or is actually medically effective
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Culture
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Share idea and behaviors that one generation passes onto the next
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Informed Consent
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Giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to decide whether they wish to participate
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Debriefing
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The post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants
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How are human research participants protected?
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Ethical principles developed by international psychological organizations urge researchers using human participants to obtain informed consent, to protect them from harm and discomfort, to treat their professional information confidentially and to fully debrief all participating
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Testing effect
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enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning
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SQ3R
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A study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review
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The _______ describes the enhanced memory that results from repeated retrieval (as in self-testing)rather than from simple rereading of new information
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The Testing Effect
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Whats does the acronym SQR3 stand for?
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Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve and Review

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